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  • الارقام

    قوائد الارقام
    Ordinals - for countable things

    numbers one and two have complete gender agreement with what they are counting, so a ta marbuta is added to the end of the numeral when referring to a feminine subject.

    one "waaHid" is hardly used because the indfinate already has the meaning of "one"
    Kitaab(un) = a book, this actually means "one book" so kitaab(un) waaHid(un) will be for emphasis only.

    the number two grammatically functions like a dual noun. That is, it has a separate form for when it is in U case or A/I case.
    جاء رجلان إثنان
    ضرب رجلين إثنين
    However. like with "one" the number was already seen by the dual form of the noun so that is really only for emphasis and is not necessary.

    The numbers three to nine have opposite gender agreement, so if the counted thing is feminine the numeral will be masculine, and if masculine it will be feminine. For the purpose of maths, the numerals should be kept feminine unless a feminine subject is given.

    eg: ثلاثة كتب
    ثلاث روايات

    The construction shown above resembles an indefinate idafa, with the countable thing being in the I case, (undefined with kasra tanween), the numeral does not take tanween. This is not the only possible way to express the same meaning. (Counted things below ten are expressed in the plural as shown by kutub and riwayaat)

    The numerals eleven to nineteen are seen as a kind of compound in which both parts have a permanant single fatha on the last letter eg
    ثلاثة عشر
    إثنا عشر
    as shown, not both parts of the 13-19 compounds have the same gender and again this is due to the reverse concord of the numerals 3-9 so the 3-9 part of the compound disagrees with the subject while the "ten" (3ashar) part agrees. Therefore when counting a feminine we would get thalaatha 3asharata
    ثالث عشرة
    and when counting masculine we would get the compound exampled above
    thalaathata 3ashara

    With eleven and twelve this does not happen, although note the noon of ithnaan-ithnazn is dropped )as the dual noon is dropped in non final terms of idafa) and the case variation still occurs (resulting in ithnay 3ashara or ithnatay 3asharata)

    subjects given after a number higher than ten are given in the A case indefinate singular

    ثالث عشرة بنتا

    20-90

    these are formed by adding -oona or -iina to the stem of the numeral eg :
    أربعة
    أربعون
    This ending resembles that of the sound masculine plural and has only 2 case variations, with A/I sharing the -iina ending. There is no gender variation

    21-99

    These are also compounds like the teen numbers, comprising the units of 1-9 which will disagree in gender if it is 3-9 and the tens (20,30 etc) which are simple and do not change for gender (only case)




    .: Anna :.

  • #2
    :up: post jayyid :up:
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    • #3
      shukran yaa ukhty :) hiya lir-revision lee lil imtihaanaat. insha allah sa-ktubu posteena ukhraa 3an qawaa'id allughatil arabiyya
      .: Rufaida :.
      .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
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