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Baibars: The Father of Conquest

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  • Baibars: The Father of Conquest

    While we quite rightly remember the great Salahaddin, what I have noticed there is one hero who is not discussed as much. This guy.....what can i say? He never got tired of winning Battles.

    Baybars, Abu l-Futuh, The father of conquest.

    Baibars or Baybars (Arabic: الملك الظاهر ركن الدين بيبرس البندقداري‎, al-Malik al-Ẓāhir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdar), nicknamed Abu l-Futuh[1] (literally "The father of conquest"; Arabic: أبو الفتوح) (1223 – 1 July 1277), was the fourth Sultan of Egypt from the Mamluk Bahri dynasty. He was one of the commanders of the Egyptian forces that inflicted a defeat on the Seventh Crusade of King Louis IX of France. He also led the vanguard of the Egyptian army at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260,[2] which marked the first substantial defeat of the Mongol army and is considered a turning point in history.[3]

    The reign of Baibars marked the start of an age of Mamluk dominance in the Eastern Mediterranean and solidified the durability of their military system. He managed to pave the way for the end of the Crusader presence in the Levant and reinforced the union of Egypt and Syria as the region's pre-eminent Muslim state, able to fend off threats from both Crusaders and Mongols and even managed to subdue the kingdom of Makuria, which was famous for being unconquerable by previous Muslim empire invasion attempts. As Sultan, Baibars also engaged in a combination of diplomacy and military action, allowing the Mamluks of Egypt to greatly expand their empire.

    Early life

    It was said that he was captured by the Mongols in the Kipchak steppe/Cumania and sold as a slave, ending up in Syria. Baibars was quickly sold to a Mamluk officer called Aydekin al bondouqdar and sent to Egypt, where he became a bodyguard to the Ayyubid ruler As-Salih Ayyub.

    Rise to power

    Baibars was a commander of the Mamluks under the Ayyubid. Baibars particularly involved in the significant victory where he led the Egyptian army at the Battle of La Forbie or also known as Battle of Harbiyyah, east of Gaza in 1244 in the aftermath of Sixth Crusade. In around 1250 when he defeated the series of Seventh Crusade of Louis IX of France. He also involved in Battle of Al Mansurah where he display the ingenious strategy Baibars ordered the opening of a gate to let the knights of the crusaders enter the town. The crusaders rushed into the town that they thought was deserted to find themselves trapped inside. The crusaders were besieged from all directions by the Egyptian forces and the town population and heavy losses were inflicted upon them. Robert of Artois who took refuge in a house.[12][13] and William of Salisbury, were both killed along with most of the Knights Templar. Only five Templar Knights escaped alive.[14]

    He was still a commander under Sultan Qutuz at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 when he decisively defeated the Mongols. After the battle, Sultan Qutuz (aka Koetoez) was assassinated while on a hunting expedition. It was said that Baibars was involved in the assassination because he expected to be rewarded with the governorship of Aleppo for his military success; but Qutuz, fearing his ambition, refused to give him the post, disappointing him.[15] Baibars succeeded Qutuz as Sultan of Egypt.[16]

    Campaign against the Crusaders

    As sultan Baibars engaged in a lifelong struggle against the Crusader kingdoms in Syria, in part because the Christians had aided the Mongols. He started with the Principality of Antioch, which had become a vassal state of the Mongols and had participated in attacks against Islamic targets in Damascus and Syria. In 1263, Baibars laid siege to Acre, the capital of the remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, although the siege was abandoned when he sacked Nazareth instead.[18] He used siege engines to defeat the Crusaders in battles such as the Fall of Arsuf from March 21 to April 30. After breaking into the town and forcing its defenders to surrender, he razed the castle to the ground.[19] He next attacked Athlith and Haifa, where he captured both towns after destroying the crusaders' resistance, and razed the citadels.[20]

    In the same year Baibars laid siege to the fortress of Safad, held by the Templar knights,which had previously been conquered by Saladin in 1188. On capturing Safed, Baibars did not raze the fortress to the ground but instead he fortified it and repaired the damage, as it was very strategically well constructed. He installed a new governor in Safed, with the rank of Wali[21]

    Later, in 1266, Baibars invaded the Christian country of Cilician Armenia, which, under King Hethum I, had submitted to the Mongol Empire. After defeated the forces of Hethum I in the Battle of Mari, Baibars manage to ravag the three great cities of Mamistra, Adana and Tarsus to the point when Hetoum I arrived with Mongol troops, the country was already devastated. Hetoum I had to negotiate the return of his son Leo by giving control of Armenia's border fortresses to the Mamluks. In 1269, Hetoum I abdicated in favour of his son, and became a monk, but died a year later.[22] Levon was left in the awkward situation of keeping Cilicia as a subject of the Mongol Empire, while at the same time he was paying tribute to the Mamluks.[23]

    This isolated Antioch and Tripoli, led by Hethum's son-in-law, Prince Bohemond VI. After successfully conquering Cilicila, Baibars in 1267 settled his unfinished business with Acre, and continued the extermination of remaining crusader garrisons in the following years. In 1268, he besieged Antioch, capturing the city on 18 May. Baibars had promised to spare the lives of the inhabitants, but he broke his promise and had the city razed, killing or enslaving much of the population upon surrender.[24] prompting the fall of the Principality of Antioch. The massacre of men, women, and children at Antioch "was the single greatest massacre of the entire crusading era."[25] Priests had their throats slit inside their churches, and women were sold into slavery.[26]

    Then he continued to Jaffa, which belonged to Guy, the son of John of Ibelin. Jaffa fell to Baibars after twelve hours of fighting on 7 March; most of Jaffa's citizens were slain, but the garrison was allowed by Baibars to go unharmed.[27] after this he conquer Ashkalon, and Caesarea.

    Diplomacy with Golden Horde
    In some times around October to November 1267, or about 666 Safar of Hijra year, Baibars wrote a condolescence and congratulation to the new ascended Khan of the Golden Horde, Mengu-Timur to urge him to fight Abaqa. Despite the failure to incite infighting between the Golden Horde and Ilkhanate, Baibars continued to send warm correspondence with the Golden Horde, particularly with Mengu Timur's general Noqai, who was very cooperative with the relation with Baibars unlike Mengu Timur. It is theorized that the factor of this intimacy was not only because of the religious connection (as Noqai was a Muslim unlike his Khan), but also because Noqai was not really fond of Mengu-Timur. However Baibars was pragmatic in his approach and did not want to share his hand for complicated intrigue inside Golden Horde and instead he stayed close to both Mengu Timur and Noqai[28]

    Continued campaign against Crusaders

    In 1271, after Baibars captured the smaller castles in the area, including Chastel Blanc, he besieged Krak des Chevaliers castle, held by the Hospitallers, on 30 March. Peasants who lived in the area had fled to the castle for safety and were kept in the outer ward. As soon as Baibars arrived he began erecting mangonels, powerful siege weapons which he would turn on the castle. According to Ibn Shaddad, two days later the first line of defences was captured by the besiegers; he was probably referring to a walled suburb outside the castle's entrance.[29] After a lull of ten days, the besiegers conveyed a letter to the garrison, supposedly from the Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller in Tripoli, which granted permission for them to surrender. The garrison capitulated and the Sultan spared their lives.[29] The new owners of the castle undertook repairs, focused mainly on the outer ward.[30] The Hospitaller chapel was converted to a mosque and two mihrabs were added to the interior.[31]

    Baibars then turned his attention to Tripoli, but he interrupted his siege there to call a truce in May 1271. The fall of Antioch had led to the brief Ninth Crusade, led by Prince Edward of England, who arrived in Acre in May 1271 and attempted to ally himself with the Mongols against Baibars. So Baibars declared a truce with Tripoli, as well as with Edward, who was never able to capture any territory from Baibars anyway. According to some reports, Baibars tried to have Edward assassinated with poison, but Edward survived the attempt and returned home in 1272.

    Campaign against Makuria

    In 1272 the Mamluk Sultan invaded the Kingdom of Makuria, after its King David I had raided the Egyptian city of Aidhab, initiating several decades of intervention by the Mamlukes in Nubian affairs.[32] Hostilities toward the dying Christian kingdom were sidelined as Baibars' invasion of Makuria continued for four years until, by 1276, Baibars had completed his conquest of Nubia, Including the Medieval lower Nubia which ruled by Banu Kanz. Under the terms of settlement, the Nubians were now subjected to paying jizya tribute, and in return they were allowed to keep their religion, being protected under Islamic law as 'People of the Book'; they were also allowed to continue being governed by a king from the native royal family, although this king was chosen personally by Baibars, namely a Makurian noble named Shakanda.[33] In practice this was reducing Makuria to a vassal kingdom,[34] effectively ending Makuria's status as an independent kingdom.

    Campaign against the Mongols
    Legacy

    As the first Sultan of the Bahri Mamluk dynasty, Baibars made the meritocratic ascent up the ranks of Mamluk society. He took final control after the assassination of Sultan Sayf al Din Qutuz, but before he became Sultan he was the commander of the Mamluk forces in the most important battle of the Middle Periods, repelling a Mongol force at the legendary Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.[40] Although in the Muslim World he has been considered a national hero for centuries, and in Egypt, Syria and Kazakhstan is still regarded as such, Sultan Baibars was reviled in the Christian world of the time for his seemingly unending victorious campaigns. A Templar knight who fought in the Seventh Crusade lamented:

    Rage and sorrow are seated in my heart...so firmly that I scarce dare to stay alive. It seems that God wishes to support the Turks to our loss...ah, lord God...alas, the realm of the East has lost so much that it will never be able to rise up again. They will make a Mosque of Holy Mary's convent, and since the theft pleases her Son, who should weep at this, we are forced to comply as well...Anyone who wishes to fight the Turks is mad, for Jesus Christ does not fight them any more. They have conquered, they will conquer. For every day they drive us down, knowing that God, who was awake, sleeps now, and Muhammad waxes powerful.[41]

    Baibars also played an important role in bringing the Mongols to Islam. He developed strong ties with the Mongols of the Golden Horde and took steps for the Golden Horde Mongols to travel to Egypt. The arrival of the Mongol's Golden Horde to Egypt resulted in a significant number of Mongols accepting Islam.[42]

    Military Legacy

    Baibars was a popular ruler in the Muslim World who had defeated the crusaders in three campaigns, and the Mongols in the Battle of Ain Jalut which many scholars deem of great macro-historical importance. In order to support his military campaigns, Baibars commissioned arsenals, warships and cargo vessels. He was also arguably the first to employ explosive hand cannons in war, at the Battle of Ain Jalut.[43][44] His military campaign also extended into Libya and Nubia.

    Culture and science

    He was also an efficient administrator who took interest in building various infrastructure projects, such as a mounted message relay system capable of delivery from Cairo to Damascus in four days. He also built bridges, irrigation and shipping canals, improved the harbours, and built mosques. He was also a patron of Islamic science, such as his support for the medical research by his Arab physician, Ibn al-Nafis.[45] As a testament of a special relationship between Islam and cats, Baibars left a cat garden in Cairo as a waqf, providing the cats of Cairo with food and shelter.[46] Until this day its legacy of domesticated cats in Cairo is still seen[47]

    His memoirs were recorded in Sirat al-Zahir Baibars ("Life of al-Zahir Baibars"), a popular Arabic romance recording his battles and achievements. He has a heroic status in Kazakhstan, as well as in Egypt and Syria.

    Al-Madrassa al-Zahiriyya is the school built adjacent to his Mausoleum in Damascus. The Az-Zahiriyah library has a wealth of manuscripts in various branches of knowledge to this day. The library and Mausoleum are being reconstructed by Kazakhstan government fund.

    In 2009, a copy of Sultan Beibars Mausoleum in Damascus was to be built in Kazakhstan.
    Last edited by Spicen; 15-04-16, 09:18 AM.

  • #2
    Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

    [MENTION=136641]Abu Jarir[/MENTION]
    [MENTION=119258]obidientServant[/MENTION]
    [MENTION=136016]bhshawon[/MENTION]
    [MENTION=107034]talibilm09[/MENTION]
    [MENTION=127092]eesa the kiwi[/MENTION][/MENTION]

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

      He's not remembered as much for various reasons, the two main ones I think:

      1. He was not arab, or from any of the traditionally Muslim ethnic groups in the region, in fact he was a white, blond haired, blue eyed former slave so we have non-arab, and low status origins so it burns the nationalist, status freaks to see such a man rise up over them.
      2. He was not actually that nice. By that I mean Salaahudin Ayubi gets the whole chivalrous thing going for him, Baibars was ruthless which is no bad thing in my book, especially in the time he lived in with the enemies he had to face but he's not the sort you tell nice stories to your kids about.
      FOLLOW THE NEW BLOG - GINGERBEARDMAN - Muslim, father, husband, writer, defender of ginger rights!

      www.facebook.com/outreach4Islam - Outreach4Islam have been working together in Leicester, calling the not yet Muslims to Islam since 2006.

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      • #4
        Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

        Originally posted by Gingerbeardman View Post
        He's not remembered as much for various reasons, the two main ones I think:

        1. He was not arab, or from any of the traditionally Muslim ethnic groups in the region, in fact he was a white, blond haired, blue eyed former slave so we have non-arab, and low status origins so it burns the nationalist, status freaks to see such a man rise up over them.
        2. He was not actually that nice. By that I mean Salaahudin Ayubi gets the whole chivalrous thing going for him, Baibars was ruthless which is no bad thing in my book, especially in the time he lived in with the enemies he had to face but he's not the sort you tell nice stories to your kids about.
        1. He was Turkic i think. Salahaddin was a kurd Btw.

        2. Salahaddin was more of an inspirational figure. Statistically though, Baibars won more Battles than him. He rose from slavery to Being a sultan. He's certainly the sort that would motivate poorer muslims living right now.

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        • #5
          Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

          Salahuddin is praised more for his freeing of the holy lands against overwhelming odds than anything else.
          Winning an argument doesn't mean you're on truth, losing an argument doesn't mean you're on falsehood.

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          • #6
            Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

            Interesting read Akhi :jkk:

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

              Originally posted by bhshawon View Post
              Salahuddin is praised more for his freeing of the holy lands against overwhelming odds than anything else.
              But he didn't, he liberated al-quds, Baibars was the one who finished the job
              FOLLOW THE NEW BLOG - GINGERBEARDMAN - Muslim, father, husband, writer, defender of ginger rights!

              www.facebook.com/outreach4Islam - Outreach4Islam have been working together in Leicester, calling the not yet Muslims to Islam since 2006.

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              • #8
                Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                Originally posted by Gingerbeardman View Post
                But he didn't, he liberated al-quds, Baibars was the one who finished the job
                found almost no vid about him on youtube.

                bro, do you know anyone in this forum who makes islamic vids on youtube?

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                  Originally posted by Spicen View Post
                  found almost no vid about him on youtube.

                  bro, do you know anyone in this forum who makes islamic vids on youtube?
                  [MENTION=133413]RaadIsaCreature[/MENTION]
                  Winning an argument doesn't mean you're on truth, losing an argument doesn't mean you're on falsehood.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                    Originally posted by Gingerbeardman View Post
                    But he didn't, he liberated al-quds, Baibars was the one who finished the job
                    What? Didn't he liberate Jerusalem?
                    Winning an argument doesn't mean you're on truth, losing an argument doesn't mean you're on falsehood.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                      Originally posted by bhshawon View Post
                      What? Didn't he liberate Jerusalem?
                      al-quds is jerusalem.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                        Originally posted by bhshawon View Post
                        What? Didn't he liberate Jerusalem?
                        The Holy Land (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַקוֹדֵשׁ Eretz HaKodesh, Latin: Terra Sancta; Arabic: الأرض المقدسة Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah) is an area roughly located between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea but also includes the Eastern Bank of the Jordan River. Historically, it is synonymous with both the Land of Israel and Palestine, and the Lebanese Republic, the Syrian Arab Republic and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                          nvm
                          Winning an argument doesn't mean you're on truth, losing an argument doesn't mean you're on falsehood.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                            Originally posted by Spicen View Post
                            found almost no vid about him on youtube.

                            bro, do you know anyone in this forum who makes islamic vids on youtube?
                            I remember watching a vid on him by a non-Muslim source a while ago, think was part of a longer series on the crusades on the BBC but might be wrong
                            FOLLOW THE NEW BLOG - GINGERBEARDMAN - Muslim, father, husband, writer, defender of ginger rights!

                            www.facebook.com/outreach4Islam - Outreach4Islam have been working together in Leicester, calling the not yet Muslims to Islam since 2006.

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                            • #15
                              Re: Baibars: The Father of Conquest

                              Originally posted by bhshawon View Post
                              [MENTION=133413]RaadIsaCreature[/MENTION]
                              i try to do mines in arabic, cause the english ones are pretty common, the arabic ones are not so common, .... its slaveofthemostmerciful youtube channel

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