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The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

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  • Muslimah~S
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Is Tawheed Three Categories or Four?

    [Taken from this class @ 18 mins onwards]

    Before I move on to the third category of Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah, there is a question that I was asked many times since the very first class. I said be patient and I will answer it, since it is not a matter of essence. Is Tawheed three categories or four categories? I said in the first class that you can find all three types of Tawheed in the Basmalah and I broke down how you can do that, which sparked the question.

    Outside of the Basmalah, you can also find it in Surat al-Faatihah.

    الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

    All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of the ‘Aalameen (mankind, Jinns and all that exists). (Surat al-Faatihah: 2)

    Is Rububiyyah.

    الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

    The Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. (Surat al-Faatihah: 3)

    Is Asmaa’ and Sifaat.

    إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

    You (Alone) we worship, and you (Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything). (Surat al-Faatihah: 5)

    That is considered Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah.

    Look at other Surahs in the Qur’an.

    قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ النَّاسِ

    Say: “I seek refuge with (Allah) the Lord of mankind.” (Surat an-Naas: 1)

    That verse right there is Tawheed ar-Rububiyyah (Lordship).

    مَلِكِ النَّاسِ

    “The King of mankind.” (Surat an-Naas: 2)

    Malik – that is as-Sifaat (qualities and attributes of Allah).

    إِلَـٰهِ النَّاسِ

    “The Ilaah (God) of mankind.” (Surat an-Naas: 3)

    That is Tawheed al-Uloohiyyah (worship).

    You see them in one verse in Surat Maryam:

    رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ ۚ هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا

    Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them, so worship Him (Alone) and be constant and patient in His worship. Do you know of any who is similar to Him? (Of course none is similar or coequal or comparable to Him, and He has none as partner with Him). [There is nothing like unto Him and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer]. (Surat Maryam: 65)

    رَّبُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا

    Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them.

    That is Rububiyyah.

    فَاعْبُدْهُ وَاصْطَبِرْ لِعِبَادَتِهِ

    So worship Him (Alone) and be constant and patient in His worship.

    That is Uloohiyyah.

    هَلْ تَعْلَمُ لَهُ سَمِيًّا

    Do you know of any who is similar to Him? (Of course none is similar or coequal or comparable to Him, and He has none as partner with Him). [There is nothing like unto Him and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer].

    That is Asmaa’ and Sifaat, so all three are in that verse. You can also see the theme of some Surahs according to the types of Tawheed. Overall, Surat al-Kaafiroon is Uloohiyyah. Surat al-Ikhlaas is Asmaa’ and Sifaat. The overall theme of Surat an-Naas is Lordship.

    The division of Tawheed like this is to help us explain Tawheed. A Bedouin back in the days waving his stick at the sheep with his dirty clothes used to have more knowledge in the Arabic language to know these types of Tawheed straight out of the Qur’an, but because of the diminishing of our understanding of the Arabic language and some who do not speak the Arabic language, we need to break it down to understand it.

    Some will say and I have heard them, that categorising the Tawheed like this is like believing in the father, the son and the Holy Spirit. That is due to their hatred to Ibn Taymiyyah and Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab Rahmatullahi ‘Alayhim. They clearly and openly said that. This division is merely to get people to understand the proper Tawheed and actually, it is not taken from Ibn Taymiyyah or Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab like they say. It is found way before in the work of Abu Haneefah and he was possibly the first. Not specifically, but he indicated so in his book Al-Fiqh Al-Absat (الفقه الأبسط):

    والله يدعى من أعلى لا من أسفل ، لأنَّ الأسفل ليس من وصف الربوبية والألوهية في شيء

    So he mentioned Rububiyyah and Uloohiyyah in his book. His student Abu Yusuf also hinted to it and Ibn Munda in his book Kitaab At-Tawheed. All these were before Ibn Taymiyyah. In the famous Tafseer of Tabari under the verse of:

    فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا اللَّـهُ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ

    So know (O Muhammad sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) that Laa Ilaaha Illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah), and ask forgiveness for your sin. (Surat Muhammad: 19)

    Jareer at-Tabari who was approximately three hundred and ten after the Hijrah also hinted to it. Abu Ja’far at-Tahaawi who is approximately three hundred and twenty one after the Hijrah also mentioned about it in Al-‘Aqeedah At-Tahaawiyyah. Ibn Battah al-Akbari also mentioned it in his book Al-Ibaanah. Then after that, Ibn Taymiyyah did mention it and Ibn al-Qayyim mentioned it. After that, az-Zubaydi mentioned it in Taaj Al-‘Aroos and then ash-Shanqeeti mentioned it in Adhwaa’ Al-Bayaan.

    So before Ibn Taymiyyah, there were those who hinted to it. It is not the division of Ibn Taymiyyah that he divided Tawheed into three categories. This is a pattern to show how ‘Ulamaa chose to teach Tawheed, and this comes from reading and outlining knowledge. Back in the days, people knew grammar offhand. As time went by, people began to lose touch with the Fushaa (فصحى) and it was necessary to make an outline of the Arabic language so they can know the rules of grammar. Back before that happened, they knew it. The Arabic language was known to them but then as time went by, they needed to outline it to teach it to future generations. That is exactly what happened with the rules of Usool al-Fiqh and likewise with Tajweed. Tajweed became outlines. Idh-haar, Ikhfaa’, Iqlaab, Idghaam, al-Mudood – you know all that. We had to put them in outlines so we can understand it over time.

    The next issue – is it three as I always mention (Rububiyyah, Uloohiyyah, Asmaa’ and Sifaat) or is it four? The fourth being the Tawheed of al-Haakimiyah (governorship). The ‘Ulamaa that I mentioned previously (Abu Haneefah, Ibn Munda, Ibn Jareer and like them) seem to have mentioned it as three. If you look into the books of Ibn al-Qayyim, I believe he may be one of the early ones who mentioned Tawheed al-Haakimiyah by itself. I have read the word al-Haakimiyah in his book. Likewise, you can see some of it in books of Tawheed after that.

    The fourth category became somewhat of a controversial topic when some decided to make it a fourth category, possibly to give it emphasis in the epidemic, because we have an epidemic of rulers who do not govern by the Sharee’ah of Allah. So they possibly gave it a fourth category to draw emphasis to it. Some in the past divided Tawheed into two categories. When the issue of two and three came about, back then it was brought to the attention of the grandson of Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab, and he said a valuable quote regarding the dispute between two or three categories. He is Sulaymaan Ibn Abdillah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab (the grandson of Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab). He said as long as you encompass all Tawheed, it does not matter if you divide it into two or three.

    I think it is wrong by some contemporary ‘Ulamaa to consider someone a Mubtadi’ because they chose to outline Tawheed in four categories rather than three. Me when I teach it, I teach it as three. You choose a way that relates to your audience. Not just in Tawheed, but also in other matters. I choose a style to relate to my audience and other people choose a style to relate to their audience, so they can understand it. You do not consider them a Mubtadi’ for that. In this matter, I personally see that categorising them into three is more appropriate and I personally prefer that. It is a personal preference to divide it into three – Rububiyyah, Uloohiyyah and Asmaa’ and Sifaat.

    Why? Because al-Haakimiyah could in a way be Rububiyyah and it could in a way be Uloohiyyah, so I do not see why you have to divide it into a fourth category. If you mean Allah is the governor of the universe, that portion of Haakimiyah falls under ar-Rububiyyah. If you mean what I am going to talk about next (the next category of Shirk al-Uloohiyyah) – if you mean submitting to the rule of Allah, meaning that one must accept the Sharee’ah of Allah, one must implement it and accept the only legislation is the rule of Allah subhaanahu wa ta’aala, then that falls under Uloohiyyah. So it has a Rububiyyah aspect to it and it has an Uloohiyyah aspect to it. This is very similar to the rules of Laa Ilaaha Illallah. Some said it is seven and then some said it is eight. Even though Kufr in Taaghoot is included in the seven, some separated it into a separate category to give it more importance.

    Back in the days when the Murji’ah were popping up and spreading, this happened in the old days. The Salaf used to say Imaan is action, saying and belief. Action (both in the tongue and the physical action), then the saying and the belief. When the Murji’ah came about, the Salaf began to say Imaan is action of the pillars, saying and belief, so they added ‘Amalun Bil-Arkaan (عمل بالأركان). They added the word pillars because now they are facing the Murji’ah, whereas before they did not need it to clear an issue and to draw the distinction between us and the Murji’ah. Like I said, some felt the need to make it a fourth category because of the epidemic of lack of ruling by Sharee’ah today, and no one with his right mind can doubt that.

    I like to stick to three and if you want to put emphasis to it, then you can do it within the context of the three. Back in the days of Muhammad Ibn Abdul-Wahhaab Rahimahullah, it was an epidemic that there was grave worshippers, building over graves, and worshipping and sacrificing for graves. Today the epidemic is the lack of ruling in the Sharee’ah of Allah. We can emphasise it, but under one of the three. If someone chooses to do it as a fourth which is not the way I teach it, then he is not a Mubtadi’. It is a different style of teaching.

    Leave a comment:


  • Linkdeutscher
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    http://www.islamweb.net/emainpage/in...twaId&Id=33445

    Question

    What is meant by the term ‘Aqeedah? Who was the first person to use it in this context even though it was not mentioned in the Quran?


    Answer

    All perfect praise be to Allaah, the Lord of the worlds. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allaah, and that Muhammad , is His Slave and Messenger.

    The meaning of the word ‘Aqeedah (creed) is explained in Fatwa No: 2246. It is correct that this term is not mentioned in the Quran and it is also not mentioned in the Sunnah (Prophetic tradition). However, the meaning of the word ‘Aqeedah is included in the word “belief” as mentioned in the Saying of Allaah The Almighty (what means):

    Leave a comment:


  • Umm Uthmaan
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Linkdeutscher View Post
    Yes, keep repeating that to yourself. It might help.

    Leave a comment:


  • Linkdeutscher
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Umm Uthmaan View Post
    You are not very smart
    Yes, keep repeating that to yourself. It might help.

    Leave a comment:


  • Umm Uthmaan
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Linkdeutscher View Post
    Yes, give your self a facepalm because of your failure, you deserve it.
    You are not very smart

    Leave a comment:


  • Linkdeutscher
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Umm Uthmaan View Post
    Yes, give your self a facepalm because of your failure, you deserve it.

    Leave a comment:


  • Umm Uthmaan
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Linkdeutscher View Post
    No it isn't.

    Leave a comment:


  • Linkdeutscher
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Umm Uthmaan View Post
    لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الْأَيْمَانَ https://islamqa.info/en/951
    Terms may be invented, doesn't mean what the terms are being invented for is new.

    Like tajweed. Or aqeedah.
    that word is mentioned in the qur'an
    No it isn't.

    Leave a comment:


  • Umm Uthmaan
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Linkdeutscher View Post
    I don't like to argue, so I'll make it short:

    No.
    The Arabic word ‘aqeedah stems from the root ‘aqada, which conveys meanings of certainty, affirmation, confirmation, etc. In the Qur’aan, Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):
    لَا يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللَّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الْأَيْمَانَ
    Allah will not impose blame upon you for what is meaningless in your oaths, but He will impose blame upon you for [breaking] what you intended of oaths. (05:89)

    The principles of ‘aqeedah are those which Allaah has commanded us to believe in, as mentioned in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
    آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِن رَّبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللّهِ وَمَلآئِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لاَ نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّن رُّسُلِهِ وَقَالُواْ سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ
    "The Messenger believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allaah, His Angels, His Books and His Messengers. They say, ‘We make no distinction between one and another of His Messengers’ – and they say, ‘We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all).’" (2:285)

    https://islamqa.info/en/951

    Leave a comment:


  • Linkdeutscher
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Umm Uthmaan View Post
    that word is mentioned in the qur'an
    I don't like to argue, so I'll make it short:

    No.

    Leave a comment:


  • Umm Uthmaan
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by ForeverMonotheist1 View Post
    Agreed. Its made to understand Oneness of Allah better. But iam cautious to call it by its names, Three Tawheed. This term was unheard of in the time of sahaba.
    First of all, there is no such thing as three tawheed. It's three categories of tawheed. No one understood tawhid better than the sahabah rady'Allahu 'anhum and that is obvious since they were the best of people and had the best teacher .. They may not have known the terms or used them, but they were more familiar with their content than anyone else. Tawhid/aqidah is a very delicate subject and it is strictly taken from the correct sources. Everything is backed up by evidence, so I don't see what the problem is.

    If you only want to use the terms they (sahabah) used then there are many more terms that you have to ditch.

    Leave a comment:


  • Umm Uthmaan
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by Linkdeutscher View Post
    Terms may be invented, doesn't mean what the terms are being invented for is new.

    Like tajweed. Or aqeedah.
    that word is mentioned in the qur'an

    Leave a comment:


  • bhshawon
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    As far as I know there weren't any Sunnat e Muakkada, Sunnat Ghayr Muakkada or Wajib either. There was Fardh and Nawafil only.

    Leave a comment:


  • Linkdeutscher
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Terms may be invented, doesn't mean what the terms are being invented for is new.

    Like tajweed. Or aqeedah.

    Leave a comment:


  • ForeverMonotheist1
    replied
    Re: The first mention of Three/Four Category Tawheed

    Originally posted by brothernd View Post
    Thats actually a very good question akhi. I remember this question was answered to me before, although I do not remember the answer. I think you should look into Sh. Yasir Qadhi's "Fundamentals of Faith" series on Youtube and that might help answer the question. Although, I do not think the answer is found in the video, rather a student of YQ told me the answer, if my memory tells me correctly.

    The categorical approach to understanding Allah swt divine names and attributes, the essence of worshiping may be divided into four categories or three categories. This is an academic study of it I believe.

    Please correct me if I'm wrong.
    Agreed. Its made to understand Oneness of Allah better. But iam cautious to call it by its names, Three Tawheed. This term was unheard of in the time of sahaba.



    Originally posted by Muslimah~S View Post
    I heard from a Shaykh that Abu Haneefah Rahimahullah mentioned Rububiyyah and Uloohiyyah, and he was possibly the first.

    It's a way to understand Tawheed so I don't understand why it's such a big issue to people.

    Yeah its a way of understanding it, but iam cautious to call it three tawheed because it sounds like a mentioning of something that was unheard of.

    For example let say i went back to the sahaba by time machine and asked me : what is tawheed uluhiyah, tawheed rububiyah and tawheed asma up sifaat.
    There is chance i would be stop to categories it like that and just say "Tawheed" Oneness of Allah.

    But if i mentioned to them 1) Only Allah must be worshipped, 2) He is the Lord of the worlds, the dominion belongs to him alone, 3) To Him belongs Beautiful names ad attributes. Then ofcourse they agree because its mentioned in Quran.



    I feel like its better that people say this category is made to understand tawheed better and that prophet pbuh never taught the sahaba by using exact the same category

    Leave a comment:

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