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Belief of Hanbalis / Atharis (past) vs "Salafis"

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  • Abu Sulayman
    replied
    Originally posted by aMuslimForLife View Post
    [1] These represent 41 statements, starting with the Imam of Muslim Orthodoxy and the last of the third age and its Reviver, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, all the way up to our time. We boldly and brazenly challenge anyone to bring 41 examples from the same school and methodology declaring the opposite. If one cannot – and he will not be able to – repent from sin, avarice and bearing false witness and leave what you are upon and come to the way of the First Three Generations and the successful vouchsafe of their way.
    41 examples?! As if these Najdis can even bring 5 major Hanbalis prior to their "Shaykh al-Islam", who has clearly spoken against Tafwid.
    And how could they bring such statements while it's famous that the Hanabila do not accept any way other than Tafwid to be correct.


    The whole religion of these Najdis is based upon whatever they understood or misunderstood from their "Shaykh al-Islam" thereby following the footsteps of the Jews and the Christians in taking their scholars as Lords besides Allah ta'ala.


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  • Abu Sulayman
    replied
    Not that the article is mine, but the amount of ignorance of the modern-day anthropomorphists - the Jews of this Umma - is really beyond limits. May Allah ta'ala guide them back to the straight path.

    Only in their heretic minds "bi A'yunina" in the Aya 54:14 could only mean literal eyes.
    Which Qurayshi Arab who heard this Aya thought that this Aya means literal eyes? Well, not a single one of them.

    As for the meaning that is understood in the language of the Arabs and that which the masters of Tafsir stated, then they mentioned observation, command, protection and what is similar to it.

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  • AbuNajm
    replied
    You know you're in for a horribly translated and biased article when the author translates the word أعيننا as "Our observation".

    Originally posted by aMuslimForLife View Post
    “Sailing under Our observation” (Qur’ān, 54:14)
    If authors and essayists are going to pretend to be impartial, then why start out an article doing exactly what the scholar in the spotlight condemned.

    The Arabic word "A'yuninaa" has no other meaning except "Our Eyes" as the word "A'yun" is the plural of "Ayn" or "Eye".

    This distortion literally happens in the very first quote translated by the author of the essay about Tafweed and Ibn Qudamah, rahimahu Llahu.

    I wouldn't recommend for anyone to place any weight in the rest of the translated quotes.

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  • aMuslimForLife
    replied

    Imām ibn Qudāmah The Mufawwiḍ

    By Usāmah Muttakīn



    In the name of Allāh, The Most Beneficent, The Most Merciful.

    Introduction

    Several quotes from the Imām, Muwaffaq al-Dīn ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdisī al-Ḥanbalī (referred to as Imām ibn Qudāmah henceforth), have been shared for some time, surrounding which there has been some dispute and claims of ambiguity. Two parties have proliferated these statements, each claiming the weight of which, to their own coffers. These two parties comprise of those who, in regards to the attributes of Allāh Ta’ālā, ascribe the way of Tafwīḍ al-Ma’nā (i.e., to consign their meanings to Allāh) to the Salaf, and those who ascribe Ithbāt al-Ma’nā alā’ l-Dhāhir (i.e., affirming the outward meaning) to the Salaf.

    In this short write up, I will attempt to bring some quotes from the Imām which I have not witnessed being circulated among the people with the same virulence as others. In doing so I will demonstrate that the position of the Imām in regards to the attributes of Allāh, is infact keeping with the first party i.e., those who ascribe Tafwīḍ al-Ma’nā to the Salaf and thus proving that Imām ibn Qudāmah was a Mufawwiḍ [one who consigns the meanings of the Attributes to Allāh].

    The Most Commonly Shared Quotes

    I will begin by presenting some of the most common or often labored quotes of the Imām. This will bring the blessed reader’s attention to what the Imām has actually said, as well as where the disputes may occur. Following this, I will present further statements from the Imām, that not only have been missed but also categorically delineate which party he would belong to.

    Quote 1:

    والصحيح: أن المتشابه: ما ورد في صفات الله -سبحانه- مما يجب الإيمان به، ويحرم التعرض لتأويله، كقوله تعالى: {الرحمن على العرش استوى} {بل يداه مبسوطتان} {لما خلقت بيدي} {ويبقى وجه ربك} {تجري بأعيننا} ونحوه. فهذا اتفق السلف -رحمهم الله- على الإقرار به، وإمراره على وجهه، وترك تأويله؛ فإن الله -سبحانه- ذم المتبعين لتأويله وقرنهم -في الذم- بالذين يبتغون الفتنة وسماهم أهل زيغ

    [روضة الناظر وجنة المناظر، ج ١ ص ٢٧]

    “And the correct opinion is that the ambiguous [verses] revealed regarding the attributes of Allāh, Glory be to He, are those which it is compulsory to have faith in and impermissible [to occupy oneself] in seeking its interpretation; for example, the statement of Allah, the Exalted, “The Most Merciful above the Throne is established” (Qur’ān, 20:5), “Rather, both His Hands are extended” (Qur’ān, 5:64), “…which I created with my Hands…” (Qur’ān, 38:75), “And there will remain the Face of your Lord” (Qur’ān, 55:27), “Sailing under Our observation” (Qur’ān, 54:14) and similar to them. So, the Salaf (pious predecessors), may Allāh have mercy upon them, have agreed upon their affirmation [ie. belief in them], passing them as they have come and leaving of interpretating them. For indeed Allāh, Glory be to He, has rebuked those who seek their interpretation and included them, in reprimanding, with those who seek strife and He has labelled them the people of aberration.” [Rawḍat al-Nāẓir wa Jannat al-Manāẓir, 1/27]

    Quote 2:

    ومذهب السلف رحمة الله عليهم الإيمان بصفات الله تعالى وأسمائه التي وصف بها نفسه في آياته وتنزيله أو على لسان رسوله من غير زيادة عليها ولا نقص منها ولا تجاوز لها ولا تفسير ولا تأويل لها بما يخالف ظاهرها ولا تشبيه بصفات المخلوقين ولا سمات المحدثين بل أمروها كما جاءت وردوا علمها إلى قائلها ومعناها إلى المتكلم بها

    “The Madhab of the Salaf, Allāh’s Mercy be upon them, is to have firm belief (Īmān) in the Attributes of Allāh, The Most High, and His Names with which He described Himself in the Qur’ān and His revelation, or upon the tongue of His Prophet, without any additions, any removal from it, not exceeding the bounds of it, without any explanation or interpretation that opposes its apparent, nor making any resemblance with the attributes of the creation or the qualities of contingencies; rather, they passed them on (narrated them) as they came and consigned the knowledge of them to its speaker (Allāh) and the meaning of them to the One that spoke them.”

    وقال بعضهم ويروى ذلك عن الشافعي رحمة الله عليه آمنت بما جاء عن الله على مراد الله وبما جاء عن رسول الله على مراد رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم

    “And some said it was related from Imām al-Shafi’ī: ‘I believe in what has been transmitted regarding Allāh according to the intent of Allāh, and what has come from the Messenger (Rasūl) of Allāh according to the intent of Rasūl Allāh (peace be upon him).'”

    وعلموا أن المتكلم بها صادق لا شك في صدقه فصدقوه ولم يعلموا حقيقة معناها فسكتوا عما لم يعلموه وأخذ ذلك الآخر والأول ووصى بعضهم بعضا بحسن الإتباع والوقوف حيث وقف أولهم وحذروا من التجاوز لهم والعدول عن طريقهم وبينوا لهم سبيلهم ومذهبهم ونرجوا أن يجعلنا الله تعالى ممن اقتدى بهم في بيان ما بينوه وسلوك الطريق الذي سلكوه

    [ذم التأويل ج ١ ص ١١]

    “And they (the Salaf) knew that the One who spoke them (Allāh) was truthful without doubt, so they believed Him. And they did not know the reality of their meanings [i.e. the Attributes], so they were silent about what they did not know. The later and the earlier ones adhered to this. Thus, they strongly advised one another of good obedience and stopping where their formers stopped. And they warned from exceeding their bounds and diverging from their [i.e. the Salaf’s] path. Furthermore, they elucidated their methodology and doctrinal positions. We hope to Allāh that He makes us from the ones who followed them in explaining what they explained and following the path that they traverse.” [Dhamm al-Ta’wīl, 1/11]

    Quote 3:


    قال الإمام أبو عبد الله أحمد بن محمد بن حنبل رضي الله عنه في قول النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم: «إن الله ينزل إلى سماء الدنيا» ، أو «إن الله يرى في القيامة» ، وما أشبه هذه الأحاديث نؤمن بها، ونصدق بها بلا كيف، ولا معنى، ولا نرد شيئا منها، ونعلم أن ما جاء به الرسول حق، ولا نرد على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، ولا نصف الله بأكثر مما وصف به نفسه بلا حد ولا غاية {ليس كمثله شيء وهو السميع البصير}

    [لمعة الإعتقاد ج ١ ص ٦-٧]

    “The Imām Abū Abd’ Allāh Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Ḥanbal, may Allāh be pleased with him, said regarding the statements of the Prophet ﷺ: ‘Indeed Allāh descends to the sky of the world’ or, ‘Indeed Allāh will be seen on the Day of Judgement’, and those Ahādīth of this nature, that we believe in them, we affirm them without a modality or meaning. We do not avert anything from them, and we know that what has come from the Prophet is true, we do not confute upon the messenger of Allāh ﷺ and we have not described Allāh with more than what He has described unto Himself, without a limit and without a boundary. ‘There is nothing like unto Him and He is the All-Hearing, All-Seeing.’(Qur’ān, 42:11)” [Lum’at al-I’tiqād, 1/6-7]

    The Further Explanatory Statements

    From the above statements of the Imām, it has been argued that he intended by his words: “take them as they have come” or “pass them on their Dhāhir,” that they should be taken upon the apparent meaning. This however, will be disproven by turning our attention to his other statements which will now be brought to the noble reader’s attention.

    The Imām says:

    وما أشكل من ذلك وجب إثباته لفظا، وترك التعرض لمعناه ونرد علمه إلى قائله

    [لمعة الإعتقاد ج ١ ص ٦]

    “And whatever is ambiguous from these [verses referring to the Sifāt of Allāh], it is compulsory to affirm its words, to leave the seeking of its meaning and consign its knowledge to the One [Allāh] who said it.” [Lum’at al-I’tiqād, 1/6]

    Here the Imām has very clearly stated that the affirmation of these Attributes of Allāh are upon their words and their meanings are consigned, which gives validity to the fact that wherever he says Dhāhir, his intent is the apparent words and not the apparent meaning.

    He says elsewhere:

    لو كان تأويل ذلك واجبا لبينه النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لأمته فإنه لا يجوز تأخير البيان عن وقته ولأنه لو وجب علينا التأويل لوجب عليه صلى الله عليه وسلم فإنه صلى الله عليه وسلم مساو لنا في الأحكام ولو وجب عليه لما أخل به ولأنه صلى الله عليه وسلم حريص على أمته لم يكتم عنهم شيئا أمره الله به وقد قال الله تعالى {يا أيها الرسول بلغ ما أنزل إليك من ربك وإن لم تفعل فما بلغت رسالته}

    [تحريم النظر في كتب الكلام، ص ٥٠]

    “If there was an explanation for it (i.e. the texts of the Attributes), it would have been compulsory for the Prophet ﷺ to explain it to his Ummah for indeed, it is not permitted to delay an explanation from its time; and also because if it was compulsory for us to know it’s explanation, then it surely would have been compulsory for the Prophet ﷺ; for verily he is an equivalent for us in the rulings. If it was compulsory upon him, he would not have left any deficiency in it [to withhold the explanation] and because he ﷺ is desirous [of goodness] for his Ummah, he would not conceal from them anything that Allāh had ordered him with. Indeed, Allāh has said: ‘O Messenger, announce that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, and if you do not, then you have not conveyed His message…’ (Qur’ān, 5:67).”

    What Imām ibn Qudāmah is saying in essence is that since there is no explanation or direct meaning of the Sifāt from Rasulullah ﷺ, and had there been a meaning known to him, he surely would have informed us of it and since he didn’t, then there’s no need for us to know the meaning either. This is further explained in the next statement:

    لا حاجة لنا إلى علم معنى ما أراد الله تعالى من صفاته جل وعز فإنه لا يراد منها عمل ولا يتعلق بها تكليف سوى الإيمان بها ويمكن الإيمان بها من غير علم معناها فإن الإيمان بالجهل صحيح فإن الله تعالى أمر بالإيمان بملائكته وكتبه ورسله وما أنزل إليهم وإن كنا لا نعرف من ذلك إلا التسمية

    [تحريم النظر في كتب الكلام، ص ٥١]

    “There is no need for us to know the meanings of what Allāh Ta’ālā intended from His Attributes Jalla wa ‘Azza, for indeed, He has not intended any action by them and neither has He attached any responsibility regarding them besides believing in them. It is possible to believe in them without knowledge of their meanings and therefore, indeed faith with ignorance [of the meanings] is correct. Verily, Allah has ordered us to have faith in His angels, His books, His messengers and what He had revealed unto them even if we do not know of them except their names.” [Tahrīm al-Naẓr fī Kutub al-Kalām, pg. 51]

    In the aforementioned quote, he is clearly saying there’s no need for us to know the meanings intended by Allāh in regards to His attributes as belief in them without meaning is possible just as in other matters. Therefore, it categorically cannot be argued that the Imām meant taking the Attributes on their outward meanings since he dismisses the need for a meaning outright.

    وهي الإيمان بالألفاظ والآيات والأخبار بالمعنى الذي أراده الله تعالى والسكوت عما لا نعلمه من معناها وترك البحث عما لم يكلفنا الله البحث عنه من تأويلها ولم يطلعنا على علمه واتباع طريق الراسخين الذين أثنى الله عليهم في كتابه المبين حين قالوا {آمنا به كل من عند ربنا}
    [تحريم النظر في كتب الكلام، ص ٥١]

    While explaining the way of the Salaf, he says:

    “It is to have faith in the words, the verses and reports with the meaning that Allāh Ta’ālā has intended (i.e., to say something similar to what has been reported by Imām Shafi’i which has been mentioned above), silence upon what we do not know regarding its meanings, to leave searching for what Allāh has not burdened us with and searching for their explanations as well as what He has not informed us from His Knowledge and to follow the path of those who are steadfast (al-Rāsikhīn) whom Allāh has commended in His clear Book wherein they say: “We believe in all that has come from our Lord.” (Qur’ān, 3:7) [Tahrīm al-Naẓr fī Kutub al-Kalām, pg. 51]

    Here the Imām clearly espouses the view of Tafwīḍ al-Ma’nā, stating that the Salaf did not know the meanings of the Attributes, nor did they seek them and thus simply remained silent about them. As for those who object to this, then the Imām has responded to them further along:

    وإن عاب السكوت عن التفسير أخطأ فإننا لا نعلم لها تفسيرا ومن لم يعلم شيئا وجب عليه السكوت عنه وحرم عليه الكلام فيه قال الله تعالى {ولا تقف ما ليس لك به علم}
    وذكر الله تعالى في المحرمات {وأن تقولوا على الله ما لا تعلمون}… وأيضا فإن عائب هذه المقالة عائب على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم فإنه كان يؤمن بالله وكلماته ولم يفسر شيئا من ذلك ولا بين معناه
    [تحريم النظر في كتب الكلام، ص ٥٤]

    “And if one finds fault in silence regarding the explanation, he is erroneous; for indeed, we do not know an explanation for them and the one who does not know anything, it is necessary upon him to remain silent regarding it and it is impermissible for him to speak on it. Allāh Ta’ālā has said: ‘And do not pursue that of which you have no knowledge…’ (Qur’ān, 17:36) and Allāh Ta’ālā has mentioned from among the impermissible things: ‘… and to say about Allāh what you do not know.’ (Qur’ān, 2:169)… and also, if one faults this position, then one faults the Prophet ﷺ; for, indeed, he believed in Allāh and His Words and did not explain anything from them [the ambiguous Attributes] and he did not explain their meanings.” [Tahrīm al-Naẓr fī Kutub al-Kalām, pg. 54]

    Admission of the Figureheads from the Opposing View

    After presenting the above statements of Imām ibn Qudāmah, the fact of him being a Mufawwiḍ has been explicitly elucidated. If however, any mind is still in doubt then they may see below how some of the figureheads of the proponents of Ithbāt al-Ma’nā ala’l Dhāhir have conceded that Imām ibn Qudāmah was a Mufawwiḍ.

    Shaykh Muhammad ibn Sālih al-‘Uthaymīn states in his explanation of the statement in Lum’at al-I’tiqād (first quote in further explanatory quotes mentioned above):

    أما ما ذكره في “اللمعة” فإنه ينطبق على مذهب المفوضة، وهو من شر المذاهب وأخبثها، والمصنف -رحمه الله- إمام في السنة، وهو أبعد الناس عن مذهب المفوضة وغيرهم من المبتدعة، والله أعلم

    [تعليق مختصر على لمعة الإعتقاد للعثيمين ج ١ ص ٣١]

    “As for what he mentioned in ‘al-Lum’ah‘, then indeed, he was an adherent upon the methodology of the Mufawwiḍah, it is from the worst of methodologies and the filthiest of them. The author, may Allāh have mercy on him, is an Imām in the Sunnah and he is the furthest of the people from the methodology of the Mufawwiḍah and others beside them from the innovators. And Allāh knows best.” [Ta’liq Mukhtasar ‘alā Kitāb Lum’at al-I’tiqād al-Hādī ilā Sabīl al-Rashād, 1/31]

    Although Shaykh Muhammad ibn Sālih al-‘Uthaymīn admits that this is what Imām ibn Qudāmah adhered to, he also attempts to repel the position from him since he considers him an Imām of what he considers to be the Sunnah, the reason for this is explained by another proponent of the view opposing Tafwīḍ al-Ma’nā:

    Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzāq ‘Afīfī said:

    مذهب السلف هو التفويض في كيفية الصفات لا في المعنى، وقد غلط ابن قدامة في لمعة الاعتقاد، وقال: بالتفويض ولكن الحنابلة يتعصبون للحنابلة، ولذلك يتعصب بعض المشايخ في الدفاع عن ابن قدامة، ولكن الصحيح أن ابن قدامة مفوض

    [فتاوى ورسائل سماحة الشيخ عبد الرزاق عفيفي]

    “The methodology of the Salaf was consignment regarding the modality (kayfiyyah), not in the meaning (ma’nā), and indeed ibn Qudāmah erred in Lum’at al-I’tiqād as he said with Tafwīḍ; but the Ḥanābila are partisan to the Ḥanābila. Therefore, some Mashā’ikh are extreme when it comes to defending ibn Qudāmah. However, what is correct is that ibn Qudāmah was a Mufawwiḍ.” [Fatāwa wa Rasā’il Samāhat al-Shaykh ‘Abd al-Razzāq ‘Afīfī]

    Finally, here is the verdict of the late Shaykh Nāsir al-Dīn al-Albānī from the footnotes of a book attributed to him entitled “Fundamentals of the Salafee Methodology: An Islamic Manual for Reform“. The scan below was provided by our respected Shaykh, Dr. Abul Hasan Hussain Ahmed (hafidhahullāh):
    Click image for larger version

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  • Ahlul Athar
    replied
    The Hanbali School's Aqeedah on Allah's Attributes


    https://islamicdiscourse.substack.co...edah-on-allahs

    Leave a comment:


  • aMuslimForLife
    replied
    THE THEOLOGY OF THE FIRST THREE GENERATIONS HAS NO EQUAL PT.2: 41 IMAMS OVER 13 CENTURIES HAVE THEIR SAY
    by Abu Jafar al Hanbali




    [أئمة الحنابلة يفوضون الصفات السمعية ويعدونها من الصفات المتشابهة]

    The Imams of the Hanbalis make tafwid of the Attributes and consider them to belong to the Mutashabihat [1]

    قال الإمام أحمد بن حنبل (ت241هـ) :

    The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal (d.241), may Allah be pleased with him, had the following mentioned of him:

    )وأخبرني علي بن عيسى أن حنبلا حدثهم قال سألت أبا عبد الله عن الأحاديث التي تروى إن الله تبارك وتعالى ينزل كل ليلة إلى السمآء الدنيا وأن الله يرى وإن الله يضع قدمه وما أشبهه فقال أبو عبد الله نؤمن بها ونصدق بها ولا كيف ولا معنى ولا نرد منها شيئا ونعلم أن ما جاء به الرسول حق إذا كانت بأسانيد صحاح ولا نرد على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قوله ولا يوصف الله تعالى بأكثر مما وصف به نفسه أو وصفه به رسوله بلا حد ولا غاية {ليس كمثله شيء وهو السميع البصير} ولا يبلغ الواصفون صفته وصفاته منه ولا نتعدى القرآن والحديث فنقول كما قال ونصفه كما وصف نفسه ولا نتعدى ذلك نؤمن بالقرآن كله محكمه ومتشابهه ولا نزيل عنه صفة من صفاته لشناعة شنعت(

    It was narrated to me by `Ali ibn `Isa that Hanbal ibn Ishaq narrated to them and said: I asked Abu `Abdillah [Ahmad ibn Hanbal] about the ahadith in which it is mentioned that Allah, Blessed and Exalted, descends to the lowest sky, that Allah shall be seen, that Allah shall place His Foot and similar statements. He responded by saying, “We believe in it, attest to it, without how and without meaning. We do not deny any of it; but we know that what the Messenger came with is true and we do not reject the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him.”

    قال الإمام البربهاري (ت328هـ):

    Imam Abu Muhammad Al-Barbahari (d.329), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:

    (وكل ما سمعت من الآثار شيئا مما لم يبلغه عقلك، نحو قول رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم:

    And all of what is you have heard from the narratives – which your intellect can not fathom – such as the statement of the Messenger of Allah,

    «إِنَّ قُلُوبَ بَنِي آدَمَ كُلَّهَا بَيْنَ إِصْبُعَيْنِ مَنِ أَصَابِعِ الرَّحْمَنِ»

    “The hearts of the Children of Adam are all between the Two Fingers of the Most Merciful”,[2] as well as his statement,

    وقوله: «إن الله تبارك وتعالى ينزل إلى سماء الدنيا» … وأشباه هذه الأحاديث

    “Allah, Blessed and Exalted, descends to the lowest sky” and similar things such as these ahadith, then in this case:

    فعليك بالتسليم والتصديق والتفويض والرضى ولا تفسر شيئا من هذه بهواك فان الإيمان بها واجب فمن فسر شيئا من هذا بهواه او رده فهو جهمي(شرح السنة للبربهاري ص68

    You must have submission, attestation, tafwid and pleasure in and not explain any of these things with your desire as indeed it is wajib to have Iman in it. So whoever explained something of it with his desire or he denied some portion of it, then he is from the Jahmiyyah.[3]

    قال أبو بكر الآجري (ت360 ه):

    [Imam Abu Bakr Al-Ajurri (d.360), may Allah have mercy upon him, stated the following:]

    اعلموا وفقنا الله وإياكم للرشاد من القول والعمل أن أهل الحق يصفون الله عز وجل بما وصف به نفسه عز وجل وبما وصفه به رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم وبما وصفه به الصحابة رضي الله عنهم

    You should know – may Allah give us and you success in the right and direct guidance for actions and deeds – that the People of Truth describe Allah, Mighty and Majestic according to how He described Himself, Mighty and Majestic, how His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, described Him, and how the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, described Him.

    وهذا مذهب العلماء ممن اتبع ولم يبتدع ولا يقال فيه: كيف بل التسليم له والإيمان به

    And this is the way of the scholars who imitated and did not innovate. One is not to say how about the matter. Rather one is to show complete submission to it and have Iman in it.[4]

    قال أبو بكر أحمد بن إبراهيم الإسماعيلي (ت371 ه)

    [Imam Abu Bakr Ahmad ibn Ibrahim Al-Isma`ili (d.371), may Allah have mercy upon him, declared:]

    وذلك ومن غير إعتقاد التجسيم في الله عز وجل ولا التحديد له ولكن يرونه جل وعز بأغينهم على ما يشاء بلا كيف.

    And all of that of the Attributes is true. And that is without having a creed of likening Allah, Mighty and Majestic, giving limit, boundary or definition to Him; but the believers shall certainly see Him, Majestic and Mighty is He, with their eyes according to what He so wills without how.[5]

    قال ابن بطة العكبري (ت380هـ) :

    Imam Ibn Battah Al-`Ukbari (d.380), may Allah have mercy upon him, said:

    )فكل هذه الأحاديث وما شاكلها تمر كما جاءت لا تعارض ولا تضرب لها الأمثال ولا يواضع فيها القول فقد رواها العلماء وتلقاها الأكابر منهم بالقبول لها وتركوا المسألة عن تفسيرها ورأوا أن العلم بها ترك الكلام في معانيها (الشرح والابانة(الابانة الصغرى) ش مكتبة الحجاز ص187

    And all of these ahadith and similar to them we let them pass just as they came without argument with them, giving likeness to them, seeking to find fault in them with some word. As the scholars narrated them and the seniormost of them met these ahadith with acceptance, abandoned asking about its meaning and believed that knowledge of these is in abandoning discussing their meaning.[6]

    الإمام ابو الفضل التميمي (ت410هـ) :

    Imam Abul Fadl At-Tamimi (d.410), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked:

    )وسئل (أي الإمام أحمد) قبل موته بيوم عن أحاديث الصفات , فقال: تمر كما جاءت , ويؤمن بها إذا كانت بأسانيد صحاح , ولا يوصف الله بأكثر مما وصف به نفسه.. بلا حد ولا غاية ,

    The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, was asked one day before his death about the Ahadith us-Sifat and he said, “We let them pass by just as they came, we believe in them when the transmissions are sahih, Allah is not described with more than what he described Himself with, without boundary and without limit.

    لَيْسَ كَمِثْلِهِ شَيْءٌ وَهْوَ السَّمِيعُ الْبَصِيرُ

    There is none like Him while He is the All Hearing, the All Seeing.[7]

    ومن تكلم في معناها ابتدع( عقيدة الإمام المبجل أحمد ص9

    And whoever should speak about their meaning has committed innovation”.[8]

    قال أبو علي الحسن بن أحمد بن عبد الله بن البناء

    [Imam Abu `Ali Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad ibn `Abdullah ibn Al-Banna’ (d.411), may Allah have mercy upon him, uttered the following:]

    وهذه الصفة مع غيرها من الصفات الناطق بها الأخبار والآيات يجب الإيمان بهها والتصديق والقبول والتحقيق وإذا سئلت عن تفسيرها وتأويلها فقل لا علم لي بذلك ولا سمعت أحدًا من الأئمة فسرها بل أمّرها كما سمعها

    So this Attribute, with all the other Attributes mentioned in the narratives and the ayat, are compulsory to have Iman in, testify to the truth of it, accept it and diligently adhere to it. And when you are asked about its interpretation or meaning, then say, ‘I have no knowledge of that, nor did I hear any of the Imams explain it. Rather the Imams passed them by just as they heard them’.[9]

    [Imam `Abdul Wahid Al-Maqdisi (d.486), may Allah have mercy upon him, declared of the creed:][10]

    وَرَوَيْنَا عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَحْمَدَ بْنِ حَنْبَلٍ قَالَ : كُنْتُ أَنَا وَأَبِي عَابِرَيْنِ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ، فَسَمِعَ قَاصًّا يَقُصُّ بِحَدِيثِ النُّزُولِ فَقَالَ :

    There is benefit in our mentioning something from `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Hanbal[11] who said, “My father and I were staying in the masjid when we overhead someone relating the hadith of descent. When the person narrated it, he said,

    إِذَا كَانَ لَيْلَةُ النِّصْفِ مِنْ شَعْبَانَ يَنْزِلُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَى سَمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا

    ‘When the fifteenth night of Sha`ban has come, Allah, Mighty and Majestic, descends to the lowest sky’.

    بِلَا زَوَالٍ وَلَا انْتِقَالٍ، وَلَا تَغَيُّرِ حَالٍ،

    The one narrator of the hadith then added, ‘Without rising or changing state, location or affair.’

    فَارْتَعَدَ أَبِي – رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ – وَاصْفَرَّ لَوْنُهُ، وَلَزِمَ يَدِي، وَأَمْسَكْتُهُ حَتَّى سَكَنَ، ثُمَّ قَالَ : قِفْ بِنَا عَلَى هَذَا المتخوِّضِ،

    “My father turned his face away in anger and disgust. His complexion became pale and he took hold of my hand and held it until he became calm. Then he said, ‘How can someone say this when speaking of Allah?’

    فَلَمَّا حَاذَاهُ قَالَ : يَا هَذَا، رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَغْيَرُ عَلَى رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مِنْكَ،

    When he came forward, he said, ‘The Messenger of Allah had more jealousy and honour for His Lord, Mighty and Majestic, than you.

    قُلْ كَمَا قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَانْصَرِفْ.

    ‘You should limit yourself to stating the matter just as the Messenger of Allah had done and leave it as such.’ My father went away from him shortly after”.

    قَالَ حَنْبَلُ : قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ – يَعْنِي أَحْمَدَ بْنَ حَنْبَلٍ – : يَنْزِلُ اللَّهُ إِلَى سَمَاءِ الدُّنْيَا، قُلْتُ : نُزُولُـهُ بِعِلْمِهِ أَوْ بِمَاذَا؟

    Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal’s first cousin, Hanbal ibn Ishaq[12] said, “I mentioned the hadith, ‘Allah descends to the lowest heaven,’ to Abu `Abdullah-meaning Ahmad ibn Hanbal-then I said, ‘His Descent is with His Knowledge or what exactly?’

    فَقَالَ لِي : اسْكُتْ عَنْ هَذَا، مَا لَكَ وَلِهَذَا، أَمْضِ الْحَدِيثَ عَلَى مَا رُوِيَ بِلَا كَيْفَ وَلَا حَدٍّ، عَلَى مَا جَاءَتْ بِهِ الْآثَارُ، وَبِمَا جَاءَ بِهِ الْكِتَابُ.

    He replied, ‘Be silent about this matter. What is the matter with you? Leave the hadith how it has been narrated, without how, nor limit. Hold firm to what has come in the laid-out narrations and the Book’. ”[13]

    وَقَالَ الْإِمَامُ إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ رَاهَوَيْهِ : قَالَ لِي الْأَمِيرُ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ طَاهِرٍ: يَا أَبَا يَعْقُوبَ، هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ الَّذِي تَرْوِيهِ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

    The Grand Imam, Abu Ya`qub Ishaq ibn Rahuwaih[14] said that the amir `Abdullah ibn Tahir[15] once asked him, “Abu Ya`qub, what does the ‘descend’ mean in this hadith which you have related from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, in which he said,

    يَنْزِلُ رَبُّنَا عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كُلَّ لَيْلَةٍ إِلَى سَمَاءٍ الدُّنْيَا

    ‘Our Lord descends every night to the lowest heaven’.

    كَيْفَ يَنْزِلُ؟ قَالَ : قُلْتُ : أَعَزَّ اللَّهُ الْأَمِيرَ،

    “So how does He descend?” Imam Abu Ya`qub responded, “May Allah strengthen the amir.

    لَا يُقَالُ لِأَمْرِ الرَّبِّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ كَيْفَ، إِنَّمَا يَنْزِلُ بِلَا كَيْفَ

    “When speaking of the Lord, Mighty and Majestic, ‘how’ does not enter into the conversation. He indeed descends without how.

    وَمَنْ قَالَ يَخْلُو الْعَرْشُ عِنْدَ النُّزُولِ أَوْ لَا يَخْلُو فَقَدْ أَتَى بِقَوْلٍ مُبْتَدَعٍ وَرَأْيٍ مُخْتَرَعٍ.

    “If anyone should speak of the Throne as vacant or not vacant during the descent, this is the statement of the innovator and astray one going near to apostasy”.[16]

    أبو الخطاب الكلوذاني (ت510هـ) :

    Imam Abul Khattab Al-Kalwadhani (d.510), may Allah have mercy upon him, stated:

    قَالوا: فما معنى استواءه أَبِن لَنَا ؟ فَأجَبْتُهم: هَذا سُؤَال المُعْتَدِي منظومة الكلوذاني

    “They say, ‘So what is the meaning of His Istiwa’? Clarify it to us?’ I answer them by saying: This is the question of the innovator that has transgressed the bounds”. [17]

    قال الإمام ابن الحنبلي (ت536هـ) :

    [Imam Ibn Al-Hanbali (d.536), may Allah have mercy upon him, elucidated the following:]

    (وكذلك الإيمان واجب بمجمل الاحاديث التي رويت عن رسول الله واقرارها كما جاءت بلا كيف مثل حديث الاسراء حيث قال رَأَيْتُ رَبِّي فِي أَحْسَنِ صُورَةٍ

    And likewise the Iman is wajib in the generality of the ahadith which were narrated from the Messenger of Allah, affirming them just as they came without how, such as the hadith of the Night Journey when he said, “I saw my Lord in the best form”.[18]

    و«إِنَّ قُلُوبَ بَنِي آدَمَ كُلَّهَا بَيْنَ إِصْبُعَيْنِ مَنِ أَصَابِعِ الرَّحْمَنِ يُقَلِّبُهَا كَيْفَ يَشَاءُ»… وما أشبه هذه الاحاديث الصحاح كلها بغيرها كما جاءت بلا كيف لانها جاءت مقفلة ومفاتيحها مع رسول الله وروي عن امير المومنين علي بن ابي طالب أنه قال

    Another example includes, “The hearts of the Children of Adam are all between the Two Fingers of the Most Merciful. He turns them how He so wills”.[19] This and what is like it of all the authentic ahadith is left just as they are without how as they have come sealed just as they are and their keys are with the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him. It was narrated from the Leader of the Believers, `Ali ibn Abi Talib who said,

    (نهانا الله تعالى ذكره عن تفسير متشابه القران وعن تفسير بعض الاحاديث المروية عن رسول الله التي سبيلها كسبيل متشابه القران وامرنا بالايمان بُجملتها والامساك عن تفسيرها) الرسالة الواضحة في الرد على الاشاعرة 607

    Allah, Exalted is His Mention, has forbade us from explaining the mutashabih of the Qur’an, explaining some of the ahadith narrated from the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, in which their pathway is like that of the mutashabih. We have been commanded to have Iman in them in general and be silent about their meaning. [20]

    [Imam `Abdul Qadir Al-Jilani (d.561), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave the following remarks:]

    كما قال سفيان بن عيينة رحمه الله كما وصف الله تعالى نفسه في كتابه فتفسيره قراءته لا تفسير له غيرها ولا نتكلف غير ذلك فإنه غيب لا مجال للعقل في إدراكه

    And the discussion about the Attributes is just as Imam Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, may Allah have mercy upon him, said, “It is just as Allah, Exalted be He, described Himself in His Book. So its commentary is its recitation and there is no commentary for it besides that”. So we are not responsible for anything besides that as the matter belongs to the unseen and there is no way for the intellect to reach that.[21]

    قال الإمام ابن هبيرة (ت580هـ) ،

    The Imam, Ibn Hubairah (d.580), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:

    (تفكرت في أخبار الصفات، فرأيت الصحابة والتابعين سكتوا عن تفسيرها، مع قوة علمهم، فنظرت السبب في سكوتهم، فإذا هو قوة الهيبة للموصوف، ولأن تفسيرها لا يتأتى إلا بضرب الأمثال للّه، وقد قال عز وجل: “)

    I reflected about the topic of the Akhbar of As-Sifat and I noticed that the Companions and Followers were silent about their meaning, even with the strength of their knowledge. So I looked at the cause of their silence and it was one of reverential fear of the One being described. And to give meaning to these and explain them does not come except by making likenesses to Allah. And He, Mighty and Majestic, has already said,

    فَلَا تَضْرِبُوا لِلَّهِ الْأَمْثَالَ ۚ

    And do not make likenesses for Allah.[22]

    وقال) : لا يفسر على الحقيقة ولا على المجاز لأن حملها على الحقيقة تشبيه، وعلى المجاز بدعة (ذيل طبقات الحنابلة ح2 ص156

    He also said in another place, “They are not explained as being upon the reality that we know nor metaphorical as saying they are the reality that we know is likening Him while saying they are metaphorical is indeed innovation”.[23]

    قال الإمام ابن الجوزي في كلامه عن الصفات(ت597هـ) :

    The Imam, Ibn Al-Jawzi (d.597) in his discussion about the Attributes said:

    وانما الصواب قراءة الايات والاحاديث من غير تفسير ولا كلام تلبيس ابليس ص79

    “The correct position is that reciting the Ayat and Ahadith on the topic is without commentary or discussion”.[24]

    قال تقي الدين عبد الغني بن عبد الواحد المقدسي (ت600 ه)

    [Imam Taqi ud-Din `Abdul Ghani ibn `Abdul Wahid Al-Maqdisi (d.600), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked:]

    فيجب الإيمان به، والتسليم له، وترك الإعتراض عليه، وإمراره من غير تكييف ولا تمثيل، ولا تأويل، ولا تنزيهه ينفي حقيقة النزول

    So it is compulsory to have Iman in it, show submission to it, abandon seeking to reject it, passing it by without any how, likeness, interpretation or seeking to glorify Him by negating the existence of things such as the descent done by Him.[25]

    قال شيخ الحنابلة الموفق ابن قدامة المقدسي (ت620هـ) :

    The Shaikh of the Hanbalis, Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah Al-Maqdisi (d.620), may Allah be pleased with him, remarked:

    )وكل ما جاء في القرآن أو صح عن المصطفى عليه السلام من صفات الرحمن وجب الإيمان به، وتلقيه بالتسليم والقبول، وترك التعرض له بالرد والتأويل والتشبيه والتمثيل. وما أشكل من ذلك وجب إثباته لفظا وترك التعرض لمعناه ونرد علمه إلى قائله( {لمعة الاعتقاد ص6}

    And all of what came in the Qur’an or is authentically narrated from the Chosen One, peace be upon him, is from the Attributes of the Merciful. It is compulsory to have Iman in it, meet it with submission and acceptance, leaving seeking to refute it, interpret it, liken it or give it semblance. And whatever is ambiguous of that, it is compulsory to establish and affirm the wording and leave seeking the meaning while returning the meaning of it to the One who said it.[26]

    وقال :

    The Imam also remarked:

    ( ومذهب السلف رحمة الله عليهم الإيمان بصفات الله تعالى وأسمائه التي وصف بها نفسه في آياته وتنزيله أو على لسان رسوله من غير زيادة عليها ولا نقص منها ولا تجاوز لها ولا تفسير ولا تأويل لها بما يخالف ظاهرها ولا تشبيه بصفات المخلوقين ولا سمات المحدثين بل أمروها كما جاءت وردوا علمها إلى قائلها ومعناها إلى المتكلم بها) {ذم التاويل ص11}

    And the way of the First Three Generations, may Allah have mercy upon them, is to have Iman in the Attributes and Names of Allah, Exalted be He, which He has described Himself with in His Ayat or the Revelation in total or on the tongue of His Messenger without addition or subtraction from it. And one does not transgress them, give meaning to them or interpretation that opposes the text, likening them with the attributes of the creation or qualities of ephemeral things; on the contrary, one is to let them pass just as they came, return the knowledge of it to the One that said it and return the meaning of it to the One who spoke it.[27]

    وقال

    He said on another occasion:

    ( فمنهم من أمرها كما جاءت من غير تفسير ولا تأويل مع نفي التشبيه عنها وهو مذهب السلف) {ذم التاويل ص27}

    And among them are those who let them pass by just as they came, with neither meaning nor interpretation while negating likeness with the creation from them. And this is the way of the First Three Generations.[28]

    قال الإمام مجد الدين ابن تيمية (ت(652

    The Imam, Majd ud-Din Ibn Taymiyyah (d.652), may Allah have mercy upon him,

    ( أما الإتيان المنسوب إلى الله فلا يختلف قول أئمة السلف كمكحول والزهري. والأوزاعي وابن المبارك وسفيان الثوري والليث بن سعد ومالك بن أنس والشافعي وأحمد وأتباعهم أنه يمر كما جاء. وكذلك ما شاكل ذلك مما جاء في القرآن أو وردت به السنة كأحاديث النزول ونحوها. وهي طريقة السلامة ومنهج أهل السنة والجماعة يؤمنون بظاهرها ويكلون علمها إلى الله ويعتقدون أن الله منزه عن سمات الحدث. على ذلك مضت الأئمة خلفا بعد سلف كما قال تعالى

    As for as the expression “arrival” or “coming” being attributed to Allah, the statement of the Imams of the First Three Generations – like Mak-hul, Az-Zuhri, Al-Awza`ii, Ibn Al-Mubarak, Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Al-Laith ibn Sa`d, Malik ibn Anas, Ash-Shafi`ii, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and their followers – do not differ in that these statements are left to pass just as they came. And likewise what is ambiguous of what is in the Qur’an or narrated in the Sunnah – like in the case of the ahadith of descent and the like – the path of safety and methodology of Muslim Orthodoxy is to believe in the text, consign its meaning to Allah while having firm conviction that Allah is exalted and above semblance to the creation. And upon that have passed the very Imams of the latter-day generations that came after the First Three Generations. And this is just as the Exalted One said,

    وَمَا يَعْلَمُ تَأْوِيلَهُ إِلَّا اللَّهُ ۗ وَالرَّاسِخُونَ فِي الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِهِ

    And no one knows its meaning but Allah. And those well-grounded in knowledge say, “We believe in it”.[29]

    وقال ابن السائب في قوله

    As-Sa’ib heard the ayah recited,

    هَلْ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي ظُلَلٍ مِّنَ الْغَمَامِ

    Are they waiting that Allah should come to them in the clouds?[30]

    هذا من المكتوم الذي لا يفسر مجموع الفتاوى لأبن تيمية ج16 ص409

    As-Sa’ib said, “This is from the hidden knowledge which cannot be explained”.[31]

    [Imam Yahya ibn Yusuf As-Sarsari (d.656), may Allah have mercy upon him, emphatically stated:]

    أمرّ أحاديث الصفات كما أتت، على رغم غمر يعتدي ويشنع

    Passing the Ahadith of Attributes by just as they have come is the fact, without transgressing the bounds, showing hostility but leaving the texts intact.[32]

    قال الإمام عز الدين الرسعني الحنبلي (661هـ) :

    Imam `Izz ud-Din Ar-Ras`ani Al-Hanbali (d.661), may Allah be pleased with him, expounded:

    (وقاعدة مذهب امامنا في هذا الباب : اتباع السلف الصالح، فما تأولوه تأولناه وما سكتوا عنه سكتنا عنه مفوضين علمه إلى قائله منزهين الله عما لا يليق بجلاله) رموز الكنور في تفسير الكتاب العزيز ج8 ص241

    The way of our Imam on this subject is to follow the pious First Three Generations. So whatever they interpreted, then we interpret it. And what they were silent from, we are silent from, consigning its meaning to the One who said it, declaring Allah free from anything that does not befit His Majesty.[33]

    [Imam Abul Fadl `Abbas As-Saksaki (d.683), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:]

    يوصف بما وصف به نفسه ووصفه رسوله صلى الله عليه وسلم من غير تمثيل ولاتكييف على العرش استوى بلا كيف مباين لجميع خلقه ليس بممازج لهم ولا مختلط بهم

    He is described by what He described Himself and His Messenger, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, described Him without likeness or how and above the Throne without how, distinct from all His Creation. He is not mingled among them or mixed with them.[34]

    قال الإمام ابن حمدان الحنبلي (ت695هـ) :

    The Imam, Ibn Hamdan Al-Harrani (d.695), may Allah have mercy upon him, ruled:

    (ونجزم بأنه سبحانه في السماء وأنه استوي على العرش بلا كيف بل علي ما يليق به في ذلك كله ولا نتأول ذلك ولا نفسره ولا نكيفه ولا نتوهمه ولا نكذبه بل نكل علمه إلى الله) ص31 نهائية المبتدئين في اصول الدين (ش مكتبة الرشد )

    We categorically state that the Glorified One is above the sky and that He is above the Throne without how but according to His Majesty and as benefits him in that in totality. We do not interpret any of that, give meaning to it, how to it, assign considerations to it or deny it. Rather, we consign the meaning to Allah.[35]

    قال الإمام البعلي الحنبلي (ت709هـ) :

    The Imam Al-Ba`li Al-Hanbali (d.709), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked,

    (والصحيح ان المتشابه ما ورد في صفات الله مما يجب الإيمان به ويتحرم التعرض لتأويله كقوله تعالى (الرحمن على العرش استوى) (بل يداه مبسوطتان) (ويبقى وجه ربك) (تجري باعيننا) فهذا اتفق السلف على الاقرار به وامراراه على وجهه وترك تأويله … وفي الآية قرائن دالة على أن الله تعالى متفرد بعلم المتشابه وان الوقف الصحيح عند قوله (وما يعلم تاويله الا الله) لفظا ومعنى) تلخيص روضة الناظر ج1 ص123

    “The authentic statement is that the mutashabih is what has been narrated regarding the Attributes of Allah – of that which is compulsory to have Iman in and absolutely impermissible to seek its meaning – like in the statement of the Exalted One, The Most Merciful is above the Throne, But His Two Hands are outspread, His Face shall remain forever more, it floated under Our Eyes. All of this was met with agreement by the First Three Generations in which one is to affirm it, pass it by just as it came, leave seeking the meaning. And in the ayah are many points of reference that show that Allah, Exalted be He, alone has knowledge of the mutashabih and this is the reason why there is a stop mark when he says, And none knows its meaning but Allah. This refers to knowing the meaning of the words and the meaning all together”.[36]

    قال الإمام نجم الدين الطوفي (ت716هـ) في كلامه عن المتشابه :

    The Imam, Najm ud-Din At-Tufi (d.716), may Allah have mercy upon him, made his statement on the mutashabihah statements:

    ( أو لظهور تشبيه في صفات الله تعالى، كآيات الصفات وأخبارها نحو:

    The ayat of the Sifat and their narratives, like,

    وَيَبْقَى وَجْهُ رَبِّكَ

    The Face of Your Lord will remain forever. [37]

    لِمَا خَلَقْتُ بِيَدَيَّ

    The one who I created with My Two Hands[38]

    بَلْ يَدَاهُ مَبْسُوطَتَانِ

    But both His Hands are outspread.[39]

    يد الله ملأى لا تغيضها النفقة، فيضع الجبار قدمه، فيظهر لهم في الصورة التي يعرفونها، خلق الله آدم على صورة الرحمن، ونحو ذلك، مما هو كثير في الكتاب والسنة ; لأن هذا اشتبه المراد منه على الناس ;

    Then there are the narratives, “The Hand of Allah is full and is never emptied from spending”,[40] “The Most Dominant shall put His Foot”,[41] “He shall come to them in a form that they shall know”,[42] “Allah created Adam on the Form of the Most Merciful” [43] and similar matters that have been mentioned in the Book and Sunnah that have some resemblance in wording that then creates some doubt for the people.

    فلذلك قال قوم بظاهره فجسموا وشبهوا، وفر قوم من التشبيه ; فتأولوا وحرفوا ; فعطلوا،

    So it is due to that a group of people took the external form to be literal, fell into attributing a body to Him and likening Him to the creation. Then another people fled from likening Him to His Creation, so they interpreted, corrupted and fell into negation.

    وتوسط قوم فسلموا وأمروه كما جاء، مع اعتقاد التنزيه ; فسلموا، وهم أهل السنة) شرح مختصر الروضة ج2 ص44

    The middle path is those who submitted, passed the statements by just as they came while knowing that He is not in possession of any shortcomings or faults and they submit to the reports. These are Muslim Orthodoxy.[44]

    قال الإمام شمس الدين ابن مفلح (ت773هـ) :

    The Imam, Shams ud-Din Ibn Muflih (d.773), may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the Names and Attributes:

    (المحكم: ما اتضح_معناه، فلم يحتج إلى بيان. والمتشابه عكسه؛ لاشتراك أو إجمال، قال جماعة من أصحابنا وغيرهم: وما ظاهره تشبيه، كصفات الله.) أصول الفقه لأبن مفلح ج1 ص316

    The muhkam is a text in which its meaning is clear and does not require explanation or clarification for it. The mutashabih is the opposite of that as it shares similar words and general statements with other affairs. A group of our companions and others have said that taking it according to its outward form would be drawing a likeness, such as in the case of the Attributes of Allah.[45]

    قال الحسن بن أحمد المقدسي (ت773هـ) :

    Al-Hasan ibn Ahmad Al-Maqdisi (d.773), may Allah have mercy upon him, discussed the following point:

    (فيه -اي :القران- الألفاظ المحكمة وهي المفسرة والمتشابهة عكسها وهو ما ورد في صفات الله عز وجل المنهي عن تأويله ويجب رد علمه لله كقوله تعالى (الرحمن على العرش استوى) و(بل يداه مبسوطتان)) التذكرة في اصول الفقه ص160 ش مكتبة الرشد

    So in it – meaning the Qur’an – are decisive statements what are explained and clear and mutashabihah statements that are the opposite of that. The mutashabihah are what was related on the topic of the Attributes of Allah, Mighty and Majestic and are forbidden to interpret. And it is compulsory to return the meaning of those to Allah, such as his statement, The Most Merciful is above the Throne and But both His Hands are outspread.[46]

    قال الإمام ابن عادل الحنبلي (ت775هـ) :

    The Imam, Ibn `Adil Al-Hanbali (d.775), may Allah have mercy upon him, said the following:

    (وإذا ثبت هذا فنقول: إن قوله تعالى: {ثم استوى على العرش} من المتشابهات التي يجب تأويلها، وللعلماء هاهنا مذهبان.

    When the affair is established, then we say that the statement of the Exalted One, He is above the Throne is from the mutashabihat which is compulsory to interpret while the scholars have two ways of discussion on the matter.

    الأول: أن يقطع بكونه تعالى متعاليا عن المكان والجهة، ولا نخوض في تأويل الآية على التفصيل، بل نفوض علمها إلى الله – تعالى – ونقول: الاستواء على العرش صفة لله – تعالى – بلا كيف يجب على الرجل الإيمان به، ونكل العلم فيه إلى الله – عز وجل …

    The first position is that one decisively hold that the Exalted One is exalted from and not in need of place or direction. We do not discussion in the detailed meaning of the ayah but instead we consign the meaning of it to Allah, Exalted be He. And we say that the istiwa’ on the Throne is an Attribute of Allah, Exalted be He. It is without how and is compulsory for the man to have Iman in it and consign the meaning of it to Allah, Mighty and Majestic.

    وروي عن سفيان الثوري، والأوزاعي، والليث بن سعد وسفيان بن عيينة، وعبد الله بن المبارك، وغيرهم من علماء السنة في هذه الآيات التي جاءت في الصفات المتشابهة، أن نوردها كما جاءت بلا كيف) اللباب في علوم الكتاب ج9 ص151

    So with regard to the ayat which are from the Mutashabihat Sifat, we narrate them just as they came to us without how. And this is the understanding narrated from Sufyan Ath-Thawri, Al-Awza`ii, Al-Laith ibn Sa`d, Sufyan ibn `Uyainah, `Abdullah ibn Al-Mubarak and others from Muslim Orthodoxy.[47]

    ابن رجب (ت795هـ) :

    Imam Ibn Rajab (d.795), may Allah be pleased with him, uttered:

    (والصواب ما عليه السلف الصالح من إمرار آيات الصفات وأحاديثها كما جاءت من غير تفسير لها ولا تكييف ولا تمثيل: ولا يصح من أحد منهم خلاف ذلك البتة خصوصا الإمام أحمد ولا خوض في معانيها ولا ضرب مثل من الأمثال لها: وإن كان بعض من كان قريبا من زمن الإمام أحمد فيهم من فعل شيئا من ذلك اتباعا لطريقة مقاتل فلا يقتدى به في ذلك إنما الإقتداء بأئمة الإسلام كابن المبارك. ومالك. والثوري والأوزاعي. والشافعي. وأحمد. واسحق. وأبي عبيد. ونحوهم.) بيان فضل علم السلف على علم الخلف ص4

    The correct statement is what the pious First Three Generations were upon, which is passing by the Ayat and Ahadith of the Attributes just as they came without explanation, how or likeness. And it is not valid from anyone among them to have any dispute in that, especially in the case of the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal. There is no debate regarding their meaning or likeness given. And even if one of them near to the time of Imam Ahmad did something regarding explaining them by following the way of Muqatil, such a one should not be followed in that. One is only to follow the Imams of Islam, such as Ibn Al-Mubarak, Malik ibn Anas, Ath-Thawri, Al-Awza`ii, Ash-Shafi`ii, Ahmad, Ishaq, Abu `Ubaid and others like them.[48]

    قال الإمام ابن اللحام الحنبلي (ت803هـ) :

    The Imam, Ibn ul-Lihham Al-Hanbali (d.803), may Allah have mercy upon him, mentioned the following:

    (مسألة فى القرآن المحكم والمتشابه وللعلماء فيها أقوال كثيرة

    On the point of The Qur’an possessing the mutashabih and muhkamah ayat, the scholars have many statements on the matter.

    والأظهر المحكم المتضح المعنى والمتشابه مقابله لاشتراك أو اجمال أو ظهور تشبيه ولا يجوز أن يقال فى القرآن ما لا معنى له عند عامة العلماء وفيه ما لا يفهم معناه الا الله تعالى عند الجمهور ولا يعنى به غير ظاهره إلا بدليل) المختصر في اصول الفقه ص73

    The most dominant affair is that the muhkamah is something that is clear in its meaning and manifest while the mutashabih is the opposite of that as the names are shared or the general affair and some apparent likeness. It is not permitted that something be said in the Qur’an that has no meaning mentioned by all the scholars or something in it in which its meaning is not understood by anyone except Allah, Exalted be He according to the vast majority. And one may not take the matter away from the text except with an evidence.[49]

    قال الإمام المرداوي (ت885هـ) :

    The Imam, `Ala’ ud-Din Al-Mardawi (d.885), may Allah have mercy upon him, declared:

    ( والمتشابه: مقابله، وهو غير المتضح المعنى، فتشتبه بعض محتملاته ببعض، للاشتراك وعدم اتضاح معناه. فالاشتراك – مثلا – كالعين، والقرء، ونحوه من المشتركات …) ثم قال : (أو لظهور تشبيه في صفات الله تعالى، كآيات الصفات وأخبارها فاشتبه المراد منه على الناس، فلذلك قال قوم بظاهره فشبهوا وجسموا، وفر قوم من التشبيه فتأولوا وحرفوا فعطلوا، وتوسط قوم فسلموا فأمروه كما جاء مع اعتقاد التنزيه فسلموا، وهم أهل السنة وأئمة السلف الصالح.) التحبير شرح التحرير ج3 ص397

    The mutashabihah the opposite of the muhkamah as it is not clear and has some likeness to other words in wording but the meaning of the other one is not clear. Examples of shared meeting include `ain, qar’ and similar things which have the same wording but different meanings. As far as the appearance of the Attributes of Allah, Exalted be He, like the Ayat and Akhbar of the Attributes that appear to have some likeness to the people as the words are spelled the same, it is due to that there are some people who took the outward form of the ayah, likened it and gave Him likeness and body. Then another group of people fled from likening, interpreted, corrupted the texts and stripped them of their attributes. Still another group of people were in the middle, submitted to it, passed them by as they came with the believe that He is pure of any shortcomings and they submit to that. And these are none other than Muslim Orthodoxy and the Imams of the First Three Generations.[50]

    قال الإمام مجير الدين العليمي الحنبلي (ت928هـ) :

    The Imam, Mujir ud-Din Al-`Ulaimi Al-Hanbali (d.928), may Allah have mercy upon him, remarked:

    (والأولى في هذه الآية وفي ما شاكلها أن يؤمن الإنسان بها، ويمرها كما جاءت بلا كيف، ويكل علمها إلى الله سبحانه، وهو مذهب أئمة السلف وعلماء السنة، قال سفيان بن عيينة: كل ما وصف الله تعالى به نفسه في كتابه، فتفسيره قراءته، والسكوت عنه، ليس لأحد أن يفسره إلا الله ورسوله) وقال : ({على العرش استوى} استواء يليق بعظمته بلا كيف، وهذا من متشابه القرآن، نؤمن به ولا نتعرض لمعناه) فتح الرحمن في تفسير القرآن ج4 ص280

    The most important thing about the ayah in question and what is similar to it is that the human being believe in it, pass it by just as it came without how, consign the meaning of it to Allah, Glorified be He, and this is the way of the Imams of the First Three Generations and the scholars of the Sunnah. Imam Sufyan ibn `Uyainah said, “All what Allah, Exalted be He, described Himself with in Book, its explanation is its recital and being silent regarding it. It is not for anyone to explain it except Allah and His Messenger”. He then said, “As for Him making istiwa’ above the Throne, it is an istiwa’ that befits His Grandeur without how and this is from the mutashabih of the Qur’an. We believe in hit and do not seek its meaning”.[51]

    قال الإمام ابن النجار الحنبلي (تقي الدين) (ت972هـ) :

    The Imam, Taqi ud-Din Ibn An-Najjar Al-Hanbali (d.972), may Allah be pleased with him, gave this point of reference:

    (“وعكسه” أي عكس المحكم ” متشابه” وهو ما لم يتضح معناه إما “لاشتراك” كالعين والقرء ونحوهما من المشتركات. أو “إجمال” وهو إطلاق اللفظ بدون بيان المراد منه. … أو ظهور تشبيه كصفات الله تعالى” أي كآيات الصفات وأخبارها. فاشتبه المراد منها على الناس. فلذلك قال قوم: #بظاهره فشبهوا وجسموا، وتأول قوم: فحرفوا وعطلوا. وتوسط قوم: فسلموا، وهم أهل السنة وأئمة السلف الصالح) مختصر التحرير في شرح الكوكب المنير ج2 ص141

    The opposite of the decisive is the mutashabih and it is what does not have its meaning clearly given. And this is whether it shares a meaning with another word or two meanings within one word, like the words `ayn, qar’, general meanings without a clarification of which meaning is preferred or the apparent likeness like in the case of the Attributes of Allah, Exalted be He – such as in the case of the Ayat of the Attributes or the Akhbar of Sifat. The doubt or likeness intended belongs to the people (and not the texts). So it is due to this that one people speak with the apparent meaning of the text, liken Him and declare Him to have a body. Still another interpret, corrupt and then fall into negation of the Attributes. The middle path is to submit to what was given and the this is the way of Muslim Orthodoxy and the Imams of the First Three Generations.

    قال الإمام مرعي الكرمي الحنبلي (ت1033هـ) :

    The Imam, Mar`ii ibn Yusuf Al-Karmi Al-Hanbali (d.1033), may Allah have mercy upon him, discussed:

    (إذا تقرر هذا فاعلم أن من المتشابهات آيات الصفات التي التأويل فيها بعيد فلا تؤول ولا تفسر وجمهور أهل السنة منهم السلف وأهل الحديث على الإيمان بها وتفويض معناها المراد منها إلى الله تعالى ولا نفسرها مع تنزيهنا له عن حقيقتها فقد روى الإمام اللالكائي الحافظ عن محمد بن الحسن قال اتفق الفقهاء كلهم من المشرق إلى المغرب على الإيمان بالصفات من غير تفسير ولا تشبيه) {اقاويل الثقات في آيات الصفات ص60}

    So when you have affirmed this, then know that part of the mutashabih are the Ayat of Sifat in which interpretation of them is far-fetched and they should not be interpreted or explained. The vast majority of Muslim Orthodoxy – among them the First Three Generations and the People of Hadith – have Iman in them, consign their meaning and the intent of it to Allah, Exalted be He. We do not explain them under the guise of glorifying Him and then negating the meaning of them. The Imam, Al-Hafiz, Al-Lalaka’ii already narrated from Muhammad ibn Hasan who said: The fiqh scholars in totality – from the east to the west – have all agreed upon Iman in the Sifat without commentary or likeness.[52]

    قال الإمام السفاريني الحنبلي (ت1188هـ) :

    Imam Muhammad ibn Ahmad As-Saffarini (d.1188), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave this ruling:

    ( فمذهب السلف أنهم يصفون الله – تعالى – بما وصف به نفسه، وبما وصفه به رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – من غير تحريف ولا تكييف، وهو – سبحانه – ليس كمثله شيء لا في ذاته، ولا في صفاته، ولا في أفعاله، وكل ما أوجب نقصا أو حدوثا فالله – تعالى – منزه عنه حقيقة، فإنه – تعالى – مستحق الكمال الذي لا غاية فوقه، ومذهب السلف عدم الخوض في مثل هذا، والسكوت عنه، وتفويض علمه إلى الله – تعالى) لوامع الانوار البهية ج1 ص97

    So the madhhab of the First Three Generations is that they describe Allah, Exalted be He, as He described Himself and as the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, described Him. And this is without corruption, how while He, Glorified be He, there is no thing like Him in His Essence, Attributes and Actions. All of what would necessarily be a shortcoming or something created, then Allah, Exalted be He, is not in not of it and pure from it in reality. Indeed He, Exalted be He, is deserving of the perfection which has no limit or boundary above it. And the way of the First Three Generations is no debate in this affair, silence about it and making tafwid of its meaning to Allah, Exalted be He.[53]

    قال الإمام محمد بن بدر الدين بن بلبان (ت1083 ه)

    [Imam Muhammad ibn Badr ud-Din ibn Balban (d.1083), may Allah have mercy upon him, concluded:]

    والمراد بمعرفته – جل وعلا وتقدس – معرفة وجوب وجود ذاته بصفات الكمال فيما لم يزل ولا يزال

    So the intent of having direct knowledge of Him – Majestic, Mighty and Holy is He! – references knowing the necessary fact of the existence of His Essence with the complete and perfect Attributes that have been and shall always be.

    لا معرفة حقيقة ذاته لإستحالة ذلك لأنها مخالفة لسائر الحقائق فلا يمكن معرفتها وتحصل المعرفة بالله تعالى وصفاته شرعًا،

    One is not safeguarded with having direct knowledge of His Essence as that is impossible on account of the reality of His Essence being different to all other realities and thus it is impossible to know it. Direct knowledge of Allah, Exalted be He and His Attributes results from that which is given in the Revealed Law.[54]

    ]قال الإمام عبد الله صوفان القدومي (ت1331 ه)[

    [Imam `Abdullah Sufan Al-Qaddumi (d.1331), may Allah have mercy upon him, spoke unequivocally:]

    وهو من الأحاديث التي يجب الإيمان بها مع التنزيه لله عن مشابهة المخلوقين كبقية أحاديث الصفات وآياتها نؤمن بها مع تنزيهنا لله عن مشابهة المخلوقين والله أعلم

    And this belongs to the the Ahadith which it is compulsory to have Iman in them while declaring Allah glorified above resembling the creations, like the rest of the Ahadith of the Sifat and the Ayat on the topic as well. So we believe in all of these while declaring Allah glorified from likeness with the creation. And Allah knows best. [55]

    قال الإمام عبد القادر بن بدران الدومي (ت1346 ه)

    [Imam `Abdul Qadir Ibn Badran Ad-Dumi (d.1346), may Allah have mercy upon him, made the following decisive remark:]

    أي لا نقول كيف هي؟ ولا نقول معناها كذا وكذا، بل نقول صفة أثبتها تعالى لنفسه، فنحن نثبتها له ونكل كيفيتها ومعناها إليه تعالى، وأعلم أن هذا ما كان عليه السلف كلهم والأئمة المقتدى بهم وذهب إليه المحققين من الخلف،

    This means that we don’t say, “How is it?” And we don’t say, “It means thus and so”. Instead we say that it is an Attribute that the Exalted One has affirmed for Himself. So we affirm it for Him and the how and meaning of it back to Him, Exalted be He. You should know that this is what all of the First Three Generations were upon and the Imams that followed them as well as the researchers from the latter-day generations.[56]

    قال الإمام عبد الله خلف الدحيان (ت 1349)

    [Imam `Abdullah Khalaf Ad-Dahyaan (d.1349), may Allah have mercy upon him, said of the right creed:]

    ذكر المصنف رحمه الله في بعض تعليقاته ما نصه: ذكر العقائد ما لفظه عقائد الفرقة الناجية قال: وهم الأشاعرة والماتريدية وأهل الحديث، وقال بعض العلماء: الفرقة الناجية أهل الحديث يعني الأثرية والأشعرية والماتريدية فإذا قلت لفظ الحديث يقتضي عدم التعدية حيث قال فيه ستفترق أمتي على بضع وسبعين فرقة كلهم في النار إلا فرقة واحدة وهي ما كان على ما أنا عليه وأصحابي،

    So the author of the said text, may Allah have mercy upon him in one of his footnotes mentioned a discussion centred around the doctrines of the Saved Sect and he said that the Saved Sect were: the Ash`aris, the Maturidis and the People of Hadith.[57] Some of the scholars have said that the Saved Sect are the People of Hadith, meaning the people of Athar and narrations, the Ash`aris and the Maturidis.[58] Thus in the case that one says the hadith on the topic refers not to a number but rather one group with the wording: “Indeed my Ummah shall divide into some seventy or more sects, all of them in the Fire except one and it is what I and my Companions are upon”, this leaves an ambiguity in the mind of some people.

    فالجواب أن الثلاثة فرق هي فرقة واحدة لأنهم كلهم أهل الحديث فإن الأشاعرة والماتريدية لم يردوا الأحاديث ولا أهملوها وإنما فوضوها وإما أولوها وكل منهم أهل الحديث، وحينئذ فالثلاثة فرقة واحدة لإقتفائهم الأخبار وانتحالهم الآثار. بخلاف باقي الفرق فإنهم حكموا العقول وخالفوا المنقول فهم أهل بدعة وضلالة ومخالفة وجهالة والله تعالى أعلم.

    The answer to this matter is that the three groups are in fact the one sect as they are all from the People of Hadith. So indeed the Ash`aris and Maturidis neither reject the hadith nor negate their value.[59] They only consign the meaning in some cases and interpret in other cases.[60] And both the Ash`aris and Maturidis are from the People of Hadith.[61] So then at that point it is clear that the three groups are in fact the one Saved Sect as they follow the narratives and hold onto and abide by the traditions of the past. This is the opposite of the remaining sects as they give judgement to thier intellects and oppose the transmitted and handed down texts. So they are a people of innovation, astrayness, opposition to the truth and grave ignorance. And Allah, Exalted be He, indeed knows best.[62]

    قال الإمام محمد بن عبد العزيز بن مانع (ت 1389)

    [Imam Muhammad ibn `Abdul `Aziz ibn Mani` (d.1389), may Allah have mercy upon him, gave this response:]

    كذاك أي: كما أن علمنا لا يحيط بذاته المقدسة، لا ينفك أي: يخلص ويزول عن صفاته الذاتية، وأفعاله الإختيارية، فذاته ليست مثل ذوات المخلوقين، وصفاته كذاته ليست كصفات المخلوقين.

    And none knows or encompasses the reality of the Names and Attributes or His Holy Essence or the wisdom of His Actions. So His Essence is not like that of the creations and His Attributes in the same way are not like the attributes of the creation.[63]

    قال الإمام محمد عصام الشطي (ت 1440)

    [Imam Muhammad `Isam Ash-Shatti (d.1440), may Allah have mercy upon him, quoted Imam As-Saffarini and then agreed with and seconded the quote:]

    اعلم أن مذهب الحنابلة هو مذهب السلف، فيصفون الله بما وصف به نفسه، وبما وصفه به رسوله، من غير تحريف ولا تعطيل ولا تمثيل، فللَّهِ تعالى ذات لا تشبه الذوات، متصفة بصفات الكمال التي لا تشبه الصفات من المحدثات، فإذا ورد القرآن العظيم، وصحت سنة النبي الكريم عليه أفضل الصلاة والتسليم، بوصف للباري جلّ شأنه، تلقيناه بالقبول والتسليم،

    You should know that the madhhab of the Hanbalis is indeed the madhhab of the First Three Generations. They describe Allah in the way that He described Himself and in the way that His Messenger described Him without corruption, negation or likening. So Allah, Exalted be He, has an Essence and it is not like the essences of the creation. He is described with the Most Complete and Perfect Attributes which bear not resemblance to the attributes of the creation. So when it has been mentioned in the Grand Qur’an, authentically reported by the Noble Prophet, upon him be the best peace and blessings, in describing the Creator and Fashioner of things – Majestic is His Mention – then we meet such statements with acceptance and submission.

    ووجب إثباته له على الوجه الذي ورد، ونَكِلَ معناه للعزيز الحكيم، ولا نعدل به عن حقيقة وصفه، ولا نُلْحِدُ في كلامه، ولا في أسمائه، ولا في صفاته ولا نزيد على ما ورد، ولا نلتفت لمن طعن في ذلك ورَدَّ فهذا إعتقاد سائر الحنابلة كجميع السلف، فمن عدل عن هذا المنهاج القويم، زاغ عن الصراط المستقيم، وانحرف فدع عنك فلان عن فلان، وعليك بسنة ولد عدنان ، فهي العروة الوثقى التي انفصام لها والجُنة الواقية التي لا انحلال لها

    So it is compulsory to affirm the wording according to how it has been related, attributing its meaning to the Almighty, the All-Wise. And we do not depart from affirming that the Attribute given has a reality. We do not strip away or take away from His Speech, Names and Attributes and nor do we add to that which was related. And we do not turn any attention to the one that transgresses in that affair and repudiates them. The aforementioned is the creed of all the Hanbalis like all the First Three Generations. Thus whoever should depart from this straight methodology and path has again gone astray from the Straight Path, departed into crookedness. So see that you protect yourself regarding “such and such” from “such and such”. You must follow the Sunnah of the Chosen One from the Children of `Adnan. And this is the Firm Rope which shall not be severed and the clear and obvious shield of truth which has no weak portions in it.[64]

    قال إسماعيل محمد بن بدران الدومي

    [contemporary Imam, Isma`il Ibn Badran explained:]

    كُلُّ مَا جَاءَ فِي اَلْقُرْآنِ، أَوْ صَحَّ عَنِ اَلْمُصْطَفَى صلى الله عليه وسلم كَآيَةِ الاِسْتوِاءِ، وَحَدِيثِ النُّزُولِ، والرَّحْمَةِ، وَاليَدِ، وَالوَجْهِ وغيرها، يَجِبُ الإيمان بِهِ، وَتَرْكُ اَلتَّعَرُّضِ لَهُ بِالرَّدِّ، وَالتَّأْوِيلِ، وَالتَّشْبِيهِ، وَالتَّمْثِيلِ، والتَّفْسِيرِ، وَهْوَ مِنَ الْمتشابه الَّذِي لا يعلمه إلا الله

    All of what is in the Qur’an or authentically narrated from the Chosen One, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, – like the ayah of Istiwa’, the hadith of descent, rahmah, hand, face and other than that – is compulsory to have Iman in it, one is to abandon seeking to reject it, interpret it, give likeness or semblance to it while it is from the mutashabih in which none but Allah knows its meaning.[65]

    قال الإمام عبد الرحمن الشامي

    [contemporary Imam, `Abdur-Rahman Ash-Shami gave the following statement:]

    كُلُّ مَا جَاءَ فِي اَلْقُرْآنِ، أَوْ صَحَّ عَنِ اَلْمُصْطَفَى صلى الله عليه وسلم كَآيَةِ الاِسْتوِاءِ، وَحَدِيثِ النُّزُولِ، والرَّحْمَةِ، وَاليَدِ، وَالوَجْهِ وغيرها، يَجِبُ الإيمان بِهِ، وَتَرْكُ اَلتَّعَرُّضِ لَهُ بِالرَّدِّ، وَالتَّأْوِيلِ، وَالتَّشْبِيهِ، وَالتَّمْثِيلِ، والتَّفْسِيرِ، وَهْوَ مِنَ الْمتشابه الَّذِي لا يعلمه إلا الله

    All of what is in the Qur’an or authentically narrated from the Chosen One, peace and blessings of Allah be upon him, – like the ayah of Istiwa’, the hadith of descent, rahmah, hand, face and other than that – is compulsory to have Iman in it, one is to abandon seeking to reject it, interpret it, give likeness or semblance to it while it is from the mutashabih in which none but Allah knows its meaning.[66]

    قال الإمام محمد السيد الأزهري

    [contemporary Imam, Muhammad As-Sayyid gave this statement:]

    أما مذهب الحنابلة على ما قرره شيخ المذهب ابن قدامة فهو التفويض والمقصود باختصار هو إثبات ما أثبته الله لنفسه من صفات مع تفويض معناها إلى الله عز وجل مع نفي مماثلة و مشابهة الحوادث وتفويض معنى الصفة متفرع على تفويض معنى الذات والمقصود بالمعنى المفوض هو حقيقة الذات وحقيقة تلك الصفة أما لوازم الصفة التي تفهم من السياق القرآني أو الحديثي فلا تفويض فيها

    As far as the madhhab of the Hanbalis, this is according to what was established and affirmed by the Shaikh of the Madhhab, Imam Muwaffaq ud-Din Ibn Qudamah and that way is consigning the meaning of the Names and Attributes to Allah. The intent of this in brief is that one is to affirm that which Allah has affirmed for Himself of the Attributes while consigning the meaning to Allah, Mighty and Majestic while at the same time negating likeness and resemblance to the creation. Thus consigning the meaning of the Attribute is a branch of consigning the meaning of the Essence. So the intent of the word consignment is the reality of the Essence and the reality of that Attribute. As for the general expression of the Attribute mentioned and understood from the speech of the Qur’an or the hadith, there is no consignment of the general meaning[67] of the Attribute.[68]

    قال الإمام عبد الباسط الرحيباني آل الشيخ

    [contemporary Imam, `Abdul Basit Ar-Ruhaibi gave his word:]

    والصفات الإلهية من المتشابه وقد سار الإمام أحمد – لو عورة هذا الطريق – على طريقة السلف الصالح وهي: التفويض ونعني بالتفويض: إثبات نصوص المتشابه كما هي، مع التسليم وتفويض المعنى إلى الله دون الخوض في التفصيلات مع الفهم الإجمالي

    So the Divine Attributes are from the mutashabih ayat and the Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal – with all earnestness – travelled this path that is the path and way of the First Three Generations, namely tafwid. By this word we mean affirming the texts of the mutashabih just as they are while submitting to what was given and then consigning the meaning of that to Allah without debate or discussion into the details while having a general understanding[69] of the Attributes.[70]

    وقال

    And he said further

    أثبت الإمام أحمد صفات الله تعالى، ولكنه نفى لوازم التجسيم والأعضاء والجوارح والحدود والغايات وكل ما يخطر ببال البشر، سئل الإمام أحمد رضي الله عنه عن الإستواء فقال: “استوى كما أخبر لا كما يخطر للبشر”

    The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, affirmed the Attributes of Allah, Exalted be He, but he negated any earthly likeness and attribution of organs, limbs, boundaries and extremities and all of what occur to the mind of the human being. The Imam, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, may Allah be pleased with him, was asked about the istiwa’ and he said, “Istiwa’ is just as He has informed us and not like what occurs to the human being”.[71]

    كتبه الشيخ مصطفى حمدو عليان

    As written by the Shaikh, Mustafa Hamdu `Ulayyan but with footnotes and additional scholars that are indicated by the inclusion of [].

    [This is by no means an exhaustive list but rather one that has a large body of luminaries. There are many that could be and perhaps later will be included that are not enclosed on this list currently. The point was to give a clear enough record of the creed of the First Three Generations that could be seen by all and sundry – Al-Hajj Abu Ja`far Al-Hanbali]

    [1] These represent 41 statements, starting with the Imam of Muslim Orthodoxy and the last of the third age and its Reviver, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, all the way up to our time. We boldly and brazenly challenge anyone to bring 41 examples from the same school and methodology declaring the opposite. If one cannot – and he will not be able to – repent from sin, avarice and bearing false witness and leave what you are upon and come to the way of the First Three Generations and the successful vouchsafe of their way.

    [2] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Muslim, vol.1, Section1: Al-`Aqidah, pp.199-200

    [3] Sharh us-Sunnah, p.68

    [4] Kitab ush-Shari`ah, pp.231-232

    [5] I`tiqad Ahl is-Sunnah wal-Jama`ah, pp.42-43

    [6] Ash-Sharh wal-Ibanah (Al-Ibanat us-Sughra), Maktabat ul-Hijaz Printers, p.187

    [7] Surat ush-Shura (42), ayah 9

    [8] `Aqidat ul-Imam Al-Mubajjal Ahmad, p.9

    [9] Al-Usul ul-Mujarradah, pp.44-45

    [10] The Well Balanced Creed, pp.116-119

    [11] d.290 (AD903). He is Abu `Abdur-Rahman `Abdullah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Hanbal Ash-Shaibani. He was the second son of Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal and one of his successors in the madhhab and has often narrated from his father’s theology and understanding on matters. Please see Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.174-181

    [12] d.273 (AD886). He is Abu `Ali Hanbal ibn Ishaq ibn Hanbal ibn Hilal ibn Asad Ash-Shaibani. Notable memoriser and trustworthy, he witnessed and wrote on the Inquisition of the Imam and the events immediately following. Tadhkirat ul-Huffaz, vol.2, pp.599-601.

    [13] Mentioned by Imam Al-Lalaka’ii in Sharh Usul ul-I`tiqad, point# 777.

    [14] d.238 (AD852). He is Abu Ishaq Ishaq ibn Ibrahim ibn Makhlid Al-Hanzali. One of the great memorisers of his time and the chief scholar of Central Asia and the Grand Imam over them. Please see Tabaqat ul-Hanabilah, vol.1, pp.108-109.

    [15] He is `Abdullah ibn Tahir ibn Al-Hussain ibn Mus`ab ibn Zuraiq Al-Khuza`ii. He was the governor of Khurasan in his time and one of the most important leaders of the `Abbasid government and was well trusted by the ruler Al-Ma’mun. Al-A`lam by Az-Zarkali, vol.4, pp.224-226

    [16] Cited partially by Al-Lalaka’ii in Sharh Usul I`tiqad Ahl is-Sunnah, vol.3, pp.450-452.

    [17] Manzumat ul-Kalwadhani, pp.3-4

    [18] Collected by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Al-Musnad, vol.5, pp.233-234

    [19] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Muslim, vol.1, Section1: Al-`Aqidah, pp.199-200

    [20] Ar-Risalat ul-Wadihah fir-Raddi `Al al-Asha`irah, p.607

    [21] Al-Ghunya, vol.1, pp.86-87

    [22] Surat un-Nahl (16), ayah 74

    [23] Dhail Tabaqat il-Hanabilah, vol.2, p.156

    [24] Talbis Iblis, p.79

    [25] Al-Iqtisad fil-I`tiqad, pp.104-105

    [26] Lum`at ul-I`tiqad, p.6

    [27] Dhamm ut-Ta’wil, p.11

    [28] Dhamm ut-Ta’wil, p.27

    [29] Surah Ali `Imran (3), ayah 7

    [30] Surat ul-Baqarah (2), ayah 208

    [31] Rumuz ul-Kunuz fi Tafsir il-Kitab il-`Aziz, vol.8, p.54

    [32] Manzumah fi Madh in-Nabi, pp.32-33

    [33] Majmu` Al-Fatawa, vol.16, p.409

    [34] Al-Burhan, pp.95-96

    [35] Nihayat ul-Mubtadi’in fi Usul id-Din, p.31, Maktabat ur-Rushd Printers.

    [36] Talkhis Rawdat in-Nadir, vol.1, p.123

    [37] Surat ur-Rahman (55), ayah 27

    [38] Surah Sad (38), ayah 74

    [39] Surat ul-Ma’idah (5), ayah 64

    [40] Ash-Shami, Jami` ul-Usul it-Tis`a: Ahmad and Muslim, vol.7, Section1: Al-`Ibadat, pp.354-355

    [41] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.1, Section2:Al-Iman, pp.162-163

    [42] Collected by Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in Al-Musnad, vol.5, pp.233-234

    [43] Ash-Shami, Al-Jami` bain As-Sahihain: Al-Bukhari and Muslim, vol.3, Section8:Ar-Raqa’iq, pp.538-539

    [44] Sharh Mukhtasar ir-Rawdah, vol.2, p.44

    [45] Usul ul-Fiqh, vol.1, p.316

    [46] At-Tadhkirah fi Usul il-Fiqh, p.160, Maktabat ur-Rushd Publishers

    [47] Al-Lubab fi `Ulum il-Kitab, vol.9, p.151

    [48] Bayan Fadli `Ilm is-Salaf `Ala `Ilm il-Khalaf, p.4

    [49] Al-Mukhtasar fi Usul il-Fiqh, p.73

    [50] At-Tahbir Sharh ut-Tahrir, vol.3, p.397

    [51] Fath ur-Rahman fi Tafsir il-Qur’an, vol.4, p.280

    [52] Aqawil uth-Thiqat, p.60

    [53]Lawami` ul-Anwar, vol., pp.96-97

    [54] Mukhtasar ul-Ifadat, pp.485-486

    [55] Al-Minhaj, pp.9-10

    [56] Short Commentary on The Illumination of the Creed, pp.38-39

    [57] The People of Hadith (Ar.Ahl ul-Hadith) is another reference for the First Three Generations or the Salaf while the Ash`aris and Maturidis – although from Muslim Orthodoxy – are from the khalaf or latter day generations in which one is not duty bound to follow them, while in the case of the former one most certainly is to be guided. The First Three Generations handed to us the Book, Sunnah, Consensus and their unimpeachable understanding without any flaw. The latter day generations after them are only to be followed as and when they agree with these blessed three; outside of that, one may do the opposite or discard their positions.

    [58] This order is more correct as the First Three Generations came first, then the Maturidis and then the Ash`aris, both from the latter-day generations that one is not required to follow. They are not Muslim Orthodoxy, rather a branch within Muslim Orthodoxy. Let the reader keep this distinction in mind so as not to be pulled into senseless wars and matters that will do nothing to his knowledge and Hereafter but deplete it.

    [59] Although there are a small group today in the West and some students of knowledge that engage in this and are guilty of negating the Names and Attributes as mentioned by the Shaikh, Faaris ibn Faalih Al-Khazraji. And this tiny, vile and vituperative band soil the name of the scholars like An-Nawawi, Ibn Hajar and Ibn Daqiq Al-`Eid.

    [60] When in reality the way of the First Three Generations is to consign the meaning in all cases as this is what was handed down to us infallibly.

    [61] And this was said by the Imam, Al-Qadi Abu Ya`la Al-Baghdadi the Elder when the Ash`aris crystallised in his time after having come out of the seventy-two sects years previously.

    [62] Sharh As-Saffariniyyah, pp.74-75

    [63] Sharh us-Saffariniyyah, pp.132-133

    [64] Fada’il il-A`mal, vol.1, pp.29-31

    [65] Mukhtasar ul-`Aqa’id, pp.12-13

    [66] Mukhtasar ul-`Aqa’id, pp.12-13

    [67] Meaning that His Power is different than His Mercy, His Wrath is different than His Pardon and the ayat given, whether at the beginning, middle or end demonstrate the generalities of the expressions. Thus one (1) affirms the said Attribute, (2) has Iman in it and (3) attributes meaning of it to Allah.

    [68] Taken a fatwa given Ramadan 1440.

    [69] Please see previous notes on this matter.

    [70] Ida’at, pp.62-63 and 82-83

    [71] Ida’at, pp.62-63 and 82-83

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  • Abu Sulayman
    replied
    Originally posted by Abu Sulayman View Post
    - The Christians and Jews took their monks and priests (the so called "early church fathers" and the rabbis) as Lords besides Allah ta'ala and this man similarly took Ibn Taymiyya (d. 728 AH) and some other people as Lords.
    ​​​​​​

    ​​​​​​I seriously don't understand why some people are such extreme blind followers of Ibn Taymiyya (d. 728 AH) to the degree that they are ready to accept whatever they understood or misunderstood from his words and this even if it's wrong with certainity.

    What is also shocking is that they are ready to accuse anyone of a mistake to the degree that they may even not shy away from accusing Prophets (peace be upon them), but when it comes to their Ibn Taymiyya it suddenly becomes disallowed for anyone to say a word against him.


    Since Imam Ibn Rajab's quote was mentioned: Let it be known to the blind followers of Ibn Taymiyya in their ignorance that he names one of those upright Hanbali judges elsewhere and states that he disallowed him giving Fatwa regarding the issue of triple Talaq.

    Only an innovator or a heretic will deny that Ibn Taymiyya had abnormal positions and this both regarding creed and regarding jurisprudence.


    Let everyone know that blind following in major issues of creed is NOT an excuse in front of Allah ta'ala.
    If Ibn 'Uthaymin utters words of disbelief and paganism (which he certainly did!), then following him regarding this is likewise disbelief and paganism and bringing up Ibn Taymiyya is no excuse.

    Last edited by Abu Sulayman; 11-01-22, 11:25 AM.

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  • Abu Sulayman
    replied
    Regarding the Hanabila and their creed and using them as a proof upon us:

    Allah ta'ala has not obliged us to follow anyone in the manner he obliged us to follow our Master Muhammad (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam). So if the claims of the anthropomorphists of our time regarding the Hanabila would be true, then it would not change the fact that we're obliged to follow our noble Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) and to reject any way that opposes his way.

    Now the Hanabila have actually several ways in creed. One could basically divide them into three groups:
    - The mainstream group, which is represented by al-Mu'tamad of al-Qadhi Abu Ya'la and the Lum'at al-I'tiqad of Imam Ibn Qudama and their likes and they regard Tafwidh with the understanding of Ithbat with Tanzih as the only correct way.
    - The group that is inclined towards Ta`wil (but supports Tafwifh in general), which is that of Imam Ibn 'Aqil and Imam Ibn al-Jawzi and their likes.
    - The group that are basically anthropomorphists and they are represented by the likes of Ibn Hamid and Ibn Taymiyya.

    Note that the Hanabila in general (till this day) like to deny that the last group are actually anthropomorphists and like to present them as "mistaken only", but this most likely due to their partisanship to their Madhhab.
    In other contexts they mention the very statements that this last group believes in and then openly describe it as Tashbih and Kufr.


    ​​​​​​Now the question is: How did Tashbih creep into the last group?
    The answer: A good portion of the Hanabila - and this even from the mainstream group - relied upon utterly weak and inauthentic narrations for issues of creed, which lead to the formation of the last group, which said due to sheer number of these inauthentic narrations that all these types of texts are to be understood literally and thereby fell into anthropomorphism.
    In addition to this the majority of the Hanabila regarded single authentic narrations as proofs even in major issues of creed, so anytime they would falsely regard a narration as authentic they would rely upon it. The scholars of the other Madhahib however were more cautious and only relied upon that which is established beyond doubt in authenticity.

    With time many Hanabila realized the weakness of all these narrations - and this usually thanks to the efforts of Ash'ari scholars! - and therefore distanced themselves from these narrations.

    Note that even al-Qadhi Abu Ya'la and Imam Ibn Qudama (who were both mainstream Hanbalis and supporters of Tafwidh) relied upon utterly weak and inauthentic narrations as seen in Ibtal al-Ta`wilat and al-'Uluww.
    ​​​​In fact Ibtal al-Ta`wilat contains the affirmation of so many utterly weak and inauthentic narrations with some narrations being so obviously from the creed of the Jews (like "god" lying on the back and putting one foot upon the other or the affirmation of molar teeth or other rather strange narrations) and their likes that a lot of other scholars have heavily attacked this work and accused its author of anthropomorphism and this despite the author clearly and explicitly declaring Allah ta'ala transcendent from corporeality and temporarility in the very same work.


    There is really a reason why the majority of the scholars preferred the Ash'ari way over the Hanbali one, because unlike the Hanabila the Asha'ira were much more cautious in how they describe their Lord jalla jalaluhu.


    We should not forget that those issues which are important to believe in are stressed upon in the book of Allah ta'ala and upon the tongue of our noble Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) such that we should not look for our creed in strange narrations here and there.
    And we should also not forget that the foundations of our creed are the texts with a clear meaning which allow for one interpretation only and that everything else must be understood in their context.


    So any statement like "so and so stated this and that" can never take precedence over the clear texts for we are neither Jews nor Christians nor pagans, but rather pure monotheists who submit completely to their Creator jalla jalaluhu and affirm His absolute uniqueness, oneness and perfection as is established by revelation and sound reason.
    ​​​​

    ​​​​
    Last edited by Abu Sulayman; 10-01-22, 11:33 PM.

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  • Abu Sulayman
    replied
    After discussing with some Christians recently on this forum I realized even more that anthromorphists like this Ibn 'Uthaymin have a lot in common with Jews and Christians and that their creed is a pagan one and has no connection to Islam other than his claim to Islam:


    Some similarities between Ibn 'Uthaymin and the Jews and the Christians:


    - Like Christians this man claims to believe in the Creator jalla jalaluhu, but at the same time describes that which He worships besides Allah ta'ala with all kinds of anthropomorphistic meanings. He believes in a literal descent to the lowest heaven for that which he worships and this is similar to the Christian belief that "god" literally came to earth. He also believes that "god" is subject to changes just like Christians do.


    - The Christians and Jews took their monks and priests (the so called "early church fathers" and the rabbis) as Lords besides Allah ta'ala and this man similarly took Ibn Taymiyya (d. 728 AH) and some other people as Lords.


    - The Jews and the Christians relied on severly weak and even corrupt texts for their creed and the forefathers of this man also relied upon severly weak and corrupt narrations for their creed. In fact till this day some of his followers affirm a weight for what they worship besides Allah ta'ala and say that this weight causes the throne to make a specific sound when that which they worship sits upon it and this all based upon an inauthentic narration.


    - The Christians are famous for being unable to differentiate between those texts which are clear in meaning and those which are indistinct and allow for several interpretations. They do not build their creed upon the clear texts and instead resort to interpretations of the indistinct texts in a manner which leads to falling into opposition to the clear texts.
    This is also what this man and his followers are famous for.


    - The Christians don't understand that major issues of belief should be built upon texts that are authenically transmitted without any doubt and this also true regarding this man and his followers.


    - The Christians and the Jews even more so do not have the needed respect for our Creator jalla jalaluhu and think that they are speaking about their neighbor next door or someone like that. This is also true regarding this man for he does not even shy away from mentioning the body parts of animals while speaking regarding the divine attributes. One of his admirers in Egypt (whom some ignorant people regard as a scholar) even mentioned donkeys in this context. May Allah ta'ala give him what he deserves.


    - The Christians are known for making claims that openly contradict sound reason. This man is also famous for this. Both of them claim then that their disbelief is based upon the scriptures and that we should through away the reason that Allah ta'ala gave us and submit to their pagan interpretations of the scriptures.


    - The Christians are lacking in detailed knowledge of the Hebrew language and that's why they misinterpret the Old testament. And this man is lacking in the detailed knowledge of the language of the Arabs and therefore comes up with all kinds of ridiculous misinterpretations (his affirmation of clothing for that which he worships is prime example for his ignorance of language).



    I could go on and on, but the above should be enough. We ask Allah ta'ala to protect us from following the footsteps of the Jews and the Christians. Amin.



    ​​​​
    ​​​​​​
    Last edited by Abu Sulayman; 10-01-22, 10:09 PM.

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  • Abu Sulayman
    replied
    Originally posted by Rauf View Post

    What was their reasoning behind saying "if Allah is not one eyed, then he must have two eyes"?

    Just because something isn’t one, it doesn’t necessarily mean it is two. It can be zero.
    Al-Salamu 'alaykum,

    my problem is actually not the affirmation of A'yun or even 'Aynayn, but rather the way this Ibn 'Uthaymin affirms it and the absolute pagan reasoning that he uses.
    The affirmation of A'yun as a description of Allah ta'ala is correct, but we don't delve into its exact meaning and relegate its reality to Allah ta'ala while being sure that similarity is not intended in any way.
    We basically rely on the Muhkamat for our creed and understand the Mutashabihat in their context and not the other way around.

    As for what Ibn 'Uthaymin affirms: He affirms two tangible entities (meaning: which can be physically pointed at) that make up the divine Self (because in his pagan imagination "god" is made up of inseparable eternal parts), so his affirmation of 'Aynayn is such that it shares the reality of the eyes of the creation and just differs with it in size, form, substance and so on.
    In his imagination these 'Aynayn are the TOOLS OF SEEING and he explicitly states this here:

    المجسم ابن عثيمين لله عينين حقيقتين يبصر بهما لأن العينين هما أداة الإبصار !!! (تجسيم



    His whole imagination and understanding is nothing less than Kufr. And whosoever defends this Kufr is also guilty of it.



    If we get back to the post that you quoted, then you will see that he stated the following:

    Originally posted by Abu Sulayman View Post
    Ibn 'Uthaymin said in Sharh al-'Aqida al-Wasitiyya (scanned page HERE):

    وهذا الحديث يدل على أن لله تعالى عينين اثنتين فقط. ووجه الدلالة أنه لو كان لله أكثر من اثنتين، لكان البيان به أوضح من البيان بالعور، لأنه لو كان لله أكثر من عينين، لقال: إن ربكم له أعين، لأنه إذا كان له أعين أكثر من ثنتين، صار وضوح أن الدجال ليس برب أبين. وأيضاً: لو كان لله عز وجل أكثر من عينين، لكان ذلك من كماله، وكان ترك ذكره تفويتاً للثناء على الله، لأن الكثرة تدل على القوة والكمال والتمام، فلو كان لله أكثر من عينين، لبينها الرسول عليه الصلاة والسلام، لئلا يفوتنا اعتقاد هذا الكمال، وهو الزائد على العينين الثنتين

    This narration indicates that Allah ta'ala has only two eyes.
    The way of indication [here] is that if Allah would have more than two eyes, then its proclamation would be clearer than the proclamation of one-eyedness (or blindness of one eye) [found in the narration], because if Allah would have more than two eyes, then he would have said "your Lord has eyes". [This is so] because if He would have more than two eyes, than the clarity of the Dajjal not being the Lord [of the worlds] would be more obvious.
    And also: If Allah 'azza wa jall would have more than two eyes, then this would be from His perfection; and then abstaining from mentioning [this] would be missing out on mentioning the praise of Allah, because multiplicity indicates power, perfection and completion. So if Allah would have more than two eyes, then the Messenger - peace and blessings be upon him - would have made it clear, so that we do not miss out on believing in this perfection, and that is the addition [of more eyes] to the two eyes.

    - end of quote -
    Note that his statement that multiplicity indicates power, perfection and completion is from the reasoning of the pagans in order to affirm the multiplicity of divine beings.
    Connecting the above pagan reasoning with his claim that "god has only two real eyes", it is an affirmation of a lack of perfection for that which he worships besides Allah ta'ala.

    And as for him stating that if "god" would have "more than two eyes" that it would become more obvious that the Dajjal is not our Lord, then it shows that he's a full-fledged pagan, who has no knowledge of our Lord whatsoever to the degree that even if a man with all the characteristics of a creation stands before him he will still need to check how many of healthy eyes this man has in order to know that this man is not our Lord jalla jalaluhu.





    Last edited by Abu Sulayman; 10-01-22, 09:27 PM.

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  • AbuNajm
    replied
    Originally posted by Rauf View Post

    That was what I was asking. Why do they claim that it is necessary to say Allah is two eyed because we read in the Hadith that "Allah is not one eyed"? Why do they not consider the possibility of Allah not having an eye since Allah is not one eyed?
    The Hadith does not say "Allah is not one-eyed". The word in Arabic is "A'war" which means "one eye out of two is blind". It doesn't mean "possessing only one physical eye ball". The detailed descriptions of the Dajjal in Hadith state the Dajjal has two eyes and the right one is deformed like a "protruding grape" and he is blind in that eye.

    Blind in both eyes is called "A'maa". And despite calling a person who is blind in one eye "one-eyed", we do not call a person who is blind in both eyes "no-eyed".

    So, these Hadith affirm that Allah AWJ has "Two Eyes" and is not blind in one of His Two Eyes, which would make Him SWT "A'war".

    Likewise, this Hadith affirms that Allah AWJ does not have more than Two Eyes.

    Your mistake was in using "logic" without first understanding the meaning of the Hadith beyond the English translation presented.

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  • Rauf
    replied
    Originally posted by AbuNajm View Post

    Al-Hafiz Uthman bin Sa'eed ad-Darimi said that the Hadith of the Dajjal implies that Allah AWJ has Two Eyes way back in the 3rd century Hijri. Every Imam of Aqidah for Ahl as-Sunnah has affirmed that since then.

    Don't let these people fool you into thinking this started with Ibn Taymiyyah or Ibn Uthaymeen.
    That was what I was asking. Why do they claim that it is necessary to say Allah is two eyed because we read in the Hadith that "Allah is not one eyed"? Why do they not consider the possibility of Allah not having an eye since Allah is not one eyed?

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  • AbuNajm
    replied
    Originally posted by aMuslimForLife View Post

    Ibn Rajab on Ibn Taymiyyah, and the Hanbalis Prohibition of his time against him Giving Fatwa

    Imam Ibn Rajab wrote, “Large groups of the Imams of Ahlul Hadith and their hadith masters and Jurists loved the Shaykh and venerated him but they disliked that he was involved with the theologians and philosophers, for uninvolvement was the way of the early Imams of Ahlul Hadith such as Ash Shafi, Ahmad, Ishaq, Abu Ubayd and the like. Similarly, many of the Ulama among the Jurists, the hadith scholars, and the righteous hated his idiosyncratic promotion of certain aberrant matters which the Salaf had condemned together with those who promoted them to the point that one of the judges among our companions forbade him to give fatwa in some of those instances.” (Ibn Rajab, Dhayl Tabaqat al Hanabila -2:394)
    Another false quote-

    Nowhere does the above quote in Arabic suggest that Ibn Taymiyyah was prohibited from "giving Fatwa" in general.

    وطوائف من أئمة ‌أهل ‌الحديث وحفاظهم وفقهائهم: كَانُوا يحبون الشيخ ويعظمونه، وَلَمْ يكونوا يحبون لَهُ التوغل مَعَ أهل الْكَلام ولا الفلاسفة، كَمَا هُوَ طريق أئمة ‌أهل ‌الْحَدِيث المتقدمين، كالشَّافِعِي وَأَحْمَد وإسحاق وأبي عبيد ونحوهم، وكذلك كثير هن الْعُلَمَاء من ‌الْفُقَهَاء والمحدثين والصالحين كرهوا لَهُ التفرد ببعض شذوذ المسائل الَّتِي أنكرها السلف عَلَى من شذ بِهَا، حَتَّى إِن بَعْض قضاة العدل من أَصْحَابنا منعه من الإفتاء ببعض ذَلِكَ
    For obvious reasons, the translators of the above Arabic quote from Dhayl Tabaqat il-Hanabilah intentionally take liberties to give a completely different impression of what the text actually says.

    When the Arabic says: "wa lam yakunu yahibbuna lahu..." which means: "and they did not like him to...", they translated it as: "but they disliked that he..." There is no word for "dislike" in Arabic!

    And when the Arabic says: "karihu lahu at-tafarrud bi-ba`dhi shudhudh il-masa'ili..." which means: "they disliked for him to focus specifically on some of the rare/abnormal issues...", they translated it as: "hated his idiosyncratic promotion of certain aberrant matters..." There is no word in the Arabic for "promotion" or attributing "idiosyncrasy" to 'Ibn Taymiyyah!

    When the Arabic says: "they did not like/love for him", the distorters say: "they disliked..." But when the Arabic says: "they disliked...", the distorters say: "they hated..."

    What is wrong with these people? Their only audience must be fellow distorters of texts and people who have no clue about the Arabic language...

    When the Arabic says: "hatta 'inna ba`dha qudat il-`adli min 'as'habina mana'ahu min al-'ifta'i bi-ba`dha dhalika" which means: "to the point that some of the judges of probity from among our companions prevented him from giving verdicts in some of that..." They translated "some of the judges" as "one of the judges"!

    So, the alleged "prohibition of Fatwa" was limited to the "rare/abnormal issues" dealing specifically with rare/abnormal issues related to theological rhetoric [kalaam] and philosophy. It was not a general prohibition from giving Fatwa.

    If anything, this prevention of the Fatawa of Ibn Taymiyyah by any Hanabilah referred to by Ibn Rajab was related to the position of the Salaf to avoid Kalaam and philosophy altogether and to not expose the common Muslims to it. And Ibn Taymiyyah's involvement with it was always related to his rebuttals towards the philosophers and rhetoricians.

    This false translation presents readers with the invention that Ibn Taymiyyah was somehow rebuked by Hanbalis for "promoting aberrant matters" and of course they wish that was somehow related, even if only by implication, to his beliefs and creed, when, in fact, it is not.

    Terrible.

    This is why I can't participate here. Too much distortion for one man to deal with and several people who are the kings of copy & paste with apparently nothing better to do than create hundreds of posts full of awful translations, distorted quotes, and even worse conclusions.

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  • AbuNajm
    replied
    Originally posted by Rauf View Post

    What was their reasoning behind saying "if Allah is not one eyed, then he must have two eyes"?

    Just because something isn’t one, it doesn’t necessarily mean it is two. It can be zero.
    Al-Hafiz Uthman bin Sa'eed ad-Darimi said that the Hadith of the Dajjal implies that Allah AWJ has Two Eyes way back in the 3rd century Hijri. Every Imam of Aqidah for Ahl as-Sunnah has affirmed that since then.

    Don't let these people fool you into thinking this started with Ibn Taymiyyah or Ibn Uthaymeen.

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  • AbuNajm
    replied
    Originally posted by aMuslimForLife View Post

    Imam Dhahabi on Ibn Taymiyyah, on how the scholars rejected him, and the ignorant embraced him

    Imam Dhahabi said, “If you were to excel in the Principle (al usul) and their affiliates – logic, ethics, philosophy, the sayings of the ancients and the conundrums – all the while protecting yourself with the Book and the Sunnah as well as the doctrines of the Salaf, then joined between reason and transmission, still, I do not think you would reach the level of Ibn Tamiyyah. No by Allah. You would not even come hear it. Yet, I saw what happened to him, how much opposition he faced, desertion, rightful and wrongful declarations of heresy, apostasy, and mendacity! Before he entered into this science (ie Islamic Doctrine), he was shining with light and enlightening others, bearing the marks of the Salaf on his face. Then he became lightless, dark and somber to countless droves of people, a wicked anti-christ and disbeliever according to his enemies, while great numbers of the wise and the elite (ie scholars of Islam), considered him an eminent, brilliant and scholarly innovator (Mubtadi fadil muhaqqiq bari), while the commonality of his uneducated friends, one and all, deemed him the standard-bearer of Islam, the defender of the Religion, and the reviver of the Sunnah.” (Al Dhahabi, Bayan Zaghl al-Ilm)

    There are those who considered Imam Dhahabi’s statement fabricated.

    And I responded with the following.[LIST=1][*]Imam Sakhawi quotes Bayan Zaghl al Ilm, in this book, al-I`lan, he quotes from al Dhahabi, “Ibn Taymiyya was considered by his enemies to be a wicked Anti-Christ and disbeliever, while great numbers of the wise and the elite considered him an eminent, brilliant, and scholarly innovator (mubtadi` fadil muhaqqiq bari`).”

    Why does this matter?, Imam Sakhawi was the student of Al Dhahabi’s son Imam Abu Hurayra. Imam Abu Hurayra ibn al Dhahabi was also the teacher of Imam Ibn Hajar Asqalani, and Imam Ibn Nasir al Din al Dimashqi.

    That is a very short sanad, al Dhahabi – Abu Hurayra – Sakhawi

    Which of these two Imams are you accusing of fabricating this quote from Al Dhahabi?
    Al Dhahabi’s Son Imam Abu Hurayra or Imam Sakhawi?

    The fact that Imam al-Sakhawi quoted al-Dhahabi verbatim in his al-I’lan is proof that he accepted the authenticity of al-Dhahabi’s attack on Ibn Taymiyya.

    This authenticity is amplified by the fact that Imam al Sakhawi was the student of al Dhahabi’s son.

    Imam Sakhawi was also the student of Imam Ibn Hajar al Asqalani.

    2. There are two works that I am aware of in which al Dhahabi censures Ibn Taymiyyah.

    a. Bayan Zaghl al-`Ilm wa al-Talab in which al-Dhahabi states: “Ibn Taymiyya was considered by his enemies to be a wicked Anti-Christ and disbeliever, while great numbers of the wise and the elite considered him an eminent, brilliant, and scholarly innovator (mubtadi` fadil muhaqqiq bari`).”
    It's not necessarily a quote fabricated by Shams ad-Deen adh-Dhahabi, but rather a very poor translation leading some biased people to allege an "attack" by the Imam against his Shaykh.

    The problem is with the translation underlined and bolded above where Shams ad-Deen adh-Dhahabi is accused of saying that "great numbers of the wise and elite considered him an eminent, brilliant, and scholarly innovator". How does that even make sense?

    The original Arabic is:
    ثُمَّ صَارَ مُظْلِمًا مَكْسُوفًا عَلَيْهِ قُتْمَةٌ عِنْدَ خَلَائِقَ مِنَ النَّاسِ، وَدَجَّالًا أَفَّاكًا كَافِرًا عِنْدَ أَعْدَائِهِ وَمُبْتَدِعًا، فَاضِلًا مُحَقِّقًا بَارِعًا عِنْدَ طَوَائِفَ مِنْ عُقَلَاءِ الْفُضَلَاءِ، وَحَامِلَ رَايَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَحَامِي حَوْزَةِ الدِّينِ وَمُحْيِي السُّنَّةِ عِنْدَ عُمُومِ عَوَامِّ أَصْحَابِهِ".

    The term Mubtadi` goes with the previous descriptions of Dajjal, Afak, and Kafir which are attributed to his "enemies". While the terms Fadil, Muhaqqiq, and Bari` are descriptions attributed to 'Ibn Taymiyyah by the "Tawa'if" of the "wise and elite".

    There are no connective particles between any of the grouped descriptions in this section of the quote except before the term "Mubtadi`" which indicates it belongs with the previous grouping of descriptions, not the subsequent ones.

    Even the editor of this transcript for the Shamela version of this book places punctuation after the term "Mubtadi`" indicating that the previous phrase pauses afterwards. This suggests that the term "Mubtadi`" belongs with the previous descriptions and is separated from what comes next of positive descriptions.

    So, it's not an "attack" by Imam adh-Dhahabi on his teacher, Ibn Taymiyyah. Only a bad translation could serve as proof for that.

    This is why I never trust these translations or quotes from Mu'attilah and Jahmiyyah when they talk about Aqidah or the Hanabilah.

    Several of my chains of transmission for the works of Shams ad-Deen adh-Dhahabi go through this chain of Shams ad-Deen as-Sakhawi and the son of adh-Dhahabi, Imam Abu Hurayrah.

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