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  • Grammar

    Insha Allah in this post I'll be going through a few grammar points, since I'm doing it anyway for exam revision I thought why not do it on Ummah incase the notes can be of use to anyone, plus it'll be good for me to see if I can increase my typing speed in Arabic :D

    I'm just gonna do it in a pretty random order but if ne1 wants notes on a specific topic feel free to ask, if we've learnt it at uni I'll post it... if not, sorry :p
    .: Anna :.

  • #2
    in english, transliteration or arabic?
    .لا نريد زعيما يخاف البيت الإبيض
    نريد زعيما يخاف الواحد الأحد
    دولة الإسلامية باقية





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    • #3
      hope noone minds the bigger size but its clearer for the arabic and alot of bother to change back 2 small for the english each time


      إضافة
      this is a possessive construction taking the I case (genative), meaning that the second part of the construction should always take a kasra. The first part should not take a definite article, but it is defined by it's relationship to the second part and therefore should not have tanween.

      example...

      بابُ الْبيتِ

      the door of the house

      كتابُ ابنِهِ

      the book of his son

      It is possible to qualify any of the nouns in the Idafa structure, but as the idafa should not be broken they will be placed at the end, whichever of the nouns they are qualifying. This means the case ending is important in showing which noun the adjective belongs to.

      سيارةُ البنتِ الصغيرةُ

      the small car of the girl

      سيارةُ البنتِ الصغيرةِ

      the car of the small girl

      There could be an idafa with more than two nouns. In this case the 2nd, 3rd and any other nouns would all take kasra and as usual the first is determined by the function in the sentence.

      example :

      بابُ بيتِ الرجلِ

      as above only the final noun will show a definite article.

      In some cases if the Idafa construction will be too complecated, for example if the first noun was following a preposition and therefore in the genetive with kasra, and there was an adjective, you will not be able to tell which noun the adjective is referring to, so you might prefer to abandon this construction and express it a different way...

      فى كتابِ الطالبِ الجديدِ

      is it.... in the book of the new student, or in the new book of the student? no way to tell! if you wanted to say in the new book of the student (just to choose one for example) it may be better to say
      فى الكتابِ الجديدِ للطالبِ
      as this will avoid any ambiguity













      .: Anna :.

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      • #4
        Originally posted by Abu Mubarak
        in english, transliteration or arabic?
        arabic :D I changed computers specially so I could type it in the proper alphabet :p
        .: Anna :.

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        • #5
          فى كتابِ الطالبِ الجديدِ


          in the book of the new student


          But the kasra under the dhal shouldn't be there - I think, but I might be wrong.. lol .. need to get he opnion of the fusah speaking peeps.. since 3amaa (slang) peeps like me, are poor with gramar.

          But mashaa Allah, you have a sound grasp of Arabic grammar... this might just encourage me into typing in Arabic.
          Please Re-update your Signature

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          • #6
            POSITIONING OF THE HAMZA

            initial hamzas

            These are always carried on an alif. They are still classed as initial when preceded by AL (definite article)

            example : أمير

            medial hamzas

            In order to know how to write the medial hamza, you should consider the "vowel" on the hamza itself and the letter infront of it.

            1.) if either or both are a kasra then select the "yaa" shape to carry the hamza.

            example : رئيس

            2.) if there are no kasras, then if either or both are dhammas choose the waw shape to carry the hamza.

            example : شؤون

            3.) if both are fathas, choose the alif

            example : رأيٌ

            final hamzas

            Onlythe preceding "vowel" needs to be considered.

            1.) if there is sukoon or a long vowel (alif, yaa, waw) infront of the hamza, it needs to be written on the line.
            (also two successive alifs are not allowed so if the final letter is alif with fatha, write the hamza on the line)

            example : شيء

            2.) if the vowel is kasra, choose yaa, if it is dhamma, choose waw in the same way you would with a medial hamza :)
            .: Anna :.

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            • #7
              Originally posted by Qassami
              فى كتابِ الطالبِ الجديدِ




              in the book of the new student


              But the kasra under the dhal shouldn't be there - I think, but I might be wrong.. lol .. need to get he opnion of the fusah speaking peeps.. since 3amaa (slang) peeps like me, are poor with gramar.



              But mashaa Allah, you have a sound grasp of Arabic grammar... this might just encourage me into typing in Arabic.
              the kasra on the final dal of al-jadeed? yes it should be there :p lol... i know if you go around pronouncing it you will seem a weirdo but as far as grammar goes if you're writing the "full vocalistion" (my uni makes us do this for first year students) then you'll have to write it! theres no question of putting dhamma or fatha instead cos everything in the sentence is in genetive...
              .: Anna :.

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              • #8
                Yep, that was the problem.. I was actually trying to pronounce it, and it did sound strange.

                baraka Allahu feekee
                Please Re-update your Signature

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                • #9
                  Negatives

                  I was looking through the old posts in th forum, and I found one where we were all asking about the different negatives, we didnt understand where to use the different ones etc but now I think they're not really so bad so this is my summary of negatives :D

                  present tense

                  the present tense negater is لا. it comes before the verb which you want to negate, which should be in imperfect indicitive (ie the "usual" imperfect, "laa" had no effect on the verb apart from negating its meaning)

                  examples


                  لا يَكْتُبُ المدّرسُ
                  the teacher is not writing
                  يَكْتُبُ المدّرسُ
                  the teacher is writing



                  past tense

                  1.) the easiest past negator to use is ما which should be placed infront of the verb in the perfect (past) tense. This also has no effect on the verb apart from negating meaning.

                  ما ذَهَبَ الولدُ

                  the boy did not go

                  ذَهَبَ الولدُ

                  the boy went



                  It is occasionally also used to negate a present tense sentence



                  ما يَشْرَبُ


                  2.) the other way of negating past is with لم
                  this comes infront of an imperfect jussive verb (مجزوم) which is formed by ending the verb with sukoon and if there is any long vowel in the verb it will be removed. if the verb had an "ending" eg in 2nd person feminine, the noon will be removed.

                  examples



                  لم يَكْتُبْ

                  he didnt write

                  لم تذْهَبي

                  you (female) didnt go

                  لم يَكُنْ

                  he wasnt

                  يَكْتُبُ
                  he writes

                  تذبَبينَ
                  you (f) go

                  يَكونُ

                  he is


                  future tense

                  لن is used, this comes before a verb in the subjunctive. this is like the normal imperfect only instead of ending with dhamma on the last letter, it will be fatha. also, when the verb has an "ending" like you female, the noon is removed like in the jussive.

                  examples


                  لن يَأْكُلَ
                  he will not eat

                  يَأْكُلُ
                  he eats.


                  I will be coming back later for negating nominal sentences and asking negative questions, its too much typing for now
                  .: Anna :.

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                  • #10
                    simple explanation of case endings available here : http://ummah.com/forum/showthread.php?t=48408
                    .: Anna :.

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                    • #11
                      grammmar.......nahw....... gosh i learn that at my arabic school.... i really like that subj. im goood at it!!!! 4 once! lol
                      the more i learn; the more i learn of my ignorance.
                      ~ imam shafi'i

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                      • #12
                        Originally posted by slmz :)
                        grammmar.......nahw....... gosh i learn that at my arabic school.... i really like that subj. im goood at it!!!! 4 once! lol
                        i like it too :D i think it makes better sence than english grammar :p
                        .: Anna :.

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                        • #13
                          Originally posted by slmz :)
                          grammmar.......nahw....... gosh i learn that at my arabic school.... i really like that subj. im goood at it!!!! 4 once! lol
                          who's ur teacher?...ma dad teaches ur sis...does he teach u too? i hate nahw..i enjoyed sarf tho.

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