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Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

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  • Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

    :salams

    Taken from Bayyinah TV, Arabic with Husna - Taught by Ustadh Nouman Ali Khan.

    Introduction:
    وَلَقَدْ يَسَّرْنَا الْقُرْآنَ لِلذِّكْرِ

  • #2
    Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

    3 kinds of words in Arabic:

    Language is made up of letters, letters come together and make words, words make sentences, sentences make paragraphs, and paragraphs make books.

    We already know the letters, so we will take the next step. When letters come together they make words. So when we’re reading a word in the Quran, or any word in Arabic it has to belong to one of the three families. In all of Arabic there are only 3 families, 3 kinds of words. Each of those families has a name:

    • اسم - This type of word is a Noun - name of place or object or is a quality and it is not affected by time. Could be a Person, place, thing, idea, adjective, adverb + more.

    • فعل (Verbs) - This is a word which indicates an action or Occurrence. It is either stuck in the past/present/future tense. If it has a tense it must be a فعل like the word travelled

    • حرف (Prepositions) - This type of word does not have much of a meaning on its own but needs to be attached or with something else to make sense

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic


      Properties of the Ism Status - Doer & Detail


      Today's lesson is 'Ism beyond the definition' We defined ism, as: '' Person, place, thing, idea, adjective, adverb + more.''
      Ism has 4 Properties, it stands on 4 properties.
      1. Status
      2. Number
      3. Gender
      4. Type


      Today we'll discuss one of the properties of Ism, called status. Status is made up of Doer/Detail/ & After 'of' status.

      What is Status:

      Status is all about what the word is doing in the sentence, as can be seen in examples below

      In the examples shown below, the main character in each sentence is 'I' , My, & Me
      • I was eating too much chocolate.
      • My teeth began aching.
      • My dentist gave me a root canal.


      Because they're talking about oneself, 'I, MY, ME' you cannot move the word I and put it where the word ME is.

      So you can't say:

      My was eating too much chocolate, or My dentist gave I a root canal, it would' nt make sense or sound right.

      I,ME,MY have their own status in the sentences, it's own certain role in the sentence., so it can only be used a certain way.

      Doer Status

      The most important charcter in a story is the one who does something, the doer, when we say ' I was eating too much chocolate'

      Here the doer of act of eating is 'I'
      • Allah created skies and earth, doer - Allah
      • Bob Kicked Joke - Doer of act is bob.


      Detail Status

      Whenever someone does something, their the doer, but sometimes in a sentence you get extra information about what the doer did, for example if i were to say

      ' I ate lunch yesterday, outside the house very quickly'

      these are the details.

      What did i eat? Lunch
      Where did i eat it? Outside
      When did i eat? Yesterday

      There are two kinds of questions, there's a question you ask where your trying to find out who the doer is:

      Then there are question about the details, if i say who ate? this is a question about the doer

      the first important question is who did the act, that is the doer status, all the other answers are the detail status,


      so when trying to figure out the doer/ detail, you ask ytourself 2 questions.

      who did it? and can you tell more about what happened. and all those answeres will be details

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

        Assalaamu Alaikum

        Jazak Allaahu Khair brother,

        will you be posting the remaining of the lessons as well..? And can you tell me where I can get all the class videos to date??

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

          :wswrwb:

          :jkk:

          This is a great start for beginners like me
          Say (O Muhammad SAW to mankind):
          “If you (really) love Allāh then follow me (i.e. accept Islāmic Monotheism, follow the Qur’ān and the Sunnah), Allāh will love you and forgive you of your sins. And Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Aali Imran 3:31)

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

            Assalaamu Alaikum

            Jazak Allaahu Khair brother,

            will you be posting the remaining of the lessons as well..? And can you tell me where I can get all the class videos to date??
            :wswrwb:

            I will try updating it as regulary as i can, inshAllah.
            You can find the class video's on: www.bayyinah.tv

            This is a great start for beginners like me
            Wa iyyakum.

            Comment


            • #7
              'After of' Status.Looking for Doer/Detail

              of Allah

              * 'of Allah' is not doer/detail status, we will be discussing the reason for that in this lesson.

              * The word 'taught' is a Verb so it can't be a Detail. We are discussing Nouns.

              When we say Doer/Detail, what we mean is ''Doer of the verb'', & ''Details about the verb''.

              Example of this:

              of Allah

              We want to find out the doer of the verb: taught
              & Details about the verb: taughtteach
              Example 2




              We want to find out the doer of the verb: Respect
              & Details about the verb: Respect
              Example 3



              We want to find out the doer of the verb: Pray
              & Details about the verb: Pray


              I was eating too much chocolate.
              My teeth began aching.

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                Properties of the Ism - Status - Ending Sounds


                In English language whoever is Doer of the act normally appears first. Example:



                Bob appeared first, so Bob is the doer.

                'I chased a lion'

                سا عَدَ المُدَ رِِ سُونََ الطا لبَ

                سا عَدَ المُدَ رِ سينَ الطا لبُ

                سا عَدَ الطا لبَ المُد رسو نَ


                We have 3 words in above 3 examples, their meanings are

                سا عَدَالمُدَ رِِ سُونََالمُدَ رِ سينَالطا لبَالطا لبُ
                سا عَدَ المُدَ رِ سينَ الطا لبُ


                You may think this translates as: The teachers helped the students But this would be wrong.

                Find the Doer/ Ending Sounds RULE
                سا عَدَ المُدَ رِِ سُونََ الطا لبَ

                (Oona sound)
                سا عَدَ المُدَ رِ سينَ الطا لبُ
                (O'o)
                Example 1 From Quran



                وَإِذِ ابْتَلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ رَبُّهُ

                RAFF = رَبُّهُ
                NASB = إِبْرَاهِيمَ

                The ayah means 'When his Master tested Ibrahim'

                The doer of testing is Allah SWT. How do we know this without reading the translation, what gave it away?

                the ENDING SOUND at end of the word, the rule which we learnt.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                  Example 2 From Quran


                  Allah say's in Al-Baqara, Ayah 25:


                  وَقَتَلَ دَاوُودُ جَالُوتَ


                  Question: In this ayah someone killed someone, find out who killed who?

                  RAFF/DOER: دَاوُودُ
                  NASB/DETAIL: جَالُوتَ

                  Answer: ''Dawud killed Jalut'

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                    Bob kicked Joe' Bob is doer, it came at start of sentence. In Arabic to see who the doer or detail is we go by what we call 'Ending sounds'. We were looking for 'Ending' sounds' 'OON' 'AAN' INN' to find:

                    Raff/Doer
                    Nasb/Detail
                    Jarr/After 'of'

                    Status of a word, if it's ending sounds is:

                    'OON' it's the doer
                    If it ends in 'AAN' it will be the Detail
                    And if it ends in 'INN' it is the 'After of.'

                    This is when looking for the Status on the 'Singular' Doer, do we go by the 'Ending sounds. We use Ending sounds to look for status of Singular words, for words that are pair (2) like 2 Muslims we go by what we call 'ENDING PAIR COMBINATION'

                    Example 1


                    Try to find out the status for this word? Is it Raff/Nasb/Jarr?

                    A (1) Muslim Traveled


                    Because it is referring to a singular, 'a Muslim', it would be said in Arabic as:

                    مُسْلِمٌ Travelled


                    So it would be a 'RAFF', because 'OON' sound on end makes it the doer.

                    Today's lessons is about 'how to change it to make it into :


                    '2 Muslims' traveled instead of 'A Muslim'


                    We start by 3 new words:

                    - 2 Muslims مُسْلِما نِ

                    - 2 Muslims مُسْلِمينِ

                    -2 Muslims مُسْلِمينِ


                    How do we know which of these 3 words do we use for that sentence above, the answer is the first one: مُسْلِما نِ

                    Because it's just the double version of the word: مُسْلِمٌ

                    If you look at ending of this word, it has the 'AANI' sound. The letters Allf + Noon give it that sound in dual/pair form.

                    For singular one Muslim, we go by Ending Sounds of 'OON, 'AAN' 'INN' .

                    For dual we will go by something we call ' ENDING PAIR COMBINATION' We call it by this name because we add a few additional letters to the end of the word, ending pair combination will have on the end, 'AANI' 'AAYNI, AA'NI sounds, the letter's ى+ ا + ن give it that sound.

                    Example 2


                    I met a Muslim



                    Raff/Doer: I
                    Nasb/Detail: Muslim

                    I is the doer of the act (met) & Muslim is the Detail.

                    In Arabic the word Muslim, would be written in Nasb form because it is the detail.



                    To change this to:

                    I met 2 Muslims.


                    We use the double form of this word, which is:
                    مُسْلِمينِ
                    I met 2 Muslims
                    (AAYNI- Ending Pair)

                    It's going to be in Nasb state, same as it's singular version, the detail here being he is a Muslim does not change, we just added extra person to word MUSLIM, so to differentiate between the singular, and dual person we changed the ending sounds by adding an ending pair of additional letters.

                    Example 3


                    The religion of a Muslim is Islam


                    In Arabic the word, Muslim would be:

                    مُسْلِمٍ


                    It's in Jarr/After of, form, because it comes 'After of;

                    And it' talking about 1 Muslim, it will end Ending Sounds.

                    It's Dual/Pair version will be in same state, Jarr, but it's ending will not be the same, it will be:

                    مُسْلِمينِ



                    So what were saying is, there's:

                    1 RAFF

                    كِتابٌ

                    1 NASB,

                    كتابً

                    1 JARR

                    كتابٍ


                    2 RAFF,

                    كتبا ن

                    2 NASB,

                    كتابينِ


                    2 JARR

                    كتابينِ


                    Example from Quran:


                    Allah say's in : Ar-Rahman 55:62

                    وَمِن دُونِهِمَا جَنَّتَانِ



                    Question?
                    How many Jannah's, and what status are the Jannah's?

                    Answer:
                    2 Jannah's because AAYNI at end.
                    And status = RAFF.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      ending soundsending pair combination

                      Today, we will learn another set of ending combinations: the people plural combination.
                      In English plural means more than 1, but in Arabic plural means more than 2.


                      Ending Sound Words

                      (OON) مُسلِمٌ
                      (AAN) مُسْلِمً
                      (INN) مُسْلِمٍ


                      Ending Pair Combination


                      (AANI)مُسْلِما نِ
                      (AYNI)مُسْلِمينِ
                      (AYNI)مُسْلِمينِ


                      Ending People Plural Combination


                      (OONA) مُسلمُون
                      (EENA) مُسلمينَ
                      (EENA )مُسْلمينَ


                      When an ISM ends with an:

                      ينَ

                      و نَ
                      Example:

                      ا
                      لمنا فقُونَ
                      معر دو نَ
                      الرا سخونَ
                      مُكَزبينَ

                      This combination is never used for anything that doesn't have a brain. In the Quran, you will see this set of combinations used for angels and jinn as well.

                      Note: Always look for Ending combination
                      رَ بُ


                      It has no combination, so must be ENDING SOUND. Now that we know what is we can know what status it is, = RAFF

                      المَشْرقَيْنِ


                      You Look for Combination first, = Fits in combination for Ending Pair combination (AYYNI)

                      Next we find out what it's Status is: Is it Raff, Nasb, Jarr.

                      It can't be RAFF, because it end's is we said: (AANI) sound, so that leaves us with either NASB OR JARR.

                      the sentences translates as: 'The Master of (Ending Sound) Both of you (Ending Pair/JARR)

                      Because it comes after 'AFTER OF' which e said means JARR, it's status will be JARR ALSO.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic



                        So far, we have learned three ways of telling Status (what the word is doing in the sentence, is it DOER/DETAIL/AFTER 'OF')

                        1. Ending Sounds: (OON AAN INN)

                        2. Pair Combinations (AANI AYNI AYNI) as in مُسْلِما نِ مُسْلِمين ِمُسْلِمينِ )

                        3.People Plural Combinations (OONA EENA EENA as in مُسْلمُوْنَ مُسلمِيْنَ مُسلمِيْنَFeminine Plural. Feminine status will have its own Ending Sound/ Ending Pair/ Ending People combinationsEnding Sound

                        مُسلِم ٌمُسْلِمً مُسْلِمٍ


                        The Feminine version of the above words in RAFF, NASB, JARR is:

                        مُسلمةٌ مُسلمةً مُسلمةٍ


                        Ending Pair (2 People)

                        مُسْلِما نِ مُسْلِمين ِمُسْلِمينِ


                        The Feminine version of the above words in RAFF, NASB, JARR is:

                        مُسلمتا نِ مُسْلمتين مُسْلمتين


                        Ending Combination (3 or more people)


                        مُسْلمُوْنَ مُسلمِيْنَ مُسلمِيْنَ



                        The Feminine version of the above words in RAFF, NASB, JARR is:

                        مُسْلما تٌ مسلماتٍ مسلماتٍ


                        This is what we call a AANI. And Waw and noon, OONA Now we have Alif + TAA. In every combination there are 3 words, like in first example we have 3, OON, AAN, INN.

                        The last column has the new combination: the addition of the اتٌ and اتٍ .
                        You may have noticed that the Nasb and Jarr تٌ
                        مسلماتٍ
                        مسلماتٍ


                        These endings look like ending sounds! A common mistake is to not recognize the ات ending as a Combination and label the status of these words as you would an ending sound. If you made this Mistake, you would say that مسلماتٍ is Jarr although, in reality, it could be Nasb or Jarr from the feminine plural chart. We will learn in future lessons wheather it's a Nasb or Jarr.

                        So far you have learnt 18 new words, just by chngin the ending of the word, Memorize these.

                        مُسْلِمٌ مُسْلِمً مُسلِمٍ

                        مُسْلِما نِ مُسْلِمينِ مُسْلِمينِ

                        مُسْلِمُوْنَ مُسْلمِيْنَ مُسْلمِيْنَ


                        ________Male's ___________



                        مُسْلمةٌٌ مُسلمةً مُسلمةٍ


                        مُسلمتا نِ
                        مُسْلمتين مُسْلمتين


                        مُسْلما تٌ مسلماتٍ مسلماتٍ



                        _________Female's________________

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                          Salam

                          These notes are highly appreciated. I've signed up to the program myself which is absolutely awesome. However I'm slow so this is good revision for me.

                          Please keep them notes coming and don't stop after a few parts.

                          Jazakumulah

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                            Heavy vs Light Words


                            All the words we’ve mentioned so far:

                            مُسلِمٌ مُسِْمً مُسْلِمٍ

                            مُسْلِما نِ مُسْلِمينِ مُسْلِمينِ
                            مُسْلمُوْنَ مُسلمِيْنَ مُسلمِيْنَ
                            مُسلمةًٌ مُسلمةً مُسلمةٍ
                            مُسلمتا نِ مُسْلمتين مُسْلمتين
                            مُسْلما تٌ مسلماتٍ مسلماتٍ


                            Are considered FAT or HEAVY. When you say them out loud, you’ll notice that all of the words end in an ‘n’ ن sound, even if they don’t have a ن at the end like مُسلِمٌ which doesn’t have ن letter at end of it, but because of the ‘tanween’ it has the ‘n’ sound when you say it out loud.

                            Sometimes we have to learn to make the word ‘LIGHT’, were not gonna learn why we do that yet, for now were just going to learn how to make it light.


                            So this is how we do it, to make a word light, and not HEAVY, the extra ‘n’ sound is taken off. If you see a double accent on words such as مُسلِمٌ or مُها جرٍ

                            You lighten them by reducing them to single accents like مُسلِمُ and مُها جرِ by adding just one ‘Harakat’ to the end of the word.

                            Heavy Version مُسلِمٌ - Light Version مُسلِمُ

                            Another way you can lighten a word is by removing the extra ن from its ending combination.

                            In cases like مُسْلمُوْنَ and مشرقينِ the light versions would be:

                            مُسْلمُوْ and مشرقي


                            We got rid of the ‘n’ sound.

                            These are 'light version' of the 'Heavy Version' words we listed above.

                            مُسلِمُ مُسِْمَ مُسْلِمِ
                            مُسْلِما ِمُسْلِمي مُسْلِمي
                            مُسْلمُوْ مُسْلِمِيْ مُسِْلمِيْ

                            مُسلِمَةَ مُسلمة َمُسلمة
                            مُسلمتا مُسْلمتي مُسْلمتي ِ
                            مُسْلما تُ مسلماتِ مسلماتِ


                            For the feminine plural column, I didn’t take the ت off.

                            Were only concerned about removing the extra ‘n’ sound, the ‘tanween’ gave it the ‘noon’ sound, we we dropped the’ one ‘harakat’ making it light.
                            Last edited by Bayyinah_; 06-02-14, 09:10 PM.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Re: Unit 1 - Fundamentals Of Arabic

                              Here are a few notes about light and heavy status that we can refer back to later once we learn more Arabic

                              Normally, a word should have HEAVY status. – اُنْ ااَن اِنْ 'Noon' Sound at end of the word.

                              If a word is light, it needs to have 1 OF 4 Reasons to be LIGHT, Although we didn’t mention them, We’ll learn what these four reasons are later.

                              When reading Quran, and you see a word is light, it's normally supposed to be HEAVY, so something caused it to become light. When a word is heavy we don’t ask why is it 'Heavy' because that is the normal way the word is supposed to be. If it's Light we need to question what's the reason for it.

                              Example in Surah Fatiha:

                              رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

                              The word: رَبِ
                              RAB'BI

                              This is light version, the normal/ Heavy version would be

                              رَبٍ
                              RAB'BIN

                              We add another 'Harakat' to give it the 'noon' sound, which makes it heavy. Question we need to ask why this word is رَبِ And not رَبٍ

                              The answer is One of the Four reasons make it light, which we not discussed yet.


                              Arab & Non Arab Prophets


                              Allah sent prophets to every nation, every country has it's own language which it speaks, so when a prophet was sent to a Nation, he spoke their language.

                              Allah say's in Surah 14. Ibrahim/ Ayah 4 ''We sent an apostle except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people in order to make (things) clear to them''

                              The Prophet :saw: told us that of all the prophet's that came, 4 of them were Arabs. 4 Of them spoke Arabic, they were:

                              Muhammed :saw:
                              Hud
                              Shoaib
                              Salih
                              Last edited by Bayyinah_; 08-02-14, 10:19 PM.

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