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Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

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  • #46
    Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

    What we’ve learnt so far:

    • 3 kinds of words in Arabic.
    • Ism (Nouns) Verbs (Fi’ls) Harf (Connector words, is, the).
    • Ism has 4 properties: Status, Number, Gender, Type.
    • Status made up of: Doer (Raff) Detail (Nasb) After ‘of) (Jarr)
    • Number: Ending Sound, Ending Pair, Ending Plural, Feminine, Broken Plural
    • Gender: Masculine, Feminine, Fake Feminine (3 reasons why)
    • Type: Indefinite and Definite (7 kinds definite nouns)
    • Nouns + Nouns = Fragments.
    • 5 kinds of fragments: Idhaafa (Mudaf + Mudaf Ilay) Not Studied yet Mawsoof Sifah, Harf Jarr, Harf Nasb, Ismul Ishara (Pointer Words.)
    • Heavy + Light words
    • Flexible, Non flexible, partly flexible words.
    • Pronouns
    • Attached Pronouns state.

    Pronouns Continued

    Attached pronouns (listed in red above) can be attached to an Ism, Fi’l, or Harf.
    Since we haven’t studied Verbs (fi’l) or Connector words (harf), we’re only going to talk about when it’s attached to a Noun (Ism).

    Before this lesson, a word like اَ نْفُسِكُمْ would look like one word. But now, you know that it’s actually two words: The second word كُمْ is attached.

    The cousins are always attached at the end of the word (that’s why we don’t really call them cousins—we call them ‘attached pronouns’).

    Whenever a pronoun is attached to an Ism, rule is the first word is a Mudaf and the attached pronoun is a Mudaf ilay. The word above is a Mudaf/Mudaf Ilay.

    Example 1

    رَ بِكَ

    The first word رَبِ , is mudaf.
    The second word ,كَ , is mudaf ilay.


    1. كِتَا بُكُمَا
    2. تَحْتَكِ
    3. صَا حِبَهُمَا
    4. زِلْزَا لَهَا
    5. نَفْسَكَ

    You see the ‘Attached pronouns’ on end of the Nouns.

    New Lesson

    Previous lesson, we were looking at what was the original pronoun, and the part of the word being Mudaf + Mudaf ilay (being the attached pronoun)

    Example we will say:

    نَفْسَ is the Mudaf

    كَ is the Mudaf ilay.

    This lesson we will learn why we say that?

    We said definition of مضا ف was ‘Before Of’
    And definition of مضا ف الي was ‘After Of’

    We also learnt مضا ف has to follow 2 rules for it to be considered a Mudaf.

    1. Light (can't have tanween sound i.e OON AANN INN)
    2. Can’t have ال (means 'The') before it.

    And rule for مضا ف الي is for it to be ‘JARR’.

    Example 1

    If I were to say in English: The Book of mine.

    It would kind of be considered a Mudaf/Ilay, because of the ‘of’ .

    Book : Mudaf
    Mine: Mudaf Ilay
    The Arabic version of this would be:

    Book: كِتا ب - Light, has no ال so = Mudaf – meaning ‘Before Of’ because in the sentence: The Book of mine, 'The Book' is before the 'OF

    Mine: Has to be Jarr, because it’s after ‘Of’.

    Mine is a pronoun, it comes i. ا نا the orignal version/ raff version.
    The Attached/cousin nasb/jarr version of ا نا is

    ني & ي

    The one we require is for JARR, ي
    So we’re gonna say:

    كِتا بي

    Which means ‘Book of mine’

    Example 2.

    Pen of His.

    Pen: قَلَمٌ - Mudaf, 2 rules. Light + No Al
    His: هُ - We use the Jarr ‘Attached version’

    We can’t say. قَلَمٌهُ with 2 tanweens on end of م

    Because that would make ‘Heavy’ and not light.

    We will say. قَلَمُهُ with 1 tanween on end of م

    With one tanween..

    We’ve said that pronouns can be stuck at the end of an Ism, fi’l, or harf.
    But, you only call them ‘Mudaf ilay’ when they’re stuck to a ISM.

    This is end of our study on 1st Fragment, Idhafa.

    Fragments, are more than a word less than sententence. We will be studying 5 kinds of fragments.
    Last edited by Bayyinah_; 26-05-14, 04:39 PM.


    • #47
      Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


      We started our first lesson learning about Isms words (Nouns) on their own, and their 4 properties, than we learnt what happens when 2 Ism words come together to form what we call fragments. We said that there are 5 kinds of fragment's (more than a word, less than a sentence).

      1st fragment we discussed was مضا ف & مضا ف الي

      Before we move on, what you should by now be expected to of learnt is the Muslimun, Musliman, Muslimin chart by heart, and the Original pronouns along with their Attached version.

      For this lesson, we will move on from the Ism, and learn about the Harf, you just have to memorize, these 17 Huroof Jarr.

      ب ت ك ل و مُنْزُ مُزْ خَلا

      رُ بَ حا شَ مِنْ عَد ا

      فِي عَنْ عَلَي حَتَي اِ لَي

      Examples from Quran:

      ب Harf Jarr letter

      مِنَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ
      (min ash-shaytaan-ir)

      قُلْ أَعُوذُ بِرَبِّ الْفَلَقِ
      Qul aAAoothu birabbi

      فِي الْعُقَدِ
      fee alAAuqadi

      وَهُوَ عَلَى كُلِّ

      Words highlighted in red, are the Huroof Jarr, they make the next word that follows Jarr, (Kasra)


      • #48

        كَا نَ

        Harf Jarr makes a word Jarr.
        Harf Nasb makes a word Nasb.

        Examples from Quran

        إِنَّ الْإِنْسَانَ

        وَلَٰكِنَّ أَكْثَرَ

        إِنَّ اللَّهَ


        • #49
          Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

          Mawsoof Sifah, Ism Mawsool not studied yet
          3) Pronouns (Orignal and Attached)

          This lesson we will be discussing
          ' How can you tell if Attached Pronouns are Nasb or Jarr?

          بِنْت means Girl/Daughter - It is a Ism/ Noun

          if we add an Attached Pronoun كَ next to it it will become: بِنْتُكَ

          Together, they mean,

          Now, we know that كَ can only be Nasb or Jarr, because it being an Attached Pronoun.
          but how can we tell which one it is?

          Rule is: Whenever a pronoun is attached to an ism, the ism is a Mudaf, and the pronoun is the Mudaf Ilay

          Since the Mudaf Ilay is always Jarr the Attached pronoun has to be in Jarr status. So here, كَمِنْكَ is made up of 'two words' مِنْ + كَ

          مِنْ belongs to the Harf Jarr family. We studied these letters already, if they appear before a word they make the next word Jarr.
          كَ is a Attached Pronoun, either nasb or Jarr. But because the مِنْ is before it we will say it's state is Jarr.

          So now you know that there are two reasons for something to be Jarr in Arabic:
          1. It came after a Harf of Jarr.
          2. If it's a Mudaf Ilay.


          • #50
            Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

            • We learned one more fragment: the Harf of Nasb. اِ نَ is a Harf Nasb.
            • Whatever comes after it is in Nasb/Fatha status.
            • If we add كَ it becomes
            • اِ نَكَ
            • we know that كَ

            Examples from Quran

            • Allah say's in Surah Asr. وَالْعَصْرِ
            • Why is it Jarr? because of Harf letter و before it.
            • بِالْحَقِّ - Has harf Jarr letter ب before it.

            • another ayah of same surah, Allah say's: إِنَّ الإِنسَانَ
            • Why is it Nasb: because of Harf Nasb letter إِنَّ before it.


            • #51
              Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


              When is a Pronoun RAFF, NASB, JARR

              We already know that Independent Pronouns (هُوَ هُماَ هُمْ) are RAFF.

              So that just leaves us with finding out when Attached Pronouns are NASB & JARR.

              When is the Attached Pronoun NASB?

              1) When they come after a Harf of Nasb. A Harf of Nasb likes to beat things up and make them Nasb. If you take any of the Harf of Nasb and attach a pronoun at the end, that pronoun will be Nasb.
              اِ نَ +كَ = اِنَكَ
              status of كَ will be Nasb.

              2) When is the Attached Pronoun JARR?

              3) When the Pronoun is attached to any 1/17 letters of Harf Jarr, the attached pronoun will be Jarr.



              • #52
                Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


                Special Mudafs

                We have a one last thing we need to learn, about the fragment Idhafa.


                فَو قَ - Above
                تَحْت - Below
                قَبْلَ - Before
                بَعْدَ - After
                خَلْفَ - Behind
                وَ را ءَ - Behind
                بَيْنَ - Between
                حَولَ - Surrounding
                غَيْرَ - Without
                دُ وْ نَ - Besides
                عِنْدَ- Has/ with/nearby - can have a few meanings.
                مَعَ - With
                لَدُ نْ - Especially from
                اَ يُ - Which
                بَعْدُ - Some of
                كُلُ - All

                This list of words are All Isms. They come under of definition of a Noun: Person,place,thing,idea, adjective,adverb, + more, under more.
                Name we will give them is 'Special Mudafs'.

                Why they're called Special Mudaf's?

                • Notice how the words are all 'Light' without no ا ل
                • These words will most of time come as mudaf anyway, if you know them you can automatically tell if word is Mudaf/Mudaf ilay without spending too much time on seeing if it is light without no Alif or Laam.
                • But what makes them special is, you don't neccessarily need 'OF' when trying to figure out the meaning of he word.example below the chair no of.
                • They will mostly come as NASB/details in Quran.


                • #53
                  Mawsoof and Sifah مَو صُوف and صفه

                  In English, when we say,s carsadjective,

                  Example 1- Mawsoof Sifah

                  مُسْلِمٌ زَكِيٌ - An intelligent Muslim

                  مُسْلِمٌ - Raff, Singular, Masculine, Common.

                  زَكِيٌAnتَحْت كِتا بِ كَبِيرٍ - Under a Big Book.

                  Can you see why we made كِتا بِ Jarr.? because of the 'SPECIAL MUDAF' before it.
                  كَبِيرٍ is Jarr, because it is SIFAH.

                  We put a Mudaf/Mudaf ilay & a Mawsoof/sifah together.

                  Grammatical analysis

                  تَحْت - Mudaf
                  كِتا بِ - Mudaf ilay/ Mawsoof.
                  كَبِيرٍ - Sifah.

                  Example 2- Mawsoof Sifah

                  مُسْلِمٌ صَا لِحٌ - A pious Muslim

                  مُسْلِمٌ - Raff, Singular, Masculine, Common (indefinite).
                  صَا لِحٌ - Raff, Singular, Masculine, Common (indefinite).[/SIZE][/B]

                  • They both share the same 4 properties.
                  • The Noun is Mawsoof. (one being described)
                  • The adjective is the Sifah (Description)


                  كَلَا مَ ا للهِ
                  Speech of Allah.

                  First question you ask yourself is do both words share the same 4 properties?
                  This case, they don't. Because they both have different status.

                  So we see if it could be the other 3 fragments which we studied.

                  Can't be a Harf Jarr - No Harf jarr letter there.
                  Can't be a Harf Nasb - No Harf nasb leter there.
                  It can only be a Mudaf/Ilay, because it follows the the rule. Mudaf being Light + no alim laam/ Mudaf ilay = Jarr.
                  Translates as: Speech of Allah.


                  ثَمَنًا قَلِيْلًا
                  A little price.

                  ثَمَنًا - Price
                  قَلِيْلًا - small

                  Both words Nasb, singular, masculine, and indefinite.So = Mawsoof Sifah

                  When translating we start from the 2nd word sifah, and word backwards. A small price.

                  A we got from the tanween.


                  المسجدِ الحرامِ‎ - The sacred Masjid

                  Both words share same 4 properties: Jarr, singular, masculine, Definite (because of alif laam) = Mawsoof Sifah.

                  For next lesson we will do more practise examples from Quran, inshAllah.


                  • #54
                    Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


                    Here’s what we know so far about Mawsoof & Sifah.(Nouns + Adjectives)

                    1. In Arabic Noun comes first, adjective comes second.
                    2. There may be lots of adjectives for one noun, for example: cold, hard, delicious chocolate.
                    3. 4 properties of a noun = have to equal to 4 properties of adjective (their properties match)
                    4. Broken plural Nouns are treated like a girl.

                    So when you want to give broken plural noun an adjective, you have to give them an adjective as though you’re giving a girl an adjective. This holds true for words that are feminine because the Arabs said so. When you give those words an adjective, you have to give those words a feminine adjective because the Arabs think that what you’re talking about a feminine.


                    طا لِبا تٌ مُسْلما ةٌ

                    الطا لِبِ المُْلِمِ

                    التا لبتا نِ المُسْلمتا نِ

                    Example of Non Human Broken Plural Mawsoof Sifah


                    1. Treat it like a she/girl.
                    2. If we were to give this Noun an adjective, we will also make it feminine.

                    كُتُبٌ جَميلةٌ

                    ا عما لٌ صا لحةٌ

                    Examples from Quran of Mawsoof & Sifah

                    ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً
                    - A small price

                    Both share same 4 properties: Both words are Nasb, Singular, Masculine, & Common.
                    = Noun + Ajective = Mawsoof Sifah


                    كَعَصْفٍ مَّأْكُولٍ

                    كَعَصْفٍ - Mawsoof
                    مَّأْكُولٍ - Sifah

                    Both share same 4 properties: Both Jarr, Singular, Masculine, Common.


                    عِيشَةٍ رَّاضِيَةٍ

                    Both share same 4 properties: Both Jarr, Singular, feminine, Common.


                    Words you must remember.

                    قَو مٌ - Nation
                    نَا سٌ - People
                    قَرْ نٌ - Generation

                    These words appear in Quran a lot, and they're plural because Arabs said so.


                    الْقَوْمِ الْفَاسِقِينَ
                    - The corrupt nation.

                    Both words Plural (Arabs said so), masculine, JARR , proper (definite because of Alif + Laam)

                    Up to now we have covered 4 fragments, Mudaf + Mudaf ilay , Harf Jarr, Harf Nasb, Mawsoof -Sifah.

                    Fragments being more than a word less than a sentence. Mawsoof - Sifah is more than 1 word, but less then a sentence, we have studied 4 of these types.

                    We have 1 more fragment to complete before we move onto learning about sentences.


                    • #55
                      Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


                      Today we’re going to start our next.last fragment called Asmaul Ishara - ا سْما ءُ الا شا ره (pointing words).

                      هَزا - This (m)
                      هَزا نِ - These 2
                      هَؤُلا ءِ - These
                      هَزِهِ - This (f)
                      هَا تَا نِ - These 2
                      هَؤُلا ءِ - These
                      زَ لِكَ - That (m)
                      زَا نِكَ - Both of those.
                      او لاعِكَ - Those
                      تِلْكَ - That (f)
                      تَا نِكَ - Both of those (f)
                      او لاعِكَ - Those

                      f you look at the list, you’ll notice that all the ones that begin with ‘ha’ refer to something that’s nearby (this, these two, these), and the ones that end with a ‘kaaf’ are far (that, those two, those). You need to memorize these words and know what they

                      1. Pointing words are known as Asmaul Ishara - ا سْما ءُ الا شا ره
                      2. They are all non-flexible (states can't change from RAF TO NASB/JARR), except for their pairs. (In blue bold).

                      Non-flexible words look the same in Raf’, Nasb, and Jarr status. So, the Raf’ version of زَ لِكَ - That (m) is زَ لِكَ
                      the Nasb version is زَ لِكَ
                      the Jarr version is زَ لِكَ

                      They all look the same. But when you look at their pairs, that’s when you’ll see something different—they are flexible. So if you took:

                      هَا تَا نِ - These 2 (the Raf’ version), its Nasb version would look like هَزَيْنِ
                      its Jarr version would look like هَزَيْنِ too.

                      3. Pointing words are always proper (definite). Because they're specific This/That.
                      4. Pointing words can be used to make sentences or fragments.

                      a) If the word after any of the pointing words has ‘ا ل (alif-laam), then it makes a fragment:

                      * Fragment have no particle 'Is' when you translate in english.
                      * Sentence has the particle 'Is' when you translate the sentence.

                      هَزا النَبِيُ = This prophet ( fragment because the word after هَزا has an ‘al’ on it) translate it without no Is.

                      b) If the word after the pointing word does NOT have an ‘ا ل (alif-laam) after it, then it makes a sentence.

                      هَزا نَبِىٌ - = This is a prophet. The ‘is’ comes about because you are now looking at a sentence, not a fragment.

                      **Note: Points a and b only apply to pointing words, not every time an ‘al’ comes up in the Quran.

                      5) هَزِهِ & تِلْكَ could be talking about a broken plural. If this is the case, then it does not mean ‘this’ or ‘that.’ (singular) Since you’re talking about a plural, it’ll be translated as ‘those’ or ‘these,’ instead. will see more in practise examples.
                      Last edited by Bayyinah_; 09-06-14, 11:31 AM.


                      • #56
                        Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


                        This lesson we will be doing practise of what we learnt in previous lesson, I will also be explainig the rules along with the examples.

                        Example 1

                        وَ هَزا النَبيُ

                        = Fragment, rule was if the word after any one of those 'Pointer words' has 'AL ا + ل' after it becomes a fragment.
                        When translating there will be no' is' you will just translate the 2 words together. In example give above we will translate it as
                        This Messenger = Fragment.

                        If there was no 'AL ا + ل' after the 'Pointer word' وَ هَزا نَبيُ

                        We would of translate it as: This is a Messenger

                        Example 2

                        هَزا الْغُرَا بِ

                        = Fragment - translation - This Crow

                        Example 3

                        هَزا القُرْ ا نُ

                        = Fragment because of ا ل after هَزا (pointer word)
                        Translation = This Quran

                        Example 4

                        تِلْكَ اَ ما نِيُكُمْ

                        =Sentence because no ا ل after تِلْكَ (Pointer word)
                        Translation = Those are their wishful thoughts.

                        Example 5

                        تِلْكَ اُ مَةٌ

                        = Sentence/ no ا ل after تِلْكَ (Pointer word)
                        Translate it as a sentence/ with is.
                        That is a Nation

                        Not, That is the nation, becasue there was no ا ل.

                        Example 6

                        هَزا نِ خَصْما نِ

                        = Sentence
                        = These (2) are Arguing (groups)

                        Example 7

                        وَ تِلْكَ الا يا مُ

                        = Fragment

                        الا يا مُ - Day's = Broken Plural word of Yawm.

                        = Those day's

                        Example from Quran

                        اُ و لَعِكَ اَ صْحا بُ النا رِ

                        this is a sentence
                        Translation = Those are companions of the Fire

                        We have OF = Because relationship between اَ صْحا بُ النا رِ is Mudaf Mudaf ilay.
                        We have The = Definite/ النا رِ ا ل

                        Example from Quran 2

                        هَذِهِ جَهَنَّمُ

                        = Sentence
                        = Translation = This is Jahannum
                        = Feminine = Because 'Arabs said so' this is one of the words which Arabs have jus given it feminine status.

                        Example from Quran 3

                        هَـذَا الأدْنَى

                        = Fragment
                        = This inferior thing

                        * Notice whenever we have fragment, we don't translate the ا ل The.

                        Example from Quran 4

                        هَـذَا رَبِّي

                        = Sentence
                        Translation = This is My Master
                        رَبِّي = Mudaf/Mudaf ilay

                        Example from Quran 5

                        ذَلِكَ هُدَى اللّهِ

                        = Sentence
                        Translation = That is the Guidence of Allah

                        We're reaching the end of our Ism (Nouns) study, inshAllah. Our next lessons will be about Sentences. We're gonna learn about different kind of sentences,Then after we will move onto Verbs. inshAllah.
                        Last edited by Bayyinah_; 12-06-14, 12:12 PM.


                        • #57
                          Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


                          We finished talking about the fragments and now we start the exciting step of making sentences! Before we do that, please review the 5 fragments (more than a word but less than a sentence):

                          3.Harf of Jar
                          4.Harf of Nasb
                          5.Pointers with Al (Alif + Laam)

                          Altogether there are 9 fragments, but these 5 are the main big one's.


                          In Arabic there are 2 kinds of sentences.

                          Ism based. جُمله اسميه - Jumla Ismiya
                          Fi’l based. جُمله فليه
                          - Jumla Fi'liya

                          Arabic word for sentence is Jumla, we have been learnign about Ism's, so the first kind of sentence we will be learning is the Ism (Noun) based sentence.

                          Our first job in understanding جُمله اسميه - Jumla Ismiya is to find the invisible “is”, in Arabic language,you don't say the word is, it does not exist you have to find it, just like the word 'Of' does not exist you have to try and find it between the Mudaf and the Mudaf ilay. If you can find 'is' you can translate the Jumla Ismiya.

                          Here are tips to help you finding a Ism Sentence. These shortcuts will really help in figuring out Ism sentences, atleast for beginner students.

                          1.Proper (definite) word followed by common (indefinite) word: Example ا للهُ اكْبَرْ - Allah is Greater.= Ism sentence.

                          2.Harf of Nasb + it’s victim:

                          إِنَّ الإِنسَانَ - Certainly the human being ___IS.

                          a) Whenever you see a Harf nasb letter, + it's victim, chances are Is will be right after the victim.
                          b) Remember that the victim of a Harf of nasb can be far away from the harf but we still translate them together.
                          c) Raf’ pronouns هُوَ does'nt just mean :just “he” but “he is…
                          d) Any Pointer word + word right after has no AL = Sentence: review the lesson on pointers.

                          3. Break in the chain: when you can’t connect a bunch of isms together by applying what you learned of the 5 fragments, you will find the invisible “is” where the connection is lost.

                          الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

                          Whenever you see a bunch of Ism words together, and you can seem to connect them using any 1 of 5 fragements.

                          example, connection between. للّهِ is Jarr Majroor - Letter of Harf Jarr + it's victim.
                          رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ their connection is Mudaf + Mudaf Ilay.

                          Everything is kind of connected, but الْحَمْدُ ل has no connection to any of the 5 kinds of fragments/conections we learnt.
                          it's not Mudaf/ Mudaf ilay, not a Harf jarr, not a Harf nasb, not mawsoof sifah, and it's not a pointer word. So there is no connection, there is a break in the chain. Everything is linked with each other, except for الْحَمْدُ

                          So if you we're to put a line where there is no connection, you will put it on end of this word. Where you put the line tht's where the 'Is' is put.

                          Example 1

                          الْحَمْدُ - All praise and Gratitude is

                          للّهِ - Connection - Harf Jarr + it's victim.

                          رَبِّ الْعَالَمِي - Connection Idhafa.

                          Example 2

                          فِيهِ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ - In it Is Guidence for people with Taqwa.

                          فِيهِ - Connection = Harf Jarr + it's victim

                          فِيهِ هُدًى - No connection = Is - Put a line after فِيهِ

                          Once you find 1 line, break in chain that's enough, no need to look for more connections to find the Is.

                          Example 3

                          أُوْلَـئِكَ عَلَى هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ

                          Use shortcut to find the IS.

                          * Any Pointer word + word right after has no AL = Sentence:


                          • #58
                            Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                            Op please do carry on with this beneficial thread, jzk.


                            • #59
                              Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                              Accept the decree

                              It has happened to a million other people don't expect to be the exception