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The Intra-Sunni Divide: A history of the schools of Aqeedah wrt Sifat

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  • #91
    The reasoning behind disallowing translating a description like Yad regarding Allah ta'ala, while allowing translating 'Ilm, Irada, Qudra, etc.

    The reasoning behind this is from one side the Arabic language and from the other side the risk of misunderstandings.

    When it is said in the Qur`an al-karim { ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ูฑู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽ ุจููƒูู„ู‘ู ุดูŽูŠู’ุกู ุนูŽู„ููŠู…ูŒ } ("indeed Allah knows all things") [29:62] or { ุฅูู†ู‘ูŽ ูฑู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ูฐ ูƒูู„ู‘ู ุดูŽูŠู’ุกู ู‚ูŽุฏููŠุฑูŒ } ("indeed Allah is Able to do all things") [35:1], then it's not like the word 'Alim or Qadir in these contexts can have a lot of meaning or interpretations in the Arabic language, rather there is only one meaning or interpretation that is understood. Translating this meaning into other languages does not cause any misunderstandings.

    When it is however said { ูŠูŽุฏู ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ููŽูˆู’ู‚ูŽ ุฃูŠู’ุฏููŠู‡ูู…ู’ } [48:10] ("the Yad of Allah is above their hands"), then the word Yad can have DIFFERENT meanings in this context according to the Arabic language (refer to classical Tafsir books). Translating the word Yad literally with hand can at the same cause misunderstandings and this is why a leading scholars like Imam Abu Hanifa (d. 150 AH) explicitly disallowed translating Yad into persian [and other langugages] in his al-Fiqh al-Akbar.

    If someone claims that Yad regarding Allah ta'ala is to be understood literally, then this is rejected because in the Arabic language a literal Yad is a Jariha (limb) (refer to any Arabic dictionary, whether classic or modern) and this is wrong by agreement of the scholars of Ahl al-Sunna.



    So how did the early scholars understand descriptions like Yad, Wajh and 'Ayn?

    What they did is to accept these descriptions in the Ayat as they have come and they did not speak regarding their meaning with more than what is mentioned in the authentic religious texts and they stayed silent regarding that which is beyond human comprehension (i.e. the reality of the divine Self) while being sure that there is nothing like Allah ta'ala whatsoever, so they said "pass it on as it has reached us" and "its reading is its interpretation" and what is similar to that.
    This way of understanding is called as Tafwidh (consignment) and the way of early Muslims and the way to success.

    Imam Ahmad bin Hanbali (d. 241) - one of the leading scholars of Islam - said as mentioned in Nihayat al-Mubtadi`in and Lawami' al-Anwar:

    ุฃุญุงุฏูŠุซ ุงู„ุตูุงุช ุชู…ุฑ ูƒู…ุง ุฌุงุกุช ู…ู† ุบูŠุฑ ุจุญุซ ุนู† ู…ุนุงู†ูŠู‡ุง ุŒ ูˆู†ุฎุงู„ู ู…ุง ุฎุทุฑ ููŠ ุงู„ุฎุงุทุฑ ุนู†ุฏ ุณู…ุงุนู‡ุง ุŒ ูˆู†ู†ููŠ ุงู„ุชุดุจูŠู‡ ุนู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุนู†ุฏ ุฐูƒุฑู‡ุง ู…ุน ุชุตุฏูŠู‚ ุงู„ู†ุจูŠ - ุตู„ู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุนู„ูŠู‡ ูˆุณู„ู… - ูˆุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจู‡ุง ุŒ ูˆูƒู„ ู…ุง ูŠุนู‚ู„ ูˆูŠุชุตูˆุฑ ูู‡ูˆ ุชูƒูŠูŠู ูˆุชุดุจูŠู‡ ูˆู‡ูˆ ู…ุญุงู„

    The narrations (Ahadith) regarding the [divine] attributes (Sifat) are to be passed on as they have come without searching for their meanings, and we go against that which comes to the mind upon hearing them, and we reject attributing similarity (Tashbih) to Allah ta'ala when they're mentioned while confirming [the words of] the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - and having belief in them; and whatever can be comprehended and imagined is from the attributing of modality (Takyif) and similarity (Tashbih) and that is impossible [regarding Allah ta'ala].
    - end of quote -

    A group from among the scholars then said that these descriptions are divine attributes (Sifat) and that therefore figurative interpretations (Ta`wil) of these descriptions are not allowed and they are the Atharis and Hanbalis.
    Another group of scholars said that these descriptions may be divine attributes, but they may be also descriptions going back to other attributes such that the meanings that one reaches through figurative interpretations (Ta`wil) are also possible. This group were the Ash'aris and Maturidis.

    This means that the Atharis / Hanbalis and the Ash'aris / Maturidis agreed on declaring the Creator transcendent from similarity and likeness to the creation and they agreed on consigning the exact interpretation or meaning to Allah ta'ala, but they disagreed on whether the meanings one reaches through figurative interpretation are possible options or not and based upon this one group disallowed Ta`wil (i.e. Atharis) while the other one allowed it (i.e. Ash'aris), but only as a possible option.



    Is Ta`wil (figurative interpretation) of descriptions like Yad the same as Ta'til (rejection)?

    This is a common misunderstanding and based upon not understanding the way of the Mu'tazila.
    The Mu'tazila did not believe that God can be described with eternal attributes (Sifat) in the first place and they would also reject a lot of authentic narrations connected to the issue of the divine attributes. According to them God was able (Qadir) to do all things for example, but He could not be described with power (Qudra). So when they said "Yad means power", then it's not like they believed that God can be described with power in the first place. This is what is called as Ta'til (rejection)!

    That is why the Hanbali Imam Ibn Abi Ya'la (d. 526 AH) - while describing the beliefs of his father al-Qadhi Abu Ya'la (d. 458 AH) and his Hanbali predecessors - differentiated between the Ta'til of the Jahmiyya [and Mu'tazila] and the Ta`wil of the Ash'aris in his famous Tabaqat al-Hanabila:

    ูˆุงุนุชู‚ุฏูˆุง: ุฃู† ุงู„ุจุงุฑูŠ ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ุงุณุชุฃุซุฑ ุจุนู„ู… ุญู‚ุงุฆู‚ ุตูุงุชู‡ ูˆู…ุนุงู†ูŠู‡ุง ุนู† ุงู„ุนุงู„ู…ูŠู† ูˆูุงุฑู‚ ุจู‡ุง ุณุงุฆุฑ ุงู„ู…ูˆุตูˆููŠู† ูู‡ู… ุจู‡ุง ู…ุคู…ู†ูˆู† ูˆุจุญู‚ุงุฆู‚ู‡ุง ู…ูˆู‚ู†ูˆู† ูˆุจู…ุนุฑูุฉ ูƒูŠููŠุชู‡ุง ุฌุงู‡ู„ูˆู† ู„ุง ูŠุฌูˆุฒ ุนู†ุฏู‡ู… ุฑุฏู‡ุง ูƒุฑุฏ ุงู„ุฌู‡ู…ูŠุฉ ูˆู„ุง ุญู…ู„ู‡ุง ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุชุดุจูŠู‡ ูƒู…ุง ุญู…ู„ุชู‡ ุงู„ู…ุดุจู‡ุฉ ุงู„ุฐูŠ ุฃุซุจุชูˆุง ุงู„ูƒูŠููŠุฉ ูˆู„ุง ุชุฃูˆู„ูˆู‡ุง ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู„ุบุงุช ูˆุงู„ู…ุฌุงุฒุงุช ูƒู…ุง ุชุฃูˆู„ุชู‡ุง ุงู„ุฃุดุนุฑูŠุฉ. ูุงู„ุญู†ุจู„ูŠุฉ ู„ุง ูŠู‚ูˆู„ูˆู† ูููŠ ุฃุฎุจุงุฑ ุงู„ุตูุงุช ุจุชุนุทูŠู„ ุงู„ู…ุนุทู„ูŠู† ูˆู„ุง ุจุชุดุจูŠู‡ ุงู„ู…ุดุจู‡ูŠู† ูˆู„ุง ุชุฃูˆูŠู„ ุงู„ู…ุชุฃูˆู„ูŠู† ู…ุฐู‡ุจู‡ู…: ุญู‚ ุจูŠู† ุจุงุทู„ูŠู† ูˆู‡ุฏู‰ ุจูŠู† ุถู„ุงู„ุชูŠู†: ุฅุซุจุงุช ุงู„ุฃุณู…ุงุก ูˆุงู„ุตูุงุช ู…ูŽุนูŽ ู†ููŠ ุงู„ุชุดุจูŠู‡ ูˆุงู„ุฃุฏูˆุงุช ุฅุฐ ู„ุง ู…ุซู„ ู„ู„ุฎุงู„ู‚ ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ู…ุดุจู‡ ูˆู„ุง ู†ุธูŠุฑ ู„ูŽู‡ู ููŠุฌู†ุณ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ู

    And they believed that the Maker - glory be to Him - is exclusive in having knowledge of the realities of his attributes and their meanings (!) [without anyone] from the worlds [having this knowledge] and He is [completely] different from all that has descriptions; so they believe in them and have conviction in their realities while being ignorant of the realization of their nature.
    According to them it is not allowed to deny them (the divine attributes) as the Jahmiyya did or to understand them upon attributing of similarity (Tashbih) as the Mushabbiha - who ascribed modality [to Allah] - did or to interpret (Ta`wil) them according to the languages and the metaphoric meanings like the Ash'aris did.
    Because the Hanbalis are not upon the rejection (Ta'til) of the rejectors regarding the narrations of the [divine] attributes nor are they upon the attributing of similarity (Tahsbih) of the those who liken [Allah to His creation] nor the interpretation (Ta`wil) of the interpreters, so their way is the truth between two falsehoods and guidance between two deviations (meaning: between Ta'til and Tashbih): Affirming the names and attributes [of Allah ta'ala] while rejecting attributing similarity (Tashbih) or tools (Adawat) for their is no likeness to the Creator - glory be to Him - so that [anyone] becomes similar [to Him] nor is there a match to Him so that [something] becomes from his kind.

    - end of quote -

    The Hanbali Imam Ibn Hamdan (d. 695 AH) also differentiated between the Ta'til of the Mu'tazila and the Ta`wil of the Ash'aris in his Nihayat al-Mubtadi`in.

    If the above is not clear enough, then let's add this statement from Tabaqat al-Hanabila shortly after the above quote:

    ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฃุฌู…ุน ุนู„ู…ุงุก ุฃู‡ู„ ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุซ ูˆุงู„ุฃุดุนุฑูŠุฉ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ู‚ุจูˆู„ ู‡ูŽุฐูู‡ู ุงู„ุฃุญุงุฏูŠุซ ูู…ู†ู‡ู… ู…ู† ุฃู‚ุฑู‡ุง ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ู…ุง ุฌุงุกุช ูˆู‡ู… ุฃุตุญุงุจ ุงู„ุญุฏูŠุซ ูˆู…ู†ู‡ู… ู…ู† ุชุฃูˆู„ู‡ุง ูˆู‡ู… ุงู„ุฃุดุนุฑูŠุฉ ูˆุชุฃูˆูŠู„ู‡ู… ุฅูŠุงู‡ุง ู‚ุจูˆู„ ู…ูู†ู’ู‡ูู…ู’ ู„ู‡ุง ุฅุฐ ู„ูˆ ูƒุงู†ุช ุนู†ุฏู‡ู… ุจุงุทู„ุฉ ู„ุงุทุฑุญูˆู‡ุง ูƒู…ุง ุฃุทุฑุญูˆุง ุณุงุฆุฑ ุงู„ุฃุฎุจุงุฑ ุงู„ุจุงุทู„ุฉ. ูˆู‚ุฏ ุฑูˆูŠ ุนูŽู†ู ุงู„ู†ู‘ูŽุจููŠู‘ู - ุตูŽู„ู‘ูŽู‰ ุงู„ู„ู‘ูŽู‡ู ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ู ูˆูŽุณูŽู„ู‘ูŽู…ูŽ - ุฃู†ู‡ ู‚ูŽุงู„ูŽ: " ุฃู…ุชูŠ ู„ุง ุชุฌุชู…ุน ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุฎุทุฃ ูˆู„ุง ุถู„ุงู„ุฉ

    Indeed the scholars of Ahl al-Hadith - and the Ash'aris are from among them (!) - are agreed upon accepting these narrations: From among them are those who accept them as they've come - and they are the Ashab al-Hadith - and from among them are those who interpret them - and they are the Ash'aris -; and their interpretation of these [narrations] is their acceptance to them, because if these narrations would be false for them they would have thrown them away just like they did with the rest of the false narrations.
    For indeed, it has been narrated from the Prophet - sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam - that he said: "My nation will not agree upon falsehood or deviation."

    - end of quote -
    Last edited by Abu Sulayman; 02-06-20, 04:32 PM.

    Comment


    • #92
      Describing Allah with a meaning that applies to humans is disbelief

      The great Hanafi Imam al-Tahawi (d. 321 AH) said in his famous 'Aqida:

      ูˆู…ู† ูˆุตู ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุจู…ุนู†ู‰ ู…ู† ู…ุนุงู†ูŠ ุงู„ุจุดุฑ ูู‚ุฏ ูƒูุฑ

      Whosoever describes Allah with a meaning from among the meanings (Ma'na min al-Ma'ani) [that apply] to humans has disbelieved.
      - end of quote -

      The Hanbali Imam Ibn Qudama (d. 620 AH) said in his Tahrim al-Nadhar:

      ูˆุฅู†ู…ุง ูŠุญุตู„ ุงู„ุชุดุจูŠู‡ ูˆุงู„ุชุฌุณูŠู… ู…ู…ู† ุญู…ู„ ุตูุงุช ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุนู„ู‰ ุตูุงุช ุงู„ู…ุฎู„ูˆู‚ูŠู† ููŠ ุงู„ู…ุนู†ู‰ ูˆู†ุญู† ู„ุง ู†ุนุชู‚ุฏ ุฐู„ูƒ ูˆู„ุง ู†ุฏูŠู† ุจู‡ ุจู„ ู†ุนู„ู… ุฃู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุจุงุฑูƒ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰ { ู„ูŠุณ ูƒู…ุซู„ู‡ ุดูŠุก ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุณู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุจุตูŠุฑ } ูˆุฃู† ุตูุงุชู‡ ู„ุง ุชุดุจู‡ ุตูุงุช ุงู„ู…ุญุฏุซูŠู† ูˆูƒู„ ู…ุง ุฎุทุฑ ุจู‚ู„ุจ ุฃูˆ ูˆู‡ู… ูุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุจุฎู„ุงูู‡ ู„ุง ุดุจูŠู‡ ู„ู‡ ูˆู„ุง ู†ุธูŠุฑ ูˆู„ุง ุนุฏู„ ูˆู„ุง ุธู‡ูŠุฑ { ู„ูŠุณ ูƒู…ุซู„ู‡ ุดูŠุก ูˆู‡ูˆ ุงู„ุณู…ูŠุน ุงู„ุจุตูŠุฑ

      Now, tashbih and tajsim-anthropomorphism result only from him who makes the attributes of God accord in meaning with the attributes of created beings. But we do not believe this, nor do we follow it as our religion; on the contrary, we know that so far as God is concerned, โ€œThere is nothing anything like Him. He is the Hearing, the Seeing,โ€[42:11] and we know that His attributes do not resemble those of created beings. All that which occurs in the mind or the imagination, God is different therefrom. He has neither a match, nor an equal, nor a similar, nor an auxiliary; โ€œThere is nothing anything like Him. He is the Hearing, the Seeing.โ€ [42:11].
      - end of quote -

      If it is now said that Allah ta'ala is described with Basar (seeing) and the creation too and whether this does not oppose what has been mentioned, then the answer is:
      Detecting that which can be seen is what is necessitated or that which follows from the attribute of Basar and not the attribute itself. The only thing common between the Creator and the creation is in naming, but the reality is completely different.


      That which is common between the Creator and the creation is only in naming, but not in reality!

      From Tabaqat al-Hanabila:

      ุฃู† ุงู„ุจุงุฑู‰ุก ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ู…ูˆุตูˆู ุจุฃู†ู‡: ุญูŠ ุนุงู„ู… ู‚ุงุฏุฑ ู…ุฑูŠุฏ ูˆุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ู…ูˆุตูˆููˆู† ุจู‡ุฐู‡ ุงู„ุตูุงุช ูˆู„ู… ูŠุฏู„ ุงู„ุงุชูุงู‚ ูููŠ ู‡ูŽุฐูู‡ู ุงู„ุชุณู…ูŠุฉ ุนูŽู„ูŽู‰ ุงู„ุงุชูุงู‚ ูููŠ ุญู‚ุงุฆู‚ู‡ุง ูˆู…ุนุงู†ูŠู‡ุง ู‡ูƒุฐุง ุงู„ู‚ูˆู„ ูููŠ ุฃุฎุจุงุฑ ุงู„ุตูุงุช ูˆู„ุง ูŠู„ุฒู… ุนู†ุฏ ุชุณู„ูŠู…ู‡ุง ู…ู† ุบูŠุฑ ุชุฃูˆูŠู„ ุฅุซุจุงุช ู…ุง ูŠู‚ุชุถูŠู‡ ุงู„ุญุฏ ูˆุงู„ุดุงู‡ุฏ ูููŠ ู…ุนุงู†ูŠู‡ุง

      The Maker - glory be to Him - is described with being Living (Hayy), Knowing ('Alim), Powerful (Qadir) and Willing (Murid) while the creation is also described with these attributes and this agreement in the naming does not show their agreement in their realities (!) and meanings (!) and likewise is the statement regarding the narrations of the [divine] attributes; submitting to them without interpretation does not necessitate to affirm that which is implied by limitation (Hadd) and by the Shahid (that which we can perceive) regarding their meanings.
      - end of quote -



      The only action intended by the Ayat of the Sifat is to believe in them and not more!

      Imam Ibn Qudama said in his Tahrim al-Nadhar:

      ูุฅู†ู‡ ู„ุง ุญุงุฌุฉ ู„ู†ุง ุฅู„ู‰ ุนู„ู… ู…ุนู†ู‰ ู…ุง ุฃุฑุงุฏ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ู…ู† ุตูุงุชู‡ ุฌู„ ูˆุนุฒ ูุฅู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุฑุงุฏ ู…ู†ู‡ุง ุนู…ู„ ูˆู„ุง ูŠุชุนู„ู‚ ุจู‡ุง ุชูƒู„ูŠู ุณูˆู‰ ุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจู‡ุง. ูˆูŠู…ูƒู† ุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจู‡ุง ู…ู† ุบูŠุฑ ุนู„ู… ู…ุนู†ุงู‡ุง. ูุฅู† ุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจุงู„ุฌู‡ู„ ุตุญูŠุญ. ูุฅู† ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุชุนุงู„ู‰ ุฃู…ุฑ ุจุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจู…ู„ุงุฆูƒุชู‡ ูˆูƒุชุจู‡ ูˆุฑุณู„ู‡ ูˆู…ุง ุฃู†ุฒู„ ุฅู„ูŠู‡ู… ูˆุฅู† ูƒู†ุง ู„ุง ู†ุนุฑู ู…ู† ุฐู„ูƒ ุฅู„ุง ุงู„ุชุณู…ูŠุฉ. ูˆู‚ุงู„ ุณุจุญุงู†ู‡ ูˆุชุนุงู„ู‰: { ู‚ูˆู„ูˆุง ุขู…ู†ุง ุจุงู„ู„ู‡ ูˆู…ุง ุฃู†ุฒู„ ุฅู„ูŠู†ุง ูˆู…ุง ุฃู†ุฒู„ ุฅู„ู‰ ุฅุจุฑุงู‡ูŠู… } ุงู„ุขูŠุฉ

      For indeed, there is no need for us to have knowledge of the meaning (!) (Ma'na) that Allah ta'ala intended from His attributes - jalla wa 'azz -, because there is no action intended by them and neither is any responsibility attached to them besides believing in them.
      And having faith in them without having knowledge of their meanings is possible, because having faith with ignorance [of their meanings] is correct, for indeed Allah ta'ala has commanded [us] to have belief in his angels, his books, his messengers and that which was been sent down upon them even though we do not know from them except their names.

      [Allah] - subhanahu wa ta'ala - says: { Say, "We believe in Allah and what is sent down to us and what was sent down to Ibrahim, ... } [2:136] until the end of the Aya.

      - end of quote -


      Answering the doubt of those who say "how is it possible that Allah reveals something while its meaning is not known"?

      Imam Ibn Qudama said in his Rawdhat al-Nadhir (after mentioning that the Ayat of the Sifat are from the Mutashabihat and that their correct interpretation is only known to Allah ta'ala):

      ูุฅู† ู‚ูŠู„: ููƒูŠู ูŠุฎุงุทุจ ุงู„ู„ู‡ ุงู„ุฎู„ู‚ ุจู…ุง ู„ุง ูŠุนู‚ู„ูˆู†ู‡ุŒ ุฃู… ูƒูŠู ูŠู†ุฒู„ ุนู„ู‰ ุฑุณูˆู„ู‡ ู…ุง ู„ุง ูŠุทู„ุน ุนู„ู‰ ุชุฃูˆูŠู„ู‡ุŸ ู‚ู„ู†ุง: ูŠุฌูˆุฒ ุฃู† ูŠูƒู„ูู‡ู… ุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจู…ุง ู„ุง ูŠุทู„ุนูˆู† ุนู„ู‰ ุชุฃูˆูŠู„ู‡ุ› ู„ูŠุฎุชุจุฑ ุทุงุนุชู‡ู…ุŒ ูƒู…ุง ู‚ุงู„ -ุชุนุงู„ูŠ-: {ูˆูŽู„ูŽู†ูŽุจู’ู„ููˆูŽู†ู‘ูŽูƒูู…ู’ ุญูŽุชู‘ูŽู‰ ู†ูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู…ูŽ ุงู„ู’ู…ูุฌูŽุงู‡ูุฏููŠู†ูŽ ู…ูู†ู’ูƒูู…ู’ ูˆูŽุงู„ุตู‘ูŽุงุจูุฑููŠู†} ุŒ {ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ุงู„ู’ู‚ูุจู’ู„ูŽุฉูŽ ุงู„ู‘ูŽุชููŠ ูƒูู†ู’ุชูŽ ุนูŽู„ูŽูŠู’ู‡ูŽุง ุฅูู„ู‘ูŽุง ู„ูู†ูŽุนู’ู„ูŽู… ... } ุงู„ุขูŠุฉุŒ {ูˆูŽู…ูŽุง ุฌูŽุนูŽู„ู’ู†ูŽุง ุงู„ุฑู‘ูุคู’ูŠุง ุงู„ู‘ูŽุชููŠ ุฃูŽุฑูŽูŠู’ู†ูŽุงูƒูŽ ุฅูู„ู‘ูŽุง ููุชู’ู†ูŽุฉู‹ ู„ูู„ู†ู‘ูŽุงุณ} . ูˆูƒู…ุง ุงุฎุชุจุฑู‡ู… ุจุงู„ุฅูŠู…ุงู† ุจุงู„ุญุฑูˆู ุงู„ู…ู‚ุทุนุฉ ู…ุน ุฃู†ู‡ ู„ุง ูŠุนู„ู… ู…ุนู†ุงู‡ุง. ูˆุงู„ู„ู‡ ุฃุนู„ู…

      If it is said: "How then does Allah address the creation with something that they do not comprehend or how does He sent down something on his Messenger regarding which the interpretation is not disclosed?"
      We say: It is possible that He tasks them with having faith in something regarding which they do not know its interpretation in order to test their obediance as [Allah] ta'ala says:
      { And We shall indeed test you until We make known the warriors and the steadfast among you } [47:31], { We had appointed the qiblah which you formerly observed only to see (test) ... } [2:143] until the end of the Aya, { and We did not create the spectacle which We showed you except to try mankind } [17:60].
      Just like He has tested them with having faith in the disconnected letters (!) (al-Huruf al-Muqatta'a) even though their meaning is not known. And Allah knows best.

      - end of quote -

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