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Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

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    Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    :start:

    In Arabic there are only three types of words:

    1. Ism - nouns. إسم
    2. Fi'l - verbs. فعل
    3. Harf - particles. حرف


    If a word has the letters "al" ال attached to it then automatically you know it is an ism. Also, if it has a tanween i.e. the sounds "an / in / un" then again it has to be a noun. There are other ways of identifying it, as well as for the verbs and particles, but we won't go into that. Nouns don't have any tense. An example would be baitun (a house) or al-walad (the boy).


    A fi'l is a verb and in Arabic they have two tenses:

    1. al-Maadi - perfect tense. الماضي
    2. al-Mudaari' - imperfect tense. المضارع


    In English we're used to having three tenses: past, present and future. In Arabic al-maadi = the past tense. And al-mudaari' = both the present and future tenses.

    Most verbs have three root letters. Eg. fa'ala فعل. Here the root letters are a faa, 'ain and laam.

    You can then add on other letters to change the meaning slightly.
    You can change the number, i.e. make it dual or plural.
    You can also change the gender, i.e. male or female.
    You can also change the person, i.e. third (eg. He did), second (eg. You did) or first (eg. I did).


    A harf is a particle and they don't have any set meaning. There meaning is determined by their context in the sentence. They usually stay the same and do not change.
    Last edited by .: Anna :.; 10-05-09, 08:17 PM.
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

    #2
    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    :start:
    maa'shaa'Allahu laa quwwata illa billah
    So you are continuing this thread

    Comment


      #3
      Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

      :jkk: awesome thread.

      Comment


        #4
        Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

        :start:
        I have one doubt. Arab has masculine and feminine and not something like it. Its always he or she.
        Is there any ruling how we identify a word to be masculine or feminine?
        Or is it that just we learn it as such?

        Comment


          #5
          Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

          In Arabic there are only two types of sentences:
          1. Jumlah Ismiyyah - nominal sentences. جملة إسمية
          2. Jumlah Fi'liyyah - verbal sentences. جملة فعلية


          Just by looking at the names of these two, they tell you what it is about. Nominal comes from "noun", so that means that a jumlah ismiyyah is any sentence that starts with a noun. If you look at the first word in the sentence and see that it is a noun, then you know that this is a nominal sentence. And if the first letter is a verb, then it is a verbal sentence / jumlah fi'liyyah.




          A jumlah ismiyyah is made up of two things:
          1. Mubtada - subject. مبتدأ
          2. Khabr - predicate. خبر


          The mubtada (subject) is the thing that is being talked about. The khabr (predicate) then gives you more information about that. An example of a jumlah ismiyyah is: Allahu qadeerun - الله قديرٌ , meaning - Allah is All-Powerful. Allah is the mubtada since it is the first word; here Allah is being spoken about. The khabr then informs us about Him, i.e. that He is All-Powerful.





          A jumlah fi'liyyah is made up of three things:
          1. Fi'l - verb. فعل
          2. Faa'il - doer. فاعل
          3. Maf'ool bihi - object. مفعول به


          This is the order in which they come in the sentence: first the verb, then the one doing the verb, then the thing or person that the verb is being done to. Notice that this is different from English sentence structure where the doer would be put first. An example is: Kataba Muhammad al-darsa - كتب محمد الدرس , meaning: Muhammad wrote the lesson. The verb is kataba (he wrote), the doer is Muhammad, and the object is al-darsa (the lesson).

          The third part, i.e. the maf'ool bihi, is optional. It doesn't always have to be there.
          "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
          (al-Baqarah: 143)

          Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

          Comment


            #6
            Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

            Originally posted by rahamath View Post
            :start:
            I have one doubt. Arab has masculine and feminine and not something like it. Its always he or she.
            Is there any ruling how we identify a word to be masculine or feminine?
            Or is it that just we learn it as such?
            there are some ways of identifying, altho some things dont fit with the rule but a ta marbuta is the most obv method to identify a feminine word
            also the part fu3laa is a feminine superlative pattern
            and sometimes nature words like shams can be feminine
            but you just learn the exceptions then remember ta marbuta is the most obvious indicator

            & :jkk: tmr good thread :up:
            .: Rufaida :.
            .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
            http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
            “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
            but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
            ~ Ibn Atallah

            Ramadan Activities for Children
            <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

            Comment


              #7
              Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

              Originally posted by rahamath View Post
              :start:
              I have one doubt. Arab has masculine and feminine and not something like it. Its always he or she.
              Is there any ruling how we identify a word to be masculine or feminine?
              Or is it that just we learn it as such?
              For nouns, the "taa marbootah" shows you that a word is feminine. Eg. the word مسلم is masculine. If you then add the "taa marbootah" to get مسلمة then it is feminine.

              For masculine nouns, to get the plural you would add "oon" to the word eg. مسلمون . For feminine nouns, you would add "aat", eg. مسلمات .
              "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
              (al-Baqarah: 143)

              Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

              Comment


                #8
                Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                Originally posted by .: Anna :. View Post
                & :jkk: tmr good thread :up:
                Wa iyyakum.

                Could you edit the first post please and make the parts "ism fi'l harf" and "maadi mudaari'" into numbered lists? :jkk:
                "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
                (al-Baqarah: 143)

                Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

                Comment


                  #9
                  Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                  i tried to do it but for some reason i kept making it that they all came out with number 1?
                  .: Rufaida :.
                  .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
                  http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
                  “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
                  but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
                  ~ Ibn Atallah

                  Ramadan Activities for Children
                  <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

                  Comment


                    #10
                    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                    thank you for this thread

                    every other time i try to learn this stuff, it is peppered with loads of unnecessary terms and information

                    this is consise and very understandable
                    Remove matzo

                    Comment


                      #11
                      Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                      Originally posted by .: Anna :. View Post
                      i tried to do it but for some reason i kept making it that they all came out with number 1?
                      Umm, if you highlight the text and then click on the number button then it should work? Otherwise nevermind, doesn't really matter.
                      "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
                      (al-Baqarah: 143)

                      Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

                      Comment


                        #12
                        Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                        it worked like tht :up:
                        alhamdulillah... now i learned how 2 do it :D
                        .: Rufaida :.
                        .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
                        http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
                        “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
                        but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
                        ~ Ibn Atallah

                        Ramadan Activities for Children
                        <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

                        Comment


                          #13
                          Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                          qsn: doesnt command and prohibition come under fe'l aswell?
                          Rajab is a month of cultivation, Shaban is month of irrigating the fields, and the month of Ramadhan is a month of reaping and harvesting.”

                          Comment


                            #14
                            Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                            Originally posted by Medievalist View Post
                            qsn: doesnt command and prohibition come under fe'l aswell?
                            Yes. I forgot to mention that one. But also wanted to keep things simple, so it's maybe not so bad I forgot. : )
                            "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
                            (al-Baqarah: 143)

                            Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

                            Comment


                              #15
                              Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

                              In Arabic there is this concept of words being in specific cases. Depending on the words position and function in the sentence, it will be in a particular case. For nouns there are three cases:
                              1. Raf' - nominative. رفع
                              2. Nasb - accusative. نصب
                              3. Jarr - genitive. جر


                              If a noun is in the first case then it is said to be mafoo' مرفوع
                              if the second, mansoob منصوب ;
                              and if the third, majroor مجرور .


                              So to be able to identify which case the word is in, you have to look at how it ends; what harakah it has at the end. The sign for raf' is a dommah, for nasb a fatha and for jarr a kasrah. This applies when the word is in the singular form.



                              Looking at this example might make this more understandable. Eg. the word Muslim.

                              If it is in the first case, then it will have a domma at the end i.e. Muslimun مسلمٌ .
                              If in the second, it will have a fatha, i.e. Musliman مسلماً .
                              And if the third, it will have kasrah i.e. Muslimin مسلمٍ .



                              For the dual form it will be like this:

                              Raf' = muslimaan مسلمان .
                              Nasb and jarr = muslimain مسلمين .



                              For the masculine plural:

                              Raf' = muslimoon مسلمون
                              Nasb and jarr = muslimeen مسلمين (Notice the difference from the dual: it's hard to see without the harakat on.)



                              For the feminine plural:

                              Raf' = muslimaatun مسلماتٌ .
                              Nasb and jarr = muslimaatin مسلماتٍ .
                              "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
                              (al-Baqarah: 143)

                              Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

                              Comment

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