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Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

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  • #16
    Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

    Life after Conquest of Mecca

    Rumor Of Divorce By The Holy Prophet

    In Madina, Umar lived in an elevated part of the city. His neighbor was Banu Umayya bin Zaid Ansari. The practice was that one day Umar attended the Holy Prophet, and informed his Ansari friend about all that had happened in the Prophet's Mosque. The other day Banu Umayya attended the Prophet's Mosque and on return informed Umar of all that had happened that day.

    Umar felt that while in Mecca the Qurai****es dominated over their women, in Madina things had changed, and the women asserted themselves. One day Umar was cross with his wife on some matter, but instead of being quiet she retorted, "How is it that you feel annoyed at my remonstrance. Go and see that the wives of the Holy Prophet remonstrate with the Holy Prophet. Tonight one of his wives quarreled with him all the night."

    Hearing this, Umar went to his daughter Hafsa and enquired of her whether she had quarreled with the Holy Prophet. She said that she had quarreled with the Holy Prophet as she had a grievance. Thereupon Umar said, "Hafsa you are incurring loss. Don't you know by annoying the Holy Prophet you invite the wrath of God." After reprimanding her in severe terms, Umar returned home.

    At night, the Ansari neighbor of Umar knocked at his door, and as Umar went to see what was the matter, his friend told him that something very grave had happened. Umar thought that perhaps Banu Ghassan whose attack was expected had invaded Madina. Umar enquired whether Banu Ghassan had launched the attack. Banu Umaya said, "No. Something more serious than that has happened". When Umar pressed him to tell what had happened he said that the Holy Prophet had divorced his wives.

    Umar was very much upset at the news. He spent the whole night in prayer. Early in the morning next day, Umar went to Hafsa. He found her weeping. He enquired of her whether the Holy Prophet had divorced her. She said that she did not know. Umar rebuked her saying. "Did I not warn you before hand that by annoying the Holy Prophet you would be inviting trouble?" Thereupon Hafsa burst into violent sobs. Umar left her weeping and went to the Prophet's Mosque. There the people were sitting in groups here and there and were lamenting that the Holy Prophet had divorced his wives.

    The Holy Prophet was in the cell attached to the Mosque. Umar went to the cell, and asked the slave at the door to seek the Holy Prophet's permission to his admittance. The slave returned to say that he had sought the requisite permission from the Holy Prophet but he had kept quiet.

    Umar returned to the main hall of the Mosque, and sat in a corner in a dejected mood. After some time he rose and went again to the ceil of the Holy Prophet. Once again he requested the slave to get permission for his admittance. The slave returned to say that the Holy Prophet had made no reply.

    Umar returned once again to the main hall of the Mosque. He was highly upset and he prayed to God for mercy. Then once again he went to the cell of the Holy Prophet. This time he was allowed permission. Entering the cell, Umar said:

    "O Messenger of God, I have not come to plead for Hafsa.

    If that is your pleasure I would wring her neck with my own hands."

    That softened the Holy Prophet and he smiled at the words of Umar.

    Umar further said, "I find that in Mecca our ladies were docile; the climate of Madina has made them assertive. O Prophet of God if because of the impudence of your wives, you have divorced them, God, His angels, and all your followers are with you."

    The Holy Prophet smiled and said, "Be assured, I have not divorced my wives. I have only decided to remain separate from them for a period of one month."

    "Then may I tell so to Hafsa", said Umar.

    The Holy Prophet said. "You may, if you like".

    Umar cast a glance across the room. The Holy Prophet lay on a bare mat. There was no furniture in the room. There was hardly anything for the Holy Prophet to eat, but a barley bread. Seeing this extreme state of austerity, tears began to trickle from the eyes of Umar.

    The Holy Prophet said, "Ibn-i-Khattab, what makes you weep ?"

    Umar said, "You are the Prophet of God and you are living in such straitened circumstances. The people of Persia and Byzantine live in luxury. O Prophet of God why don't you pray to God that he should bestow wealth on you?"

    The Holy Prophet said. "Do you think He Who made me His Prophet could not make me wealthy. Indeed He offered me the keys of all treasures in the world, but I refused them in return for the treasures in the next world. Surely treasures in the next world are to be preferred to petty wealth in this world. And as for the riches of Persia and Byzantine rest assured all such wealth will lie at the feet of the Muslims. I will not be alive then, but in your lifetime, both Persia and Byzantine will be overpowered by the Muslims."

    The Funeral Of Abdullah Bin Ubayy

    Abdullah bin Ubayy was an Ansar chief of Madina. Abdullah bin Ubayy had the ambition to wear the crown of Madina. When the people of Madina invited the Holy Prophet and the Muslims to migrate to Madina and accepted the Holy Prophet as their ruler the designs of Abdullah bin Ubayy were frustrated. As all the Arabs of Madina accepted Islam, Abdullah also became a Muslim as a measure of expediency. Islam, however, sat lightly on him, and he often indulged in activities hostile to Islam.

    In the battle of Uhud, he betrayed the Muslim trust and withdrew his contingent at the last moment. On the occasion of the raid of Al-Mustaliq he said unbecoming things against the Muhajreen including the Holy Prophet. In the sad episode of False Allegation he was responsible for calumny against Ayesha. Umar sought the permission of the Holy Prophet to kill Abdullah bin Ubayy, but the Holy Prophet, kind-hearted as he was, did not give the permission.

    Even Allah had taken notice of the hypocrisy of Abdullah bin Ubayy, and in a revelation to the Holy Prophet it was said that even if he prayed for the hypocrites seventy times his prayer would not be accepted.

    When Abdullah bin Ubayy died, the Holy Prophet attended his funeral and decided to lead the funeral prayer. At this stage Umar waited on the Holy Prophet, and tried to dissuade him from leading the funeral prayer of Abdullah bin Ubayy. Umar recounted the various hypocrisies of Abdullah, and also referred to the revelation where under God had said that the hypocrites would not be forgiven even if seventy prayers were offered.

    The Holy Prophet said:

    "Umar, get behind me and let us offer the prayer. In this matter God has given me the choice, and I have decided to adopt a magnanimous attitude."

    Thereupon Umar joined the ranks and the funeral prayers were offered under the leadership of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet remained in the graveyard till Abdullah was buried. Then the Holy Prophet prayed over the grave of Abdullah before returning home.

    A few days later, the following verses were revealed to the Holy Prophet:

    "And never pray for any of them at his funeral, And do not stand by his grave, For they disbelieved in God and His Apostle." 9:13

    When the Holy Prophet informed Umar of these verses, Umar felt happy that Almighty Allah had confirmed his point of view.

    When Gabriel Appeared In The Shape Of A Man

    Umar stated that one day when he and some other companions were with God's Messenger, a man with very white clothing and very black hair came up. Sitting down beside the Holy Prophet leaning his knees against his, and placing his hands on his thighs he said, "Tell me Muhammad about Islam."

    The Holy Prophet said, " Islam means that you should testify that there is no god but Allah; that Muhammad is God's Messenger; that you should observe the prayer, pay the Zakat, fast during Ramadan, and make the pilgrimage to the House of God, if you have the means".

    The visitor said "You have spoken the truth. Now tell me about faith "
    The Holy Prophet said, "It means that you should believe in Allah, His angels, His books, His Apostles, and the last day, and that you should believe in the decreeing both of good and evil."

    The man said that that was true. He then asked, "Now tell me about doing good."

    The Holy Prophet said, "It means that you should worship Allah as if you are seeing Him, and if you aye not seeing him (perceive) that He is in fact seeing you."

    The man accepted the statement as correct. He next asked, "Now tell me about the Hour".

    The Holy Prophet said, "The one who is asked about is no better informed than the one who is asking".

    Thereupon the man said, "Then tell me about its signs".

    The Holy Prophet replied, "The signs are that a maid servant should beget her mistress, and that you should see barefooted naked poor men and shepherds exulting themselves in buildings."

    The visitor felt satisfied then he sought leave to depart and as soon as leave was given he disappeared Umar who was present wondered who was the visitor.

    Turning to Umar, the Holy Prophet said, "Do you know who was the visitor?"

    Umar replied that he did not know.

    Thereupon the Holy Prophet said, "He was Gabriel, who came to you to teach your religion."

    Tidings Of Paradise

    It is related by Abu Huraira that once he along with other companions including Abu Bakr and Umar were sitting with the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet rose from their midst and went to the garden of Ansar Banu Najjar.

    The return of the Holy Prophet was delayed, and his companions felt anxious. Abu Huraira was the first to proceed to the garden of Banu Najjar. There he found no gate. He managed to go inside the garden through a drain.

    Seeing him, the Holy Prophet said, "Abu Huraira what brings you here?"
    Abu Huraira said, "You took long to return and we felt worried. So we have come after you".

    Thereafter the Holy Prophet gave him his shoes and said, "Go carrying these shoes outside the garden, and whomsoever you meet who declares the article of faith with the sincerity of heart, give him the tidings of Paradise."

    As Abu Huraira came out of the garden carrying the shoes of the Holy Prophet, the first person to meet him was Umar.

    Umar said to Abu Huraira, "Why are you carrying the shoes of the Holy Prophet ?"

    Abu Huraira said, "I am carrying these shoes under the command of the Holy Prophet. I have been commissioned to give the tidings of Paradise to whomsoever I meet, while carrying these shoes, who declares that he believes in the article of faith with sincerity of heart."

    Umar felt angry. He handled Abu Huraira rather violently and said, "No such tidings are necessary. Abu Huraira go back."

    As Abu Huraira went back to the Holy Prophet, he complained against Umar, and said that Umar had obstructed him in the performance of the mission that the Holy Prophet had entrusted to him.

    In the meantime Umar also turned up. Seeing him, the Holy Prophet said, "Why did you behave rudely to Abu Huraira?"

    Umar said "May my parents be a sacrifice to you Holy Prophet. The truth of the matter is that he intended to give the tidings of Paradise to all Muslims irrespective of their conduct. That would have been repugnant to the injunctions of Islam which makes admission to Paradise contingent by doing good. Holy Prophet, do not issue permits for the Paradise. Let the people do their duties. If they are assured of Paradise before hand there is the danger that they would relax in the performance of their obligations."

    The Holy Prophet said, "Alright, let the Muslims perform their obligations."

    The Farewell Pilgrimage

    Early in A.D. 632 the Holy Prophet decided to proceed to Mecca to perform the Hajj. The pilgrimage was planed on a large scale. Messengers were sent to all parts of Arabia asking the Muslims to collect at Madina for the purpose of the pilgrimage. In response to this call over one lakh persons assembled in Madina.

    Then the caravan of over one lakh persons started for Mecca. The Holy Prophet rode at the head. All his wives accompanied him. Then followed Abu Bakr and Umar accompanied by their families.

    At Dhul Hulaifa the Holy Prophet and all his followers put on the Ihram. The Holy Prophet gave the signal call "Labbaik, Allabumma Labbaik--here I am at Thy service O Lord." This cry was repeated by all the one lakh persons in the congregation.

    The party reached Mecca on the 4th of Zul Hajj, after a journey of nineteen days. On the 8th of Zul Hajj the party left Mecca for Mina and passed the night there. Next day the party proceeded to Arafat. After mid-day prayers on the 9th of Zul Hajj the Holy Prophet delivered his historic address.

    After giving praise to God, the Holy Prophet said:

    "O people, listen carefully to my words for I may not be among you next year, nor ever address you again from this spot. O people just as you regard this month as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that none may hurt you. Usury is forbidden. Satan has despaired of leading you astray in big things, so beware of obeying him in small things. Women have rights over you and you have rights over them. Be good to them. You may soon have to appear before God and answer for your deeds so beware. Do not go astray after I have gone. O people no prophet will come after me, and no new faith will be born. Worship your God, say your prayer, fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in charity. All Muslims free or enslaved have the same rights and the same responsibilities. None is higher than the other unless he is higher in virtue. Feed your slaves as you feed yourselves; clothe them as you clothe yourselves. Do not oppress them, nor usurp their rights."

    Having spoken thus the Holy Prophet turned his face to the Heaven and said:

    "Be my witness O God, that I have conveyed Your message to Your people."

    And then all the people said:

    "Yes, you have done so."

    After the Holy Prophet had delivered his address, God revealed to him the verses:

    "This day have We perfected for you your faith, And completed Our blessing upon you And have accepted for you Islam as religion."

    As Umar heard these verses, he felt happy that God had perfected the faith for them. Umar called on Abu Bakr and found him very sad. Umar asked Abu Bakr the reason for his sadness when God had sent the tidings that their faith had been perfected. Abu Bakr said that the implication of these verses was that the mission of the Holy Prophet had been completed, and that the day when the Holy Prophet would depart to meet his Lord was not far off. Umar could not, however, share the fears of Abu Bakr that the Holy Prophet would not live long in their midst.

    The party left Arafat in the evening and passed the night at Muzdalifa. The following day they went to Mina and sacrificed the animals. The Holy Prophet sacrificed 63 animals, one for each year of his life. Umar sacrificed 52 animals. The men next shaved their heads and the Hajj was completed. Thereafter the Holy Prophet and his followers returned to Madina.
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    • #17
      Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

      Death of the Holy Prophet Passing Away Of The Holy Prophet

      A short time after returning from the "Farewell Pilgrimage", the Holy Prophet fell sick. The poison which a Jewess had given to him at Khyber had slowly penetrated into his system, and began to show its effects. The Holy Prophet felt that having fulfilled his mission his earthly life was to end and he was to meet his Master.

      One night the Holy Prophet went to the graveyard and there prayed for the souls of his companions who had fallen at the battle of Uhud. Then he returned to the apartment of his wife Maimuna. The fever became violent. The Holy Prophet assembled all his wives and told them that on account of his sickness it would not be possible for him to visit each wife in turn. He wanted their permission to stay in the apartment of Ayesha till he recovered. All the wives gave their consent, and the Holy Prophet supported by Ali and Abbas moved to the apartment of Ayesha.

      A day later there was some relief and the Holy Prophet took a bath. Refreshed by the bath the Holy Prophet went to the Mosque to offer the noonday prayer. After the prayer had concluded, the Holy Prophet took his seat on the pulpit and addressed the people:

      "There is a servant whose Lord has given him option between this life and the next nigh unto the Lord and the servant has chosen the latter. O People it has reached me that you are afraid of the approaching death of your Prophet. Has any previous Prophet lived for ever among those to whom he was sent so that I would live for ever among you? Behold, I am about to go to my Lord. You too will go sooner or later."

      After the address the Holy Prophet retired to the quarter of Ayesha. His condition did not improve The night following the seventh June 632 A D. lay heavy upon him. He was overheard praying constantly to Allah for his blessings The morning of the eighth June brought some relief. Fever and pain abated to some extent. Moving the curtain of his apartment the Holy Prophet saw the Muslims praying in the Mosque. The Holy Prophet supported by Ali walked to the Mosque. After the conclusion of the prayer, the Holy Prophet took his seat on the pulpit and addressed his followers thus:

      "By the Lord! As for myself, I have not made lawful anything excepting that which God has declared lawful; nor have I prohibited aught but that which God has forbidden."

      Thereafter the Holy Prophet returned to the apartment of Ayesha. The condition of the Holy Prophet grew worse, and within a few hours he passed away.

      The faithful had assembled in the Mosque. They sat in groups here and there. There was an air of uneasiness in the atmosphere. There was a whispering that the Holy Prophet was dead, There were suppressed sobs and sighs, Many persons were weeping, What would happen to the Muslims when the Great Prophet was to be no longer in their midst was the thought that disturbed everyone.

      All eyes were turned to the quarter of Ayesha. The faithful had the fond hope that the door of the chamber would open any moment and the Holy Prophet would emerge with his face radiating divine light.

      In the courtyard of the Mosque. Umar moved among the people saying:
      "Who says that the Prophet is dead. I testify that he is alive and has gone to Allah like Moses, and would return to us after some time."

      The door of the chamber of Ayesha opened and a thin frail old man walking stoopingly moved towards the courtyard of the Mosque. He had the look of a patriarch. He was Abu Bakr. As he stood among the people, his furrowed face and tear stained eyes betrayed the grief within him. In measured words he said:

      "Listen to me, ye people. Those of you who worshipped Muhammad know that he is dead like any other mortal. But those of you who worship the God of Muhammad know that He is alive and would live for ever."

      A hushed silence fell on the gathering. They were stunned with the shock. Abu Bakr wiped the tears from his eyes and turning to the people recited the following verses from the Holy Quran:

      "Muhammad is but a Messenger, Messengers of God have passed away before him. What, if he dies or is killed? Will you turn back upon your heels? And whosoever turns back upon his heels Will by no means do harm to Allah, And Allah will reward the thankful."

      Abu Bakr added:

      "Muhammad the Great Prophet was a mortal; From Allah he came, and to Allah he has returned."

      The effect of Abu Bakr's address was electrical in character. It appeared as though the people did not know that this verse of the Holy Quran had come down until Abu Bakr had recited it that day. Umar said:

      "By God when I heard Abu Bakr recite these words I was dumb founded so that my legs would not bear me, and I fell to the ground knowing that the Holy Prophet was indeed dead."

      Election Of Abu Bakr As The First Caliph

      When the dead body of the Holy Prophet of Islam was being prepared for burial, the Ansar assembled at their meeting place 'Saqifa-i-Bani Sa'dah' to discuss the question of succession to the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet was the last of the prophets, and there could be no prophet after him. He was also the Leader of the Muslims, and it was necessary that after him there should be some one who should be the head of the community.

      At the meeting at Saqifa-i-Bani Sa'dah, Sa'd bin Ubadah made a passionate plea that the successor to the Holy Prophet for managing the temporal affairs of the community should be chosen from among the Ansars. He argued that they were the people who had protected Islam, and had offered a home for the Holy Prophet and his companions when they were persecuted by their own people. It was through their efforts that Islam had spread and grown. When Sa'd completed his speech he was applauded by the audience and it appeared as if the Ansars were going to choose him as their Leader in succession to the Holy Prophet.

      While the meeting was being held at Saqifa-i-Bani Sa'dah some one reported to the Muhajreen assembled at Masjid-Nabvi that the Ansars had assembled to choose a successor to the Holy Prophet. it was a critical situation. The burial of the Holy Prophet was a matter that needed priority, but the question of choosing a successor to the Holy Prophet was a question of life and death for the Muslim community and if any wrong decision was taken at that stage, the future of Islam was likely to be jeopardized. Umar accordingly prevailed upon Abu Bakr to proceed to Saqifa-i-Bani Sadah to negotiate the matter with the Ansars before it was too late.

      When Abu Bakr, Umar, and Abu Ubaidah reached the Saqifa-i-Bani Sa'dah, the Ansars were on the verge of electing Sa'd bin Ubadah as the successor to the Holy Prophet. Abu Bakr took the stage and explained that the Quraish were the custodians of the House of God at Mecca, and as such it was necessary that the successor to the Holy Prophet should be chosen from among the Quraish. Addressing his appeal to the Ansar he said:

      "O Ansar, none can deny the superiority of your position, or the greatness of your eminence in Islam. You were chosen by Allah as the helpers of His religion and His Apostle. To you the Prophet was sent on his emigration from Mecca and from among you come the majority of his companions and his wives. Indeed, in position you are next only to the earliest companions. Therefore it would be fair if we take the Amirate and you accept the Wazirate. You should not be obstinate in your stand. We assure you that we will do nothing without consulting you."

      This did not satisfy the Ansars. Habab bin Mandhar rose to say that the Amirate was the right of the Ansars and they could not forego that right. He added that the utmost concession that they could make in favor of the Muhajreen was that they could have two Amirs, one from the Ansars and the other from the Muhajreen.

      Umar said that this would create a division between the Ansars and the Muhajreen and that would be against the interests of Islam. Islam stood for unity-one God, one Prophet and one Quran. It followed as a necessary corollary that the Muslim community should remain united and should have one Amir. If the proposal of having two Amirs from the Ansars and Muhajreen was accepted, other tribes would later lay claim to the election of their Amir as well. Such multiple Amirates would lead to the disintegration of Islamic polity. Umar emphasized that in the interests of the solidarity of Islam they should not have more than one Amir and that such Amir should be chosen from among the Quraish, the tribe of the Holy Prophet.

      There was some further exchange of hot words between Habab and Umar. Abu Bakr took the stage again and said:

      "God is my witness that we are not pressing the claim of the Quraish because of any selfish interest. The proposal is prompted in the interest of the solidarity of Islam. To give you a proof positive of our sincerity I declare before you that I do not covet the office. Here are Umar and Abu Ubaidah. You may choose any one of these."

      This appeared to have some effect on the Ansars. Zaid bin Thabit an eminent Ansar said:

      "In fact the Holy Prophet was from the emigrants Hence it is necessary that the Imam is also selected from among them. God chose us as Helpers, and we should continue to help the successor of the Holy Prophet in the same way as we helped the Holy Prophet himself."

      Supporting him, Bashir bin Sad another Ansar leader said: "O Ansar! if we have secured a position of superiority in the holy wars against the polytheists and gained precedence in matters of religion, it was with the object of pleasing our Allah and obeying our Prophet. It is not proper to make this as a ground for self aggrandizement. We should leave our reward to Allah. We must realize that the Holy Prophet came from the Quraish, and that the Quraish have strongest claims for his successorship. We should not quarrel with the Quraish on this issue."

      That turned the tables and the Ansars now appeared to be inclined to choose the Leader from among the Quraish. There upon Abu Bakr repeated his proposal that they might choose any one out of Umar and Abu Ubaidah.

      Umar rose to say:

      "O Abu Bakr, how can I or Abu Ubaidah be preferred to you.

      You were the second of the two in the Cave. You were appointed as Amir-ul-Hajj. During his illness the Holy Prophet appointed you as the Imam to lead the prayers. Of all the Companions you were the dearest to the Holy Prophet, and so you are dearest to us. Stretch your hand so that we may offer our allegiance to you."

      Umar made Abu Bakr stand, and he was the first to touch the hand of Abu Bakr reverently ID token of allegiance. Abu Ubaidah was the next to offer allegiance. Thereafter the Ansars except Said bin Ubadah advanced turn by turn to offer allegiance to Abu Bakr.

      Installation Of Abu Bakr As The Caliph

      On the day following the burial of the Holy Prophet, all the Muslims assembled in the Prophet's Mosque.

      Umar addressed the people as follows:

      "O ye men of faith! Yesterday I had said to you Who says that the Holy Prophet is dead'. I am afraid what I said was not correct. In the Holy Book of God there is nothing to indicate that the Holy Prophet was to live forever. The Holy Prophet himself never gave an indication to the effect that he was to live for ever. I was of the impression that the Holy Prophet was to live in our midst and guide us. But this impression was not correct. The Holy Quran itself provides that the Holy Prophet was a mortal liable to death. The Holy Prophet had come from God, and to God he has returned. He has returned after fulfilling the mission entrusted to him. God has perfected our religion. God has given us a Book through which He guided His Messenger, and through which He will continue to guide the faithful.

      Our task is to hold steadfast to the Book of God, and to follow His injunctions. We miss the Holy Prophet. But the Holy Prophet was a messenger. He has delivered the message, and after fulfilling his role returned to his Master. The message remains with us in the form of the Holy Book. Those who worship Allah let them know that Allah lives and is not subject to death. The Holy Prophet was a mortal and has gone to His Master. We must follow in the footsteps of the Holy Prophet, and get used to life without his physical presence. In his absence our people must have a leader who would guide us. For this task who can be more competent than Abu Bakr, the life long friend of the Holy Prophet, whom God has referred to as 'Second of the Two'. O ye faithful, rise and offer allegiance at the hand of Abu Bakr."

      Having made this address, Umar requested Abu Bakr to take his seat on the pulpit. Abu Bakr took his seat on the pulpit, a step below that which was used by the Holy Prophet. Thereafter all the Muslims present swore their allegiance.

      Thereafter Abu Bakr after praising Allah and the Holy Prophet addressed the people:

      "O people ! I swear by Allah that I never coveted the Amirate either by day or by night, nor had I any inclination towards it. I never prayed to God openly or in secrecy to confer the Amirate on me. But I certainly feared that some mischief might arise at this critical juncture in the history of the Muslims. In fact a big task has been assigned to me which is beyond my power to fulfill except with the help of the Almighty Allah. I wished to see the Strongest of men in my place today. Now, it is beyond doubt that I have been elected your Amir, although I am no better than you. Help me if I am in the right; set me right if I am in the wrong. Truth is a trust; falsehood is a treason. The weak among you shall be strong with me till God willing his rights have been vindicated, and the strong among you shall be weak with me till, if the Lord will, I have taken what is due from him. Obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Prophet. When I disobey Him and His Prophet, then obey me not."

      Umar played an important role in the election of Abu Bakr as the first Caliph of Islam. During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar remained as the principal Adviser of the Caliph.
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      • #18
        Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

        Abu Bakr the First Caliph

        Usamah's Expedition To Syria

        After assuming the Caliphate the first issue that Abu Bakr was called upon to decide was whether the expedition to Syria which the Holy Prophet had directed to be sent under the command of Usamah should proceed to its destination, or should the expedition in view of the change in circumstances be abandoned.

        The background of the expedition was that in 639 A D. the Holy Prophet had sent an expedition against the Syrians under Zaid bin Harith. In the confrontation that had taken place at Mutah, Zaid had been martyred. The command had thereafter been taken over by Jafar bin Abu Talib and he had also been martyred. Abdullah bin Rawaha who had next taken the command had also been martyred.

        At that critical stage, Khalid bin Walid had taken over the command By his skillful tactics and superb strategy he had succeeded in retrieving the position and bringing back the Muslim forces safely to Madina. For this act of heroism, Khalid bin Walid had received from the Holy Prophet the title of 'Saifullah'-the Sword of Allah.

        In 632 A.D. on return from the `Farewell Pilgrimage', the Holy Prophet ordered a detachment to be sent against the Syrians under the command of Usamah the son of Zaid bin Harith. Some persons objected to the command of Usamah, a mere youth of twenty when other veteran commanders were available. The Holy Prophet overruled the objection, and declared that Usamah was worthy of the command.

        When the Holy Prophet fell ill the detachment of Usamah was camped at Jorf a few miles from Madina on the road to Syria. On account of the serious illness of the Holy Prophet, Usamah delayed his departure. When the Holy Prophet died, Usamah returned to Madina, and sought further orders from the new Caliph.

        Most of the Companions were of the view that at that critical stage in the history of Islam when most of the tribes had apostatized from Islam, and Madina itself was surrounded by hostile tribes it was dangerous to send the army outside the country. They were further of the view that if the expedition was necessarily to be undertaken, there should be a change in the command and some veteran soldier should be appointed as the commander instead of Usamah. The companions chose Umar as their spokesman to represent their view point before Abu Bakr.

        Umar saw Abu Bakr, and represented the case with considerable vehemence. As regards the issue whether the expedition should or should not be undertaken Abu Bakr said that as the Holy Prophet had insisted on sending the expedition, it would be a breach of faith on his part to reverse the orders of the Holy Prophet. Umar tried to argue that if the army was sent, the city of Madina would be exposed to attack by the enemy, and the Caliphate itself would be in danger. To this Abu Bakr replied:

        "Who am I to withhold the army that the Holy Prophet had ordained to proceed? Come what may, let Madina stand or fall, the Caliphate live or perish, the command of the Holy Prophet shall be carried out."

        As regards the issue about the change of command Abu Bakr said:

        "This objection had been raised before the Holy Prophet as well and he had rejected the objection. How can I as the successor of the Holy Prophet accept an objection which the Holy Prophet had in his wisdom rejected?"

        Umar said:

        "O the Caliph of the Holy Prophet, you are wiser than us all. You are right. May God bless you and your decisions".

        Thereafter Umar explained to the companions the decisions of Abu Bakr, and the justification therefore.

        The army under Usamah was accordingly directed to proceed to its appointed task. On the eve of the departure of the army, Abu Bakr addressed the soldiers and gave them instructions regarding their conduct and responsibilities. Umar was also included among the soldiers in the army of Usamah. Turning to Usamah, Abu Bakr said:

        "I beg one favor of you. Do not take Umar with you. Leave him here to help me."

        The army of Usamah marched from Jorf to Syria. Umar was left at Madina to serve as an Adviser to Abu Bakr.

        Defense Of Madina

        Madina was surrounded by a ring of tribes whose attitude to Islam was unfavorable if not hostile. The Bani Asad had their concentration at Sumairah, the first stage on the way to Mecca. The Bani Ghatafan had their concentration in the south of Madina. The Banu Tha'lba, the Banu Harrach and the Banu Abas had their stronghold at Abraq. The Banu Dhunayn had their headquarter at Dhul Qissa the first stage on the route from Madina to Nejd.

        When Usamah's army left Madina for the Syrian front, the tribes around Madina sent a deputation to wait on Abu Bakr. The tribes were prepared to own Islam, but they refused to pay Zakat. Abu Bakr consulted the companions. Almost all of them advised that as the Muslims were hemmed in by danger from all sides, allegiance of such tribes to Islam should be accepted by foregoing the claim to Zakat, so that there should be no further secession from the fold of Islam.

        According to Suyuti's History of the Caliphs, Abu Bakr Ahmad bin Ibrahim al-lsmail, a scholar of the Shaafii school has preserved an account of what happened in the words of Umar himself. The account reads:

        "When the Apostle of God died, some of the Arabs fell from the faith and they said 'we will perform the prayers, but we will not pay the poor rate'.

        I went to Abu Bakr and said 'O Vicegerent of the Apostle of God conciliate the people and be indulgent to them for they are not on a level with brute beasts'. Abu Bakr, replied 'I hoped for your help, and you have come withholding your aid. You were stern in the time of ignorance. Why have you become dissipated and dispirited in Islam? How can I conciliate with them by ignoring the injunctions of Islam? If God and the Holy Prophet had left the matter to the discretion of the community, I could have accepted your advice and allowed concession in the matter of poor rate on the basis of expediency. But where the orders of the Holy Prophet and Allah are conclusive and definite, how can I or you modify such orders, in spite of the gravity of the situation. Alas the Holy Prophet is dead, and divine inspiration is no longer available to us. As the representative of the Holy Prophet it devolves on me to enforce the order passed by the Holy Prophet, and not to modify or amend such order. "Thereupon I realized how correct was Abu Bakr. I congratulated him on his resolve and assured him of my full support".

        When the delegation of the tribes waited on Abu Bakr, Abu Bakr explained to the delegates that if they professed Islam, they had to observe all the injunctions of Islam in to. There was no half-way house in Islam, and it was not permissible for them to pick and choose according to their whims in the matter of religion. Islam had either to be accepted or rejected, and there was no room in Islam for any compromise on fundamentals. Zakat being a fundamental injunction of Islam had to be made, and any refusal to pay Zakat implied apostasy. Addressing the delegates, Abu Bakr declared in unequivocal terms:

        "Under the circumstances, if with reference to Zakat you withhold even as much as a string to tie a camel, as a Caliph of the Holy Prophet, it will be my duty to fight for it whatever the consequences."

        Umar sat by the side of Abu Bakr as the delegates met the Caliph. Thus rebuffed the recalcitrant tribes decided to accept the challenge. As the main Muslim army under Usamah was out of the country, the tribes felt that Madina was vulnerable and would easily fall to any attack. The tribes held a council of war among themselves and decided to attack Madina. One night the tribes marched to Madina and opened the attack.

        Abu Bakr and Umar were alive to the gravity of the situation. They took precautionary measures and every able bodied male adult in Madina was called upon to come forward for the defense of the city. With all the forces that could be mustered the Muslims marched to face the invaders. The invaders threw inflated water skins in the path of the Muslim army. That frightened the camels on which the Muslims were riding, and the camels ran towards Madina. The tribes felt jubilant at the retreat of the Muslims.

        Abu Bakr and Umar rallied the Muslim forces. In the late hours of the night, the Muslim forces marched out of the city and led a violent attack. The tribal forces were taken unawares and were cut to pieces. Those who survived fled in confusion. Before the day dawned the Muslims had won the victory and the threat to Madina was over.

        Umar And Khalid Bin Walid

        Khalid bin Walid who was a cousin of the mother of Umar was the hero of the apostasy wars conducted during the caliphate of Abu Bakr. While Umar appreciated Khalid's skill as a General he was critical of Khalid's moral conduct.

        Having defeated Taleaha at the battle of Buzakha, and reduced the tribes in the north Khalid bin Walid decided to march against the Bani Tamim who lived on a plateau bordering on the Persian Gulf. The Bani Tamim had accepted Islam during the life time of the Holy Prophet. After the death of the Holy Prophet when the wave of apostasy spread over the Arabian peninsula, the Bani Tamim were also affected. The tribe came to be divided into two sections. One section remained faithful to Islam while the other section apostatized.

        When Khalid gave his army the order to march to Bataha the headquarter of the Bani Tamim a section of the army objected to the order on the ground that the Caliph had not sanctioned any action against the Bani Tamim. The objection was overruled by Khalid.

        The orders of Abu Bakr were that if any tribe professed faith in Islam, no action was to be taken against it. If a tribe did not profess faith in Islam, it was to be invited to accept Islam, and operations were to be undertaken against it only in the event of refusal. The strategy laid down was that if on reaching a settlement the residents pronounced Adhan, it was to be understood that the people were Muslims. In the absence of such response it was to be presumed that the people were hostile to Islam.

        Before the Muslim army reached Bataha, delegation from Bani Tamim waited on Khalid. They brought with them the necessary amount of the tax payable to the Muslims. Khalid took the amount, but continued his advance to Bataha. When the forces of Khalid reached Bataha there were no forces of the Bani Tamim to oppose the Muslims. The position was confused. Malik the chief of Bani Tamim neither came forward to offer his submission, nor did he come forward to oppose the Muslims.

        Khalid directed his soldiers to forage in the neighborhood. Malik and his wife Laila were taken captive and brought before Khalid. Malik's wife Laila was known far and wide for her breath-taking beauty. Her long glossy hair flowed up to her knees. She had gorgeous legs and she carried herself with peculiar grace and charm. In Khalid's camp Malik was killed and Khalid married Laila.

        This led to considerable scandal. In some quarters it was held that Malik was indeed a Muslim and that he had been killed because Khalid coveted his beautiful wife Laila. Some of the Ansars in the army of Khalid led by Abu Qatadah withdrew from the army of Khalid. Abu Qatadah along with Mutamim the brother of the late Malik set out for Madina to lodge a complaint against Khalid. Mutamim was a distinguished poet, and he composed a heart rending elegy mourning the death of his brother. The elegy became very popular in Madina, and those who listened to it felt sympathy for Malik.

        Khalid was summoned to Madina and put to explanation. Khalid's defense was that if according to the Holy Prophet he was the 'Sword of Allah' how could such sword fall against the neck of a Muslim? Umar was highly critical of the conduct of Khalid and held that he was guilty of murdering a Muslim to marry his beautiful wife. As the false prophet Musailma had defeated the Muslims twice, and Khalid's services were required to defeat Musailma, Abu Bakr took a lenient view, and decided that blood money should be paid out of the Baitul Mal to the heirs of Malik. Umar did not feel happy over the decision.

        Khalid fought against Musailma in what came to be known as the battle of Yamama. It was a great trial of strength and though the Muslims won a victory, this was achieved at a heavy cost. Over 14,000 followers of Musailma died in the battle. Twelve hundred Muslims fell as martyrs in the battle and though the number was very much less than the number of dead of Banu Hanifa, the tribe of Musailma, yet the Muslim loss was quite heavy. Among the martyrs was Zaid the brother of Umar. Umar felt much grieved at the death of his brother. He used to say "Whenever the breeze blows from Yamama it brings to me the fragrance of Zaid".

        Terms with the Banu Hanifa were negotiated by Khalid with Maja'a. Maja'a had a beautiful daughter and one of the terms stipulated by Khalid was that Maja'a should marry his daughter to him. Maja'a hesitated but Khalid forced him to marry his daughter to him the same day that the treaty was signed. Umar was critical of the conduct of Khalid, and complained to Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr wrote a letter to Khalid reprimanding him in the following terms:

        "O son of the mother of Khalid. What has gone wrong with you? You are out to wed women when the land around your camp is still drenched with the blood of over a thousand martyrs."

        In Iraq, in the battle of Daumatul Jandal fought in 633 AD, Khalid married the beautiful daughter of the chief Judi bin Rabee'a. Umar spoke critically of this marriage to Abu Bakr. Abu Bakr disposed of the matter with the remarks:

        "Khalid has a soft corner in his heart for beautiful women. He is the victor, and he may well have Bint Judi as his prize, if that is his pleasure."

        At the battle of Muzayyah in Iraq fought under the command of Khalid two Muslims, Abdullah and Labid were killed. Khalid was criticized for killing two Muslims. Umar was very bitter and pressed for action against Khalid, Abu Bakr again took a lenient view. He held that such things were likely to occur when Muslims chose to live in the midst of non-Muslims against whom military operations were undertaken. Abu Bakr paid blood money out of the Baitul Mal to the heirs of the two persons who had been killed.

        Umar As Adviser

        During the Caliphate of the Abu Bakr, Umar was the principal Adviser of the Caliph.

        A story is on record showing the great esteem and regard that Abu Bakr had for Umar and his opinion.

        It is related that once Ayanayah bin Hassan and Aqrah bin Habas two tribal chiefs waited on Abu Bakr, and requested that an estate be awarded to them. They suggested that close to their settlement there was a rock waste land which produced nothing, and that that wasteland might be gifted to them so that by their efforts they might make it productive.

        Abu Bakr consulted the people around him. They suggested that it was a good proposition for thereby the wasteland would become productive. Abu Bakr accordingly agreed to award the land in question to them. A document was drawn up. Umar was not present and Abu Bakr advised the grantees to get it witnessed by Umar.

        The grantees thought that such witnessing by Umar was merely formal and that there would be no difficulty in obtaining his signature, on the document. The grantees went to Umar and requested him to affix his signatures to the document as it had been approved by Abu Bakr.

        After reading the document, Umar returned it to the grantees saying that he could not be a party to the deed.

        The grantees in a fit of anger went to Abu Bakr and reported what Umar had said.

        Abu Bakr remained quiet. Thereupon the grantees turning to the Caliph said "Are you the Caliph, or is Umar the Caliph?"

        Abu Bakr said "You may very well take Umar to be the Caliph".

        Then Umar came to the Caliph. Abu Bakr enquired what was the reason for his refusal to sign the document.

        Umar asked "Is the land which you have gifted your property or is it a trust with you on behalf of the Muslim community".

        Abu Bakr said "It is not my personal property; as such it should be a trust on behalf of the Muslim community".

        Umar said "If that is the position, how can you extinguish the trust by gifting it to A or B. They may take it on lease subject to terms, but it must remain the State property. "

        Turning to the applicants, Abu Bakr said "Umar has spoken the truth. I cannot deviate from the law."

        Turning to Umar, Abu Bakr said "I had already requested you to take over the office of the Caliph, but you thrust the burden on my shoulders. I may not be with you for long and ultimately this responsibility will have to be shouldered by you."

        Abu Bakr And Umar

        Between the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr, the latter was "The Second of the Two". A similar equation obtained between Abu Bakr and Umar. When Abu Bakr became the Caliph, Umar was decidedly the 'Second of the Two'. The attachment and friendship between the two was of an exceptional character. Each preferred the other to himself. After the death of the Holy Prophet, Abu Bakr wanted Umar to be the Caliph, and Umar took steps to have Abu Bakr elected as the Caliph. The Holy Prophet often came to the mosque flanked by Abu Bakr on one side, and Umar on the other.

        Umar and Abu Bakr vied with each other in doing good. In this connection some stories have come down to us which highlight the equation between Abu Bakr and Umar.

        In 633 AD. the Holy Prophet decided to lead an expedition, to Tabuk on the Syrian border. In order to finance the expedition, the Holy Prophet invited contributions and donations from his followers. Umar had then considerable money with him. He thought that that was the occasion when he might excel Abu Bakr in the doing of good. Umar went home and brought his donation. The Holy Prophet enquired of Umar as to what he had left behind for himself and his family. Umar stated that he had donated one half of his wealth in the name of Allah and had left one half for himself and his family. Then Abu Bakr came with his donation and the Holy Prophet put him the same question as to how much he had left for himself and his family.

        Abu Bakr said that he had donated all that he had in the name of Allah, and that he had left Allah and His Prophet for himself and his family. This episode has formed the theme of one of the poems of Iqbal. The poem provides;

        "For the moth the lamp and for the nightingale the flower;

        For Sidiq, God and His Prophet alone suffice."

        On that account Umar realized that it was difficult to excel Abu Bakr in the doing of good.

        Abu Yala records from Ibn Masud that he said "I was in the mosque praying when there entered the Apostle of God and with him were Abu Bakr and Umar. He found me praying and said 'Ask and it shall be granted unto thee'. Then he said 'Whosoever wishes to read the Quran in a fresh and joyous manner let him read it with the reading of Ibn Masud.' Then I returned to my house and Abu Bakr came to me and gave me the good tidings regarding what the Holy Prophet had said. Then came Haarat Umar and he found Abu Bakr going forth having already been before him, and he said 'Verily Abu Bakr is the foremost in good'."

        Even when Umar was not the Caliph, it was his practice to move about in Madina and help persons in distress.

        In one of the suburbs of Madina there lived a blind old women who had no one to help her. Umar used to go in disguise to the house of the old woman, but was always surprised to find that some one else had anticipated him, and supplied the wants of the old lady.

        Umar felt much distressed that in this noble task of helping a lady in distress his efforts were always frustrated by some other person. Umar felt curious as to who that person could be who beat him in the field of social service.

        One day, Umar went to the house of the old woman earlier than usual and hid himself to watch as to who was the person who attended to the wants of the old woman.

        Umar did not have to wait long for soon a man arrived who attended to the needs of the old woman, and this man was none other than the Caliph Abu Bakr.

        Umar felt relieved that if in the matter of social service he had been beaten by any one, such person was the Caliph Abu Bakr who was decidedly superior to him.
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        • #19
          Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

          Umar as Caliph

          Nomination Of Umar As The Caliph

          On the seventh Jamadi-ul Akhir of the 13th A.H. (8th August 633) which was a cold day, Abu Bakr took a bath and caught a chill. That developed into a high fever.

          Abu Bakr was confined to bed, and he appointed Umar to lead the prayers during the period of his illness . His illness prolonged, and when his condition worsened, he felt that his end was near. It was suggested to him that a physician be called. He said "Now all is over."

          Realizing that his end was drawing near, Abu Bakr felt that he should nominate his successor, so that the issue might not be a cause of dissension among the Muslims after his death. Abu Bakr summoned Abdul Rahman bin Auf, and asked for his opinion about the nomination of Umar. Some other Companions were also consulted.

          The general consensus was that Umar was the fittest person to be appointed as the Caliph. It was, however, felt that Umar had too fiery and tirascible temper, and he might not be able to show moderation so necessary for the Head of the Community.

          Abu Bakr observed that Umar's display of severity was meant to counteract his ( Abu Bakr's) leniency. Abu Bakr felt confident that when the full responsibility of government devolved upon Umar he would become more moderate in his opinions.

          Abu Bakr elaborated.

          "I can say from my personal experience that Umar had always cooled me down whenever I lost my temper with any one just as whenever he felt me to be too lenient he counseled greater severity. For this reason I feel certain that with time, Umar will achieve that moderation you desire".

          Taleah objected to the nomination of Umar and said,

          "O successor of the Prophet; You know full well how harsh Umar has been towards us all during your regime and God only knows how he will deal with us when you are gone. You know that you are leaving us for ever, and yet you are content to leave us in the hands of a man whose fierce and ungovernable rages are well known to you. Think O Chief, what answer will you give to your Lord for such a behest."

          At this, Abu Bakr who was lying prostrate in his bed, rose up with considerable effort and said:

          "Have you come to frighten me? I swear that when I meet my Lord, I will gladly tell Him that I appointed as ruler over his people, the man who was the best of all mankind. "

          Thereupon Ali, who was also present, rose to say that he would acknowledge no other Caliph save Umar. Abu Bakr was much impressed with the selflessness of Ali for not pressing his own claim, and for putting the interests of the Muslim community above personal interests. Turning to Ali, Abu Bakr said:

          "You are indeed a prince in the most exalted sense of the term, for others are mere men."

          Then Abu Bakr sent for Umar, and informed him that he had appointed him as his successor.

          Umar said: "But I have no desire for the office." Thereupon, Abu Bakr said:

          "But the office needs you. I have prayed to God to direct me rightly in the choice of my successor, and my choice is fundamental for the unity and strength of the Muslims."

          Umar acquiesced, and Abu Bakr dictated the testament to Othman appointing Umar as the Caliph in succession to Abu Bakr.

          The testament having been drawn up, Abu Bakr, supported by his wife Asma walked up to the door, and addressed the people who had gathered there. He told them that he had appointed Umar as his successor, and they said "We approve."

          After obtaining the approval of the people in general terms, Abu Bakr lay on the bed and prayed to God;

          "O Lord! I have made this testament for the welfare of the community in order to counteract discord among them. What my intentions are, you know full well. I have spared no pains in making the best selection. O God, I entrust the Muslims to your care. O Allah keep their ruler on the right path. O God, make my successor the most pious of rulers and confer peace on the Muslims."

          Umar's Inaugural Address

          After the assumption of office as the Caliph, Umar addressed the Muslims who had assembled in the Prophet's mosque. In the course of the address, Umar said:

          "O ye faithful! Abu Bakr is no more amongst us. After having led us for about two years, he has returned to His Maker. He has the satisfaction that he has successfully piloted the ship of the Muslim state to safety after negotiating the stormy sea. He successfully waged the apostasy wars, and thanks to him, Islam is now supreme in Arabia. Islam is now on the move and we are carrying Jihad in the name of Allah against the mighty empires of Byzantine and Persia.

          After Abu Bakr, the mantle of Khilafat has fallen on my shoulders. I swear it before God that I never coveted this office. I wished that it would have devolved on some other person more worthy than me. But now that in national interest, the responsibility for leading the Muslims has come to vest in me, I assure you that I will not run away from my post, and will make an earnest effort to discharge the onerous duties of the office to the best of my capacity in accordance with the injunctions of Islam.

          In the performance of my duties, I will seek guidance from the Holy Book, and will follow the examples set by the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. In this task I seek your assistance. If I follow the right path, follow me. If I deviate from the right path, correct me so that we are not led astray.

          Now brothers I offer a few prayers and you say Amen to them.

          O Allah I am hard, make me soft to promote the Truth, to comply with your injunctions and to aspire to a better life in the world hereafter.

          O Allah make me hard for the enemies of Islam and for those who create mischief so that their desigus against Allah come to naught.

          O Allah I am miser; make me generous in the promotion of the good.

          O Allah save me from hypocrisy. Strengthen my resolves so that whatever I do, I do for the sake of winning Your approbation.

          O Allah soften my heart for the faithful so that I attend to their needs with a sense of dedication.

          O Allah, I am careless, make me responsible enough so that I do not lose sight of You.

          O Allah I am weak in offering my obedience to You; make me active and fortify my faith.

          O Allah bestow on me faith, and the power to do good.

          O Allah give me the power of self-criticism and self assessment.

          O Allah bestow on me the insight into the meaning of the Quran and the strength to act in accordance with what the Quran says.

          O Allah You are capable of doing anything: bless us with Your favor. Amen."

          Umar's Address About His Conduct

          After the assumption of office as Caliph, Umar soon realized that he was more feared than loved. Abu Bakr his predecessor was tender and soft hearted. Whenever he appeared in the streets of Madina, the children ran to him saying "Father, Father." He caressed and patted them. When Umar became Caliph, the children would run away at his sight saying "Here comes Umar, let us run away."

          On the occasion of the first Friday prayer after his assumption of office as Caliph, Umar addressed the faithful assembled in the mosque in the following terms:

          "Brethren, it has come to my notice that the people are afraid of me. They say 'When the Holy Prophet was alive, Umar was harsh to us. During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar was hard and stern. Now that he has become the Caliph himself, God knows how hard he will be. Whoever has said this is not wrong in his assessment.

          The truth of the matter is that I was the slave and servant of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Prophet was most kind hearted, liberal and generous. In contrast I was hard and harsh so that I was like a naked sword. It was for the Holy Prophet to use the sword or sheathe it at his option. On occasions he sheathed the sword, and sometimes he used it. My purpose was to point to the Holy Prophet the other side of the picture. The decision rested with him. Sometimes he ignored my point of view. There were occasions when he agreed with me. Till the death of the Holy Prophet that remained the equation between him and me. Thank God, the Holy Prophet was pleased with me. Though the Holy Prophet sometimes accepted my advice, and sometimes turned it down, yet he approved of my conduct.

          During the caliphate of Abu Bakr my role remained the same. Abu Bakr was most soft hearted and tender. It was my business to bring the other side of the picture to his notice. He always took my point of view into consideration, but the ultimate decision lay with him. Some times he agreed with me, and I acted as his agent to enforce a decision which appeared to be harsh. Sometimes he did not agree with me, and I had to remain quiet. I am happy that throughout the period of his office, Abu Bakr approved of my conduct, and ultimately nominated me as his successor, although I did not covet the office.

          Now that the entire responsibility has come to vest in me, know ye brethren that you will feel a change in me. I will no longer be hard and stern in all matters. For those who practice tyranny and deprive others of their rights, I will be harsh and stern, but for those who follow the law, and are devoted to religion, I will be most soft and tender. I will not tolerate any person make any excess. He who commits any tyranny, him I will sternly call to book. I will be harsh and stern against the aggressor, but I will be a pillar of strength for the weak and the meek. They will find in me their best friend.

          Friends you have some rights on me, and I tell you of these rights, so that you may be in a position to call me to account. These rights are:

          firstly, that I should not exact any tax or other levy from you not authorized by law;

          secondly, that whatever taxes are lawfully realized from you are spent in your best interests:

          thirdly, it is incumbent on me that I should protect the frontiers of your land;

          fourthly, it is my duty to promote your prosperity and look after your interests; and

          fifthly, it is my obligation to do justice.

          O servants of God, continue to fear God. Suppress your selfish motives and work for the solidarity of the Muslims as a whole. In running the State, you are my partners. Help me with your sound advice. If I follow the right path laid down by God and His Prophet follow me. If I deviate, correct me. Strengthen me with your advice and suggestions. Let us pray for the glory of Islam."

          Amirul Muminin

          When the Holy Prophet died, and Abu Bakr succeeded him he was called "Khalifa tul Rasul", i e. the representative of the Prophet.

          When Abu Bakr died and Umar succeeded him he called himself 'Khalifa', but the question arose whose Khalifa or representative he was. It was pointed out that strictly speaking he was not the Khalifa of the Rasul. He was the Khalifa of the Khalifatul Rasul. Umar felt that this was a cumbersome title, for in that case, those who followed him would have to be designated by an endless chain of Khalifas.

          Umar accordingly felt that the Head of the Muslim State should be known by a simpler title which should reflect the Islamic character of the State. Umar asked the people around him to ponder over the matter, and if they could think of some suitable title they should bring such title to his notice.

          One day Labid bin Rabia and Adi bin Hatim came to Madina from Kufa. They alighted at the Prophet's mosque and there coming across Amr b. Al As asked him to announce their arrival to the Amir-ul-Muminin.

          Amr b. Al As was struck by the novelty of the term 'Amir-ul-Muminin'. He asked Labid and Adi as to how they referred to Umar as 'Amir-ul-Muminin'. They said "We all Muslims are Momins and Umar is our Commander. He is thus Amir-ul-Muminin".

          Amr b. Al As said "Wonderful You have hit upon a beautiful term. God bless You".

          Amr b. Al As hastened to Umar end there said "Amir-ul-Muminin, two persons have come from Kufa, and they seek permission to see you".

          Umar became curious at being addressed "Amirul-Muminin". He asked Amr b. al Aas as to how he had coined the term 'Amir-ul-Muminin'. Amr b. al-Acts said that the visitors from Kufa had used that term, and as he was attracted by the term he had used it.

          Umar said "We were in search of some suitable term to signify the office I hold, and here is a term which is attractive". He asked Amr b. al Aas as to what he thought of the title.

          Amr b. al Aas said "I am attracted by the term. It is God sent. We all are Muslims and you are our Amir. The term is very attractive and significant."
          After Umar had seen the visitors from Kufa, he convened a meeting of his consultative assembly, and there the question was discussed whether he should adopt the title of 'Amir-ul-Muminin' for the office that he held. The Assembly approved the title.

          Henceforward Umar came to be addressed in his official capacity as Amir-ul-Muminin.

          Umar's Allowance

          Before becoming the Caliph Umar lived by trade. After assuming the Caliph he could no longer carry on charge as his business. He accordingly agreed to accept a daily allowance from the Baitul Mal. Different amounts of daily allowance were suggested by different people. Umar sought the advice of Ali as to the amount of the allowance he should accept. Ali suggested that he should take as much amount as might moderately suffice for an average Arab, neither too much, nor too little. Umar accepted this suggestion and a modest amount of allowance was settled for him. The exact amount of the allowance thus settled is, however, not reported in any history.

          Later on some companions including Ali, Usman, Zubair, and Talhah thought of increasing the allowance of Umar as it was not sufficient to meet the minimum requirements of Umar. These companions could not have the courage to broach this subject to Umar direct. They accordingly approached Hafsa the daughter of Umar, and asked her to ascertain Umar's reaction to the proposal.

          When Hafsa talked about the matter to Umar, he became angry and wanted to know who were the persons who had made that suggestion. Hafsa said that before she could tell who were the persons concerned she wanted his reaction to the proposal.

          Thereupon Umar wanted Hafsa to tell what was the Holy Prophet's best dress in her house. She said that it was a pair of clothes of red color which the Holy Prophet wore on Fridays or when receiving envoys.

          Umar then asked what was the best of food that the Holy Prophet took. She said that the Holy Prophet's food was simple barley bread. Umar next asked as to what was the best bedding that the Holy Prophet ever used. She said that it was a piece of thick cloth. In summer it was spread in four layers and in winter in two, half he spread underneath, and with the other half he covered himself.

          Thereupon Umar said:

          "Hafsa, go and tell the people who have deputed you that the Holy Prophet has set a standard by his personal example. I must follow him. My case and that of the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr is like the case of three men traveling on the same road. The first man started with a provision and reached the goal. The second followed the first and joined him. Now the third is on his way. If he follows their way he will also join them, otherwise he can never reach them."

          When Hafsah told of Umar's reaction to the proposal to the companions who had deputed her they said: "May God bless Umar. He excels all of us in the matter of virtue."

          Expulsion Of Jews And Christians From Arabia

          At the time of his death the Holy Prophet had expressed the view that in Arabia there should be only one religion, namely Islam. During the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, all the tribes in Arabia had accepted Islam. There were only a few pockets of non-Muslims, the Jews in Khyber, and the Christians in Najran.

          During the caliphate of Abu Bakr, many tribes who had accepted Islam apostatized. As a result of the apostasy wars, all the apostate tribes were defeated and they once again accepted Islam. During the brief period of his office, Abu Bakr allowed the status quo to continue with regard to the Jews and the Christians.

          At the time of the conquest of Khyber, a treaty was executed with the Jews hereunder they were allowed to cultivate the lands on the payment of one half of the produce to the Muslim state at Madina. The treaty also provided that the Jews could be turned out of Khyber, whenever the Muslim state deemed it necessary.

          When Umar became the Caliph he deputed his son Abdullah to Khyber to collect the revenue. As Abdullah lay sleeping on the roof of a house in Khyber at night, his bed was overturned by the Jews causing him an injury in the arm. Umar investigated the matter and found that the Jews were bent on mischief. Umar accordingly passed orders expelling the Jews from Khyber. They migrated to Syria. They were allowed to carry their movable belongings with them. Their immovable property in Khyber was distributed among the Muslims.

          The Christians of Najran near Yemen had a pact with the Holy Prophet "hereunder they were allowed to live in peace unless they indulged in any hostile activities against Islam. It was also stipulated that they would not indulge in usury. When Umar became the Caliph it was brought to his notice that the Christians of Najran had violated the peace pact in as much as they were indulging in usury, and were also guilty of activities hostile to Islam.

          Umar summoned the representatives of the Christians of Najran, and apprised them of the charge of violating the terms of the treaty. In a vainglorious mood the deputationists said "If that was that, they might be expelled." Umar accordingly passed orders for their expulsion. Arrangements were made for their settlement in Iraq. They were allowed to carry their entire movable property with them. Their immovable property was acquired by the state on payment.

          Umar instructed his officers in Iraq that all possible assistance should be provided for the settlement of the refugees from Najran in Iraq. The Christians were exempted from the payment of Jizya for the first two years.

          With the expulsion of the Jews and the Christians from Arabia, the country became an exclusively Muslim land. Umar has thus the distinction of being the first ruler under whom Arabia became the exclusive preserve for Islam.
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          • #20
            Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

            Islamic Actions and Social Mandates


            In the month of the Holy Ramadan, it was the practice with the Holy Prophet that he would stay in the mosque after the Isha prayers, and offer extra prayers. One night as the faithful saw the Holy Prophet offering extra prayers, they also prayed as the Holy Prophet did. The following night more Muslims stayed in the mosque after the night prayer to offer extra prayers. On the third night there was a still larger gathering of the Muslims to perform the extra prayers. On the fourth night when a large number of the faithful assembled to offer the extra prayers, the Holy Prophet did not offer the extra prayers and retired to his house immediately after the Isha prayers.

            For the following nights as well the Holy Prophet retired immediately after the night prayers, and gradually the number of Muslims who offered the extra prayers diminished. Then one night the Holy Prophet offered the extra prayers again. When the Holy Prophet was asked about the reason for the break in the extra prayers for some nights he said that he had avoided these prayers lest the Muslims might take them to be an obligation under law, and that might become a burden for the Muslims. The Holy Prophet explained that such prayers were not compulsory, but if any one offered them voluntarily, he would have the blessing of God.

            Thereafter it became the practice that some Muslims offered the extra prayers during the month of Ramadan on their own account, while others did not, and retired to their homes after offering the night prayers. When Umar became the Caliph, he saw that many Muslima gathered in the Prophet's mosque to offer extra prayers after the night prayers. Each person prayed according to his own discretion, and there were no specifications about the number of Rakaats to be offered. Umar felt that it would be a reform in the proper direction, if the prayers were offered in congregation and the number of Rakaats was fixed.

            After consulting the Companions, Umar issued instructions in 635 AD that such extra prayers should be offered in congregation under the imamate of a Quran reader who should recite a considerable part of the Quran each night, so that the entire Quran was completed during a week or so. It was laid down that these prayers should comprise ten taslima's each containing two rakaats and that after every four rakaats there should be a rawih' or a pause. Because of such pauses these extra prayers came to be known as 'Tarawih'.

            These instructions were circulated throughout the Muslim dominions. There were some who felt that as the Holy Prophet had not prescribed such prayers, it was unlawful to prescribe such prayers after the death of the Holy Prophet. Umar explained that he was not prescribing these prayers as compulsory; it was open to any one to offer or not to offer these prayers at his discretion. If any one offered these prayers that would be to his credit, but if any body did not do so that would not bring him any discredit. He also elucidated that his instructions being of an advisory character only were in no way repugnant to Islam. If he had instructed the Muslims to do what Allah or the Holy Prophet had prohibited that would have been repugnant to Islam, out if he wanted the Muslims to do anything at their option which was intrinsically good and had not been prohibited, that was not repugnant to Islam, but was on the other hand in consonance with the spirit of Islam.

            Umar And The Holy Quran

            The Holy Quran was revealed to the Holy Prophet in parts from time to time spread over a period of 23 years. Whenever the Holy Prophet received the revelation. he would dictate it to one of his Katibs who would record it on some piece of leather, date skin, or even bones and stones. The principal scribe of the Holy Prophet was Zaid bin Thabit. Many companions committed the entire Quran to memory and these 'Huffaz' could recite the entire Quran any time. The Holy Prophet kept all the pieces of leather, date skins another materials on which the verses of the Holy Quran had been written in his custody.

            During the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, revelation was a continuous process, and there was no occasion for giving them the form of a book. After the death of the Holy Prophet, the process of revelation came to close, and now the need of some sort of compilation to preserve the Word of God was felt.

            In the battle of Yamama, most of the Companions who had learnt the Holy Quran by heart were martyred. Umar was the first to feel that if those who had committed the Holy Quran to memory were dead, there was the danger that there would be none left who could be relied upon as the repository of the Quran. There was also the danger that with the lapse of time there might be some interpolations in the text inadvertently or even deliberately.

            Umar suggested to the Caliph Abu Bakr that the Holy Quran should be suitably compiled under the authority of the State Abu Bakr was reluctant to undertake the project. His plea was that as the Holy Prophet had not felt the necessity for such a compilation, it did not behoove him as the successor to the Prophet to take any initiative in the matter.

            Umar, however, continued to press his point. Umar argued that during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet the process of revelation was continuous, and as the Holy Prophet himself was the repository of all revelations, there was no occasion for such a compilation. After the death of the Holy Prophet, the position had changed, and unless the Holy Quran was compiled, there was the danger that the Quran might be lost. In the absence of an authentic text, there was also the danger that some unscrupulous persons might add to or vary the text to suit their interests.

            The argument appealed to Abu Bakr, and when other prominent Muslims were consulted, they also endorsed the views of Umar. Abu Bakr accordingly undertook the project for the compilation of the Holy Quran.

            Zaid b. Thabit was commissioned by Abu Bakr to collect all the verses of the Holy Quran and compile them in a book form.

            Zaid's immediate reaction to the proposal was that if he had been asked to remove a mountain from its original site, and place it elsewhere, he would have considered such a task easier than the task of collecting the Holy Quran. Abu Bakr and Umar appreciated the gravity of the problem, but observed that as the Word of God had to be preserved for the guidance of the coming generations, the task had to be undertaken whatever the odds. Zaid thereupon set to the task of collecting the verses.

            A proclamation was made that whosoever had learnt any portion of the Quran from the Holy Prophet should produce such portion. Two witnesses had to be produced in each case to establish the genuineness of the verse. When all the verses had been collected a Committee was set up of which Umar was a member. This Committee supervised the compilation of the Holy Quran. Sad b. al As dictated, and Zaid bin Thabit wrote the Holy Quran. These was checked by the members of the Committee including Umar.

            When the work was completed it was further checked by Abu Bakr, and the finally approved copy was kept by Abu Bakr in his personal custody. The sacred compilation was given the name of 'Mashaf'.

            During his Caliphate, Umar took steps to ensure that the teaching of the Holy Quran was spread extensively, and that a large number of persons learnt the text by heart so that there could be no possibility of any corruption in the text.

            Under the orders of Umar, hundreds of schools were opened throughout the length and breadth of the Islamic world for the teaching of the Holy Quran. Highly qualified teachers were appointed for the purpose, and they were given good salaries.

            Such Companions who had learnt the Holy Quran by heart were sent to distant places to teach the Holy Quran. Muadh b. Jabal; Ibada b al Samit; and Abu Darda were prominent companions who knew the Holy Quran by heart. They were sent to Syria where Ibada headed the school at Hims: Abu Darda at Damascus; and Muadh at Jerusalem. It is related that Abu Darda held his classes in the Jamia Masjid at Damascus and the enrolment in his class was 1600.

            Umar took pains in promoting and popularizing the study of the Holy Quran. All the Muslims were required to learn at least five Suras by heart. Special stipends were granted for the learning of the Holy Quran. In his instructions to the Army, Umar exhorted the men to read and memories the Holy Quran.

            Umar was very particular about the use of correct vowels and the correct pronunciation of the words in the Holy Quran. In his instructions to the teachers of the Holy Quran, Umar said:

            "Teach them the vowels of the Quran, as you teach its learning by heart."

            Umar also instructed that along with the teaching of the Holy Quran, the study of the Arabic language and literature should be made compulsory so that the readers of the Holy Quran should themselves be able to distinguish between right and wrong vowels.

            Umar also laid down that no one who was not versed in Arabic lexicology should be permitted to teach the Holy Quran.

            Umar And Mosques

            As the Islamic dominions extended progressively, Umar ordered that mosques should be built in all conquered territories.

            In the newly founded cities of Kufa and Basra, Jami Masjids were built in the center of the city and smaller mosques were built in each tribal quarter.

            In the case of smaller towns in Iraq and Syria, a mosque was required to be constructed in each town. According to one account as many as 4000 mosques were constructed during the caliphate of Umar.

            Umar had the sacred mosque at Kaaba extended. In 739 AD Umar purchased the surrounding houses at state expense. These were demolished, and the area under them was included in the mosque. Heretofore there was no wall round the mosque. Umar had a wall constructed for the first time. Heretofore the mosques were not lit. Umar provided lights for the mosques for the first time.

            Formerly the cover of the Kaaba was of ordinary cloth. Umar had the cover made of a superior and finer cloth manufactured in Egypt.

            The bounds of the Haram, the sanctuary of the Kaaba extended to three miles in one direction, and seven to nine miles in other directions. The boundaries were not defined, and there was the risk of this area being encroached upon. Umar had the area surveyed, and the boundaries were demarcated. Stone pillars called Ansab were fixed to mark the boundaries.

            Umar extended the Prophet's Mosque at Madina as well. In 739 AD, the same year as the Kaaba was extended, Umar purchased the houses that surrounded the Masjid i-Nabvi. After demolishing them, the area was utilized for the extension of the mosque.

            Abbas whose house also surrounded the mosque refused to sell his house. He sued the state in the Court of the Qazi Ubayy b. Kab. The Court gave its verdict against the state, and held that the property could not be acquired compulsorily. Umar accepted the verdict of the Court. Thereupon Abbas voluntarily gifted his house for the extension of the mosque. Umar accepted the gift gratefully, and provided alternative accommodation to Abbas.

            As a result of extension the length of the mosque rose from 100 to 140 yards while its width rose from 60 to 80 yards.

            Umar was the first to provide lights for Masjid-i-Nabvi. Umar also made arrangements for the burning of the incense in the mosque. The floor of the mosque was paved and covered with mats.

            The Hijri Calendar

            Some time in 638 AD, Abu Musa Asha'ari, the Governor of Basra wrote:

            "Amir-ul-Mominin, we receive instructions from you every now and then, but as the letters are undated, and some times the contents of the letters differ, it becomes difficult to ascertain as to which instructions are to be followed."

            That set Umar thinking. In the meantime, he received from Yemen a draft for some money which was encashable in Shaban. Umar thought that the practice of merely mentioning the month in such cases was defective for one could not be sure whether the month referred to was of the current or the following year.

            Umar convened an assembly to consider the question of calendar reform. Some one suggested that the Roman calendar should be adopted. After discussion the proposal was rejected as the Roman calendar dated from too remote an era and was cumbersome.

            It was next considered whether the Persian calendar might be adopted. Hormuzan explained the salient features of the Persian calendar called 'Mahroz'. The consensus of opinion was that such a calendar would not be suitable for the Muslims.

            The general opinion was that instead of adopting any alien calendar, the Muslims should have a calendar of their own. This was agreed to, and the point next considered was from when should such an era begin?

            Some one suggested that the era should begin from the date of birth of the Holy Prophet. Some suggested that it should begin from the death of the Holy Prophet. Ali suggested that it should begin from the date the Muslims migrated from Mecca to Madina. After discussion, Ali's suggestion was agreed to.

            The Holy Prophet had migrated in the month of Rabi-ulAwwal, when the year had already run two months and eight days. Next the question arose from which month should the new era start.

            Some one suggested that the calendar should start with the month of Rajab as in the pre-Islamic period this month was held sacred. Some one proposed that the first month should be Ramzan as that is a sacred month for the Muslims. Another proposal was that the first month should be 'Zul Hajj' as that is the month of the pilgrimage.

            Usman suggested that as in Arabia the year started with Muharram the new era should also start with Muharram. This suggestion was accepted. The date was accordingly pushed back by two months and eight days, and the new Hijri calendar began with the first day of Muharram in the year of migration rather than from the actual date of migration.

            Umar accordingly issued instructions to all concerned regarding the enforcement of the Hijri calendar.

            Umar And Drinking

            Drinking was very common among the Quraish. Some accounts say that during the days of ignorance even Umar was a wine bibbler. When Umar became a Muslim, he never touched wine. Umar was a great thinker. He thought that as under the influence of drink one becomes oblivious of his duties and responsibilities, drink must be prohibited by an injunction from God. Umar often talked to the Holy Prophet on the subject, and prayed for an injunction to enforce prohibition.

            At Madina the following verse was revealed to the Holy prophet:

            "They ask you about wine and games of chance. Say 'They lead to great sin, and have some use for men. But the sin inherent in them exceeds their usefulness." (2: 219)

            The Holy Prophet informed Umar of this revelation. Umar said: 'Holy Prophet. This is not enough, pray to God for a specific injunction."

            Some time later came another revelation, namely:

            "Believers! wine, games of chance, idols, and diving arrows are abominations which are the handiwork of the Devil. Avoid them so that you may prosper." (5: 90)

            When Umar was informed of this revelation, he said: "Holy Prophet; this is a negative provision. Pray to God to give some positive injunction."

            Then another verse was revealed which provided:

            "The Devil intends that by means of wine, games of chance, he should provoke enmity and hatred among you; and stop you from remembering Allah and saying your prayers. Will you not keep them away from them?" (5: 91)

            This verse provided the necessary sanction for the prohibition of drinking. In spite of this injunction many Muslims continued to indulge in drinking.

            When Umar became the Caliph, and the Muslim conquests extended east and west, bringing prosperity to the Muslims, Umar felt that in order to safeguard the purity of faith some hard and fast policy about drinking should be laid down. While the Holy Qur'an provided specific punishments for some offences, no penalty was specified in the case of drinking. That made some of the wine bibblers take the plea that if God intended prohibition, the penalty for the offence would have been prescribed.
            Umar convened a meeting of his Consultative Assembly to consider the question. The first question that was taken up for consideration was: whether the drinking of wine was lawful or unlawful. The verdict was that it was unlawful.

            The next question was: if it was unlawful what should be the penalty therefore. Umar agreed that no penalty in this behalf had been laid down in the Holy Quran, but he held that a penalty therefore could be laid down on the basis of analogy keeping in view the penalty provided for offences of kindred character.

            Ali argued that the offence of drinking was of the same species as calumny for under the influence of drink one was apt to say many things which he should not have otherwise said. In the case of calumny the Holy Quran provided punishment as follows:

            "Give eighty lashes to each one,
            Of those who accuse honorable women;
            But do not support their accusation with four witnesses.
            Do not accept their testimony,
            For it is they who break the law."

            Ali advised that for drinking the same penalty i. e. eighty lashes should be provided.

            This advice was accepted by Umar. Umar issued orders to all concerned to the following effect:

            "Drinking is banned under the Holy Quran. If any Muslim drinks and pleads that this was lawful then cut off his head for what he says is a violation of the Holy Word. If he says that it is unlawful but that he fell into error then give him eighty lashes publicly."

            These instructions were enforced vigorously, and the Muslim society was practically rid of the evil of drinking.


            When Islam appeared on the world stage, the world economy was based on slavery. Islam was the first religion to raise its voice against slavery. Among the early converts to Islam, many were slaves. Indeed one of the reasons for the hostility of the Quraish against Islam was that they saw in Islam a hostile force to slavery on which the economy of Mecca was based.

            When Umar became the Caliph of Islam, he took particular measures to eliminate the evils of slavery as far as possible. He took a very bold step when he declared that no Arab could be a slave. Arabia was thus the first country in the world, which under the impact of Islam abolished slavery. During the apostasy wars many Arabs had been taken captive and made slaves. Umar emancipated all such slaves.

            Umar also decreed that slave women who had borne a child to her master stood emancipated.

            The Holy Quran laid down:

            If you see good in them (slaves), make agreement with them."

            Umar implemented this injunction and laid down that a slave could make an agreement with the master that he would pay so much within the specified period to secure his freedom. Anas had a slave Sirin by name. The slave wanted to enter into an agreement with his master, but Anas refused. When the matter was reported to Umar, he made Anas enter into an agreement with his slave.

            In the matter of stipends allowed by the state, Umar made no distinction between the master and the slave. The slaves were given the stipends on the same scale as their masters.

            Umar issued orders that slaves could not be separated from their kindred. Under these orders the child was not to be separated from its mother. If there were two brothers it was obligatory that both of them should be purchased by one master.

            Umar was considerate that when some very highly placed person was taken captive, he should be ransomed and not kept as a slave. When in Syria the daughter of the emperor Heraclius was taken captive, she was returned to her father. When in the battle of Babylon, Armanusa the daughter of Maqauqas was taken captive she was returned to her father.

            In order to raise the status of slaves, Umar enjoined that the master should generally take meals with their slaves. Occasionally Umar invited slaves to dine with him. Umar said:

            "The curse of God be upon those who feel ashamed to sit to meals with slaves."

            Umar laid down that if a Muslim slave gave protection to a non-Muslim such protection was to be honored like the protection given by any other Muslim.

            Umar took pains to provide facilities to slaves to rise to position of importance in the State. During the caliphate of Umar Ikramah who came to be regarded as an Imam of Hadith was a slave. Nafi who was the teacher of Imam Malik was a slave. There were many other slaves who became eminent during the caliphate of Umar.

            Umar's Control Of Sexuality Laxity

            In the days of ignorance sexual laxity was the order of the day. Islam stood for reform in the moral and social fields, and condemned sexual laxity in all forms. Under Islam a limitation was placed on the number of wives one could marry. Such number was not to exceed four, and it was enjoined that all the wives should be treated alike with due justice. Lapidation was provided as the punishment for those found guilty of adultery.

            When Umar became the Caliph he took further steps to rid the society of sexual laxity.

            In the days of ignorance poetry was pressed into service as an instrument of moral laxity. The poets indulged in ribald poems. They named their sweethearts in their poems and by indulging in poetic license compromised the honor and integrity of ladies. Then where ladies were no party to love the poets in their imagination made their beloveds return their love in passionate terms. Such poetry did considerable social harm, and disturbed domestic peace in many a home. Umar took cognizance of this unsocial practice. He commanded the poets not to mention the names of ladies in their poems. He also issued directions that the poets should not indulge in any versification calculated to encourage moral depravity. Where some poets inadvertently or otherwise contravened these instructions they were flogged or punished.

            Mutah in some form or the other was permissible or at least not expressly forbidden before the time of Umar. Umar felt that Mutah "hereunder a man married a woman for a specified number of days amounted to disguised prostitution and this led to moral laxity. Umar accordingly passed an order prohibiting Mutah. He declared that it was open to a person to divorce a woman after regular marriage for any valid reason, but a marriage which was stipulated to be dissolved after a specified number of days was repugnant to the spirit of Islam which stood for stability of domestic homes. Umar elaborated that the purpose of marriage was to set up homes with a view to getting children and Mutah negated such objects. Moreover in the case of Mutah the children born of such union were to be subject to social disability which was detrimental to social order.

            Under the Islamic law divorce was permissible. The Holy Prophet however took pains to explain that divorces which disrupted family life were distasteful to God. People were enjoined not to be hasty in the matter of divorce. Divorce could be effective only when three divorces were given. The idea was to provide some opportunity for reconciliation. When under Umar more countries were conquered and women from other countries became available for the Muslims, some Muslims resorted to the practice of announcing three divorces simultaneously. In order to put a stop to this unsocial practice Umar laid down that if a person gave three talaqs simultaneously such divorce would be irrevocable.

            With the conquest of Iraq and Syria, Iraqi and Syrian women became available to the Muslims. Attracted by the beauty of these women, the Muslims divorced their Arab wives. That created a social crisis which led to sexual laxity. Umar accordingly ordered that marriages with foreign ladies should be permitted under exceptional circumstances. Hudhaifa was the administrator of al Madina and he married a Christian beauty of Iraq.

            When this was brought to the notice of Umar he required Hudhaifa to divorce the Christian beauty, Hudhaifa said that he would not comply with the order unless he was told whether his marriage was unlawful or else; the Caliph referred to the authority under which he wanted him (Hudhaifa) to divorce his legally wedded wife. Umar wrote to say that the marriage he had contracted was not unlawful, but he had been advised to divorce the Christian beauty as it was bound to adversely affect the interests of Arab ladies. Moreover if the Muslims married non-Muslim ladies merely for their beauty that would encourage sexual laxity. Thereupon Hudhaifa divorced his Christian wife.

            Besides four lawful wives Islam permitted any man to take over any number of slave girls to bed. These slave girls were to be the property of the Master and he could sell them any time. With the extension in conquests the number of available slave girls increased and Umar felt that this would promote sexual laxity. He ordered that Umm ul Walad that is such slave girls who bore children to their masters would stand emancipated. This had the effect that such women could no longer be treated as concubines and were to be given the status of regular wives or divorced when they could, as free women, marry other persons.

            Satires And Lampoons

            During the days of ignorance, satires and lampoons were the common device to discredit one's adversaries. Poets were hired to write satires and lampoons ridiculing one's rivals and adversaries. As poetry was a popular pastime, such satires would get swift publicity and led to many disputes and much mischief.

            Umar felt that such poems which ridiculed and caricatured certain sections of the society and were abusive and divisive in character were repugnant in Islam which stood for social solidarity. Umar declared the writing of satires a criminal offence and warned the poets that if they indulged in such unsocial activities they would be punished.

            Tamim and Najashi were two poets. Tamim complained before Umar that Najashi had satirized him. Umar wanted the verse objected to be quoted. The verse provided:

            "If God were to hate the mean and the ignoble;
            Then may Banu Ajlal hate Tamim bin Muqbal."

            Tamim argued that the implication of the verse was that he (Tamim) was mean and ignoble and that his tribe should hate him. Umar had other verses of the poem read as well and came to the conclusion that these verses were defamatory in character and amounted to a satire. Najashi was accordingly punished.

            Hutayya was a well known satirist of the age. He ridiculed Zabarqan bin Badr and the later lodged a complaint against Hutayya in the court of Umar. Zabarqan was asked to quote the verse to which he objected. The verse ran:

            "Do not aspire to do great deeds,
            For in the matter of sustenance you are a burden on others."

            Umar summoned Hassan bin Sabit the poet laureate of the time to give evidence whether this verse amounted to a satire. Hassan said that the verse implied that Zabarqan depended for his sustenance on others and was not capable of doing anything good. That amounted to a satire.

            Hutayya explained that satirizing was his profession, indeed so much so that he satirized his own mother and even himself. Umar wanted to know how he had satirized his mother. He said that he had composed the following verse about his mother:

            "Begone, be away from me
            May God save the world from you."

            Umar then wanted to know how he had satirized himself and he quoted the following verse:

            "Today I will not say anything against any one,
            For I have seen my own ugly face in the mirror."

            Umar gave him some money and warned him that he should not satirize any one again.

            In the time of the Holy Prophet when they saw that all their weapons against the Prophet and Islam had failed they hired poets to satirize the Holy Prophet. In retaliation the Holy Prophet permitted Hassan bin Sabit to satirize the Quraish. Hassan's poems remained in currency even after the Quraish had embraced Islam. When Umar became the Caliph he ordered that such poems should no longer be recited as these had become out of context and revived memories of ancient enmity.

            The Dhimmis

            In the conquest of non-Muslim countries by the Muslims, the population which did not embrace Islam were guaranteed life, liberty, and property and were called "Ah Al-Dhimma" or "Dhimmis" i.e. the People of the Covenant or Obligation.

            In the treaties with the non-Muslims executed during the caliphate of Umar it was invariably provided that the life, liberty, and property of the non-Muslims who accepted to pay Jizyah was guaranteed.

            In the treaty with the Christians of Jerusalem it was provided: "The protection is for their lives, and properties, their Churches and Crosses. Their Churches shall not be used for habitation nor shall these be demolished, nor shall injury be done to their Crosses."

            Umar took pains to uphold the principle that there is no compulsion in religion. Those non-Muslims who chose to become Muslims of their own accord were welcome, but there were no compulsory conversions. The Muslims were forbidden to interfere with the religious freedom of the Dhimmis.

            The Dhimmis were treated as full citizens of the State. There was to be no discrimination between a Muslim and nonMuslims in the eyes of law. If a Muslim killed a Dhimmi he was subject to the same penalty as if he had killed a Muslim. The lands of the Dhimmis were left in their possession. Umar issued strict instructions that all assessments in the case of Dhimmis should be fair.

            The Dhimmis were required to pay Jizyah, but this was in lieu, of their exemption from military duty. Where the Dhimmis performed military duty, Jizyah was not taken from them. When any non-Muslim was too poor to pay Jizyah he was exempted from the levy.

            Umar allowed the Dhimmis to follow their own personal laws. In order to maintain the integrity of the Dhimmis Umar ordered that they should wear the dress which they used to wear before the conquest of their country by the Muslims. They were required not to imitate the Muslims in the way of dress or otherwise. This order was issued not with a view to humiliating the Dhimmis in any way but to maintaining their cultural identity.

            The Dhimmis were free to follow their religious practices but they were enjoined in their own interest not to carry such practices in any way offensive to the Muslims. The Christians were free to ring bells in their churches but in the interests of enmity between the two communities they were asked not to ring the bells at the time when the Muslims were offering prayers. The Christians were allowed to take out their crosses in processions but they were advised that such processions should avoid routes passing through settlements populated by Muslims. These restrictions did not in any way interfere with the liberty of the Dhimmis. These were in their direct interests in as much as thereby the risk of any conflict with the Muslims on sentimental grounds was eliminated.

            Umar issued strict instructions to his officers that the covenants with the Dhimmis should be enforced in letter as well as in spirit. These instructions provided:

            "Forbid the Muslims to do any injustice to the Dhimmis. No harm should be done to them in any way."

            Even on his death bed, Umar thought of the State's responsibility to the Dhimmis. In his bequest to his successor he said:

            "My bequest to my successor is that covenants with the Dhimmis should be observed faithfully. They should be defended against all invasions. No injustice should be done to them. They should be treated as full fledged citizens and should enjoy equality before law. Their taxes should be fair, and no burden should be imposed on them which they cannot bear."

            Allowances And Stipends For The Muslims

            After the battles of Yermuk and Qadisiyya the Muslims won heavy spoils. The coffers at Madina became full to the brim and the problem before Umar was as to what should be done with this money. Some one suggested that money should be kept in the treasury for the purposes of public expenditure only. This view was not acceptable to the general body of the Muslims. Consensus was reached on the point that whatever was received during a year should be distributed.

            The next question that arose for consideration was as to what system should be adopted for distribution. One suggestion was that it should be distributed on ad hoc basis and whatever was received should be equally distributed. Against this view it was felt that as the spoils were considerable that would make the people very rich. It was therefore decided that instead of ad hoc division the amount of the allowance to the stipend should be determined before hand and this allowance should be paid to the person concerned regardless of the amount of the spoils. This was agreed to.

            About the fixation of the allowance there were two opinions. There were some who held that the amount of the allowance for all Muslims should be the same. Umar did not agree with this view. He held that the allowance should be graded according to one's merit with reference to Islam.

            Then the question arose as to what basis should be used for placing some above others. Suggested that a start should be made with the Caliph and he should get the highest allowance. Umar rejected the proposal and decided to start with the clan of the Holy Prophet.

            Umar set up a Committee to compile a list of persons in nearness to the Holy Prophet. The Committee produced the list clan wise. Bani Hashim appeared as the first clan. Then the clan of Abu Bakr was put and in the third place the clan of Umar was put. Umar accepted the first two placements but delegated his clan lower down in the scale with reference to nearness in relationship to the Holy Prophet.

            The members of the clan of Umar objected to the order of Umar but he rebuked them saying; "You desire that you should stand on my neck and deprive me of my good deeds. I cannot permit that."

            In the final scale of allowance that was approved by Umar the main provisions were:
            1. (1) The widows of the Holy Prophet received 12,000 dirhams each;(2) Abbas the uncle of the Holy Prophet received an annual allowance of 7,000 dirhams;
            2. (3) The grandsons of the Holy Prophet Hasan and Hussain got 5,000 dirhams each;
            3. (4) The veterans of Badr got an allowance of 6,000 dirhams each;
            4. (5) Those who had become Muslims by the time of the Hudaibiya pact got 4,000 dirhams each;
            5. (6) Those who became Muslims at the time of the conquest of Mecca got 3,000 dirhams each;
            6. (7) The veterans of the apostasy wars got 3,000 dirhams each.
            7. (8) The veterans of Yermuk and Qadisiyya got 2,000 dirhams each! In announcing this scale Umar said:
            "I have decided the scale according to merit by entry into Islam and not by position."

            In this award Umar's son Abdullah got an allowance of 3,000 dirhams. On the other hand Usama got 4,000. Abdullah objected to this distinction and Umar said:

            "I have given Usama more than you because he was dearer to the Holy Prophet than you and his father was dearer to the Holy Prophet than your father."


            During 640 A.D., Arabia suffered from serious draught. There were no rains, and as such there was no cultivation. That led to serious famine. There was not a blade of grass to be found anywhere, and as such there was nothing for the animals to graze upon. Because of serious famine conditions the people were involved in great distress. Black dust storms blow over the countryside and that added to the distress of the people. The people from the interior flocked to the cities. There was practically no grain in the market. Ghee, butter and meat disappeared from the markets. It became a serious problem to feed the people.

            Umar rose to the occasion. He wrote to the provincial governors asking them to send food-grains to Arabia. Camel loads of food grains and other necessities of life came from Syria, Iraq, and Egypt. Food grains were received from Egypt through the sea as well.

            Umar distributed food grains and other necessities among the people family wise. Meals were cooked at the State level and all persons from interior of the desert who took refuge in Madina were fed daily at state expense. According to one account as many as 40,000 persons were fed every day.

            In view of the resources of his disposal, Umar could afford to have dainty food but he vowed that as long as the famine lasted he would eat only what was available to an Arab of ordinary means. He refused to eat meat, ghee or butter during the period of famine. He ordered that his meal should be cooked with oil. He would eat only the coarsest of food. As a consequence of eating nutrition less food his color took a blacker hue. His stomach would rumble, but he said: "O stomach you may rumble as much as you like, but as long as the famine persists I cannot allow you anything dainty". One day some ghee came to the market and his servant purchased the ghee for him. When Umar came to know of that he refused to have anything to do with such a luxury. A son of his cooked some meat one day and offered him the dish. He refused to eat it. So strict was Umar that during the period of famine he refused to go near his wives.

            At night he would move about from street to street to see for himself that all had been fed. Whenever any case of hardship came to his notice he would rush relief immediately. He would in most cases carry the relief goods on his own back. After taking his rounds, Umar would pray to God till late hours of the night. He would then wake up in the early hours of the morning, and again pray before going to the mosque to lead the morning prayer.

            Addressing the congregation Umar would say:

            "I cannot say whether this calamity is because of the lapses of the Caliph or the sins of the people. Whosoever is to be blamed let us repent, and pray to God for relieving us of this misery."

            There is a story on record that one Bilal bin Haris of the Mazni tribe slaughtered a goat. There was nothing but bones in the corpse. Bilal had the bones ground and fed on them. At night he saw the Holy Prophet in a dream. The Holy Prophet asked him:

            "Go and give Umar my message. He is firm in the way of religion. He should further press religion into service for the aversion of this distress."

            Bilal bin Haris called on Umar and delivered him he message of the Holy Prophet. Umar could not exactly follow what exactly was the significance of the message. He felt that perhaps the Holy Prophet was referring to some apse on his part. That made him shudder with the fear of God. Umar went to the mosque and enquired whether they had noticed any deficiency in him. They said that they had not seem any weakness in him. They enquired as to what was the occasion for the question. Thereupon Umar asked Bilal to narrate his dream. After Bilal had narrated his dream, one of the Companions stood up to say: "Amirui Muminin there is nothing against you in this message. The Holy Prophet prescribed the prayer of Istisqa for praying to God for being relieved of any calamity. The message of the Holy Prophet is that you offer special Istisqa prayers."

            Umar fixed a day for the offering of Istisqa prayers. The faithful were required to offer the special prayer on the specified day throughout the Muslim dominions. On the day fixed all the Muslims in Madina assembled in a plain outside Madina and offered the Istisqa prayers. In the sermon on this occasion Umar said:

            "We have erred. Let us repent and ask of forgiveness from God. O Allah Thee alone do we worship and from Thee alone do we ask help. O Allah forgive us for our sins. Have mercy on us, and be pleased with us."

            It is related that within a week of the special prayer clouds appeared on the sky and there were heavy rains. Umar then led a thanksgiving prayer. After the rains things changed for the better and the famine was over. Umar led the people during the crisis of the famine with considerable credit.
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            • #21
              Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

              Political and Governmental Action

              Umar's Criteria For Appointment As Governors

              In order to maintain the integrity of administration, Umar laid down very difficult criteria for the selection of candidates for appointment as Governors. Some accounts have come down to us which show how scrupulous was Umar in choosing his Governors.

              It is related that once Umar decided to appoint a Governor. The Governor-designate came to Umar to get his orders of appointment. Umar asked his Secretary to draft the order. As the order was being drafted a younger son of Umar came and sat in his lap. Umar caressed the child. Thereupon the Companion said, "Amir ul Muminin your children come to you freely, but my children do not dare to come near me". Thereupon Umar said, "If your own children are afraid of you, the people will be still more afraid of you. The oppressed will hesitate to bring forward their complaints to you. As such you are not fit to be a Governor, and the orders about your appointment as Governor stand cancelled."

              Once Umar thought of appointing a Companion as Governor. Before the orders of appointment were issued that Companion called on Umar and solicited appointment as a Governor. Umar said:

              "I was going to appoint you as a Governor on my own account, but now that you have yourself asked for this appointment, I think you are not fit for the office. As you have asked for the office I fear you will use it as an office of profit and I cannot allow that. I would appoint only such men who regard such office as a burden to he entrusted to them in the name of Allah."

              The appointment of Governor for Kufa became a matter of great headache for Umar. If he appointed a man who was harsh and stern the people complained against him. If he appointed a soft hearted man, the people took advantage of his leniency. Umar wanted his comrades to advise him regarding the selection of a right man for the office of the Governor of Kufa. One man rose up to say that he could suggest a man who would be the fittest person for the job: Umar enquired who was he, and the man said,", Abdullah bin Umar" Umar said, "May God curse you, you want that I should expose myself to the criticism that I have appointed my son to a high office. That can never be".

              Around Umar there were such prominent persons as Usman Ali, Zubair, Talha and others. Umar did not offer them any office. Some one asked Umar why did he not appoint such prominent persons as Governors. Umar said, "These notables occupy a high status because of their virtues and other qualities. I do not appoint them as Governors lest for any lapse they may lose the prominence they enjoy at present."

              Once the post of the Governor of Hems fell vacant, and Umar thought of offering it to Ibn Abbas. Umar called Ibn Abbas and said, "I want to appoint you as the Governor of Hems, but I have one misgiving." "What is that", asked Ibn Abhas. Umar said, "My fear is that some time you would be apt to think that you are related to the Holy Prophet, and would come to regard yourself above the law." Ibn Abbas said, "When you have such a misgiving I would not accept the job." Umar then said, "Please advise me what sort of man should I appoint." Ibn Abbas said, "Appoint a man who is good, and about whom you have no misgiving".

              Some one asked Umar, "What is your criterion for selecting a man for appointment as a Governor?" Umar said, "I want a man who when he is among men should look like a chief although he is not a chief, and when he is a chief, be should look as if he is one of them."

              Political Administration

              Under Umar the country was divided into number of provinces. Historians differ about the exact number of provinces. Some say that the number of provinces was eight, while there are others who give a higher figure.

              From the information that has come down to us, it appears that:
              1. (1) Arabia was divided into two provinces, Mecca and Madina;
              2. (2) Iraq was divided into two provinces, Basra and Kufa;
              3. 3) In the upper reaches of the Tigris and the Euphrates, Jazira was a province;
              4. (4) Syria was a province;
              5. (5) Umar divided Palestine in two provinces Aylya and Ramlah;
              6. (6) Egypt was divided into two provinces, Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt;
              7. (7) Persia was divided into three provinces, Khurasan; Azarbaijan and Fars.
              Each province was in turn divided into districts. The exact number of districts is not known. In Persia alone the number of districts was 47. The total number of districts in the country must thus be around 100.

              Each province was under the charge of a Governor or Wali. Other officers at the provincial level were:
              1. (1) Katib, or Chief Secretary;
              2. (2) Katib-ud-Diwan; Secretary, Army;
              3. (3) Sahib-ul-Kharaj; Revenue Collector;
              4. (4) Sahib-ul-Ahdath; Police Officer;
              5. (5) Sahib-ul-Bait-ul-Mal, Treasury Officer
              6. (6) Qadi, the Chief Judge.
              In some districts there were separate military officers, though the Wali was in most cases the Commander-in-chief of the army quartered in the province.

              During the Caliphate of Umar some of the notable Governors were:
              1. (1) Abu Ubaidah was the Governor of Syria.
              2. (2) Yazid b Abi Sufyan became the Governor of Syria after the death of Abu Ubaidah.
              3. (3) Amir Mu'awiyah became the Governor of Syria after the death of his brother Yazid.
              4. (4) Amr b. al-Aas was the Governor of Egypt.
              5. (5) Saad b Abi Waqqas was the Governor of Kufah.
              6. (6) Utbah b Ghazwan was the Governor of Basra.
              7. (7) Abu Musa Ashari succeeded Utbah as the Governor of Basra.
              8. (8) Itab b Usaid was the Governor of Mecca;
              9. (9) Ayyad b Ghanam was the Governor of Jazira.
              For every district, there were two main office holders, namely:
              1. (l) Amil who was the main executive and responsible for the general administration; and
              2. (2) Qadi responsible for the administration of justice.
              Every appointment was made in writing. On appointment every officer was given an instrument of instructions in which his powers and duties were specified. On arrival at the headquarters of his charge, the officer in question was required to assemble the people and read the instrument of instructions before them. In this way the public became aware of the powers and obligations of the officers concerned, and could call them to account for any sins of omission or commission.

              Umar's general instructions to his officers were: "Remember, I have not appointed you as commanders and tyrants over the people. I have sent you as leaders instead, so that the people may follow your example. Give the Muslims their rights and do not beat them lest they become abused. Do not praise them unduly, lest they fall into the error of conceit. Do not keep your doors shut in their faces, lest the more powerful of them eat up the weaker ones. And do not behave as if you were superior to them, for that is tyranny over them."

              At the time of appointment, every officer was required to make the promise:
              1. (1) that he would not ride a Turkish horse;
              2. (2) that he would not wear fine clothes;
              3. (3) that he would not eat sifted flour;
              4. (4) that he would not keep a porter at his door; and
              5. (5) that he would always keep his door open to the public.
              At the time of appointment a complete inventory of all the possessions of the person concerned was prepared and kept in record. If there was an unusual increase in the possessions of the office holder, he was immediately called to account, and the unlawful property was confiscated by the State.

              The principal officers were required to come to Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj. In public assembly Umar invited all who had any grievance against any office to present the complaint. In the event of complaints inquiries were made immediately and grievances redressed on the spot.

              Explaining the functions of the officers, Umar said: "Brethren, officers are appointed not that they should slap you in your faces and rob you of your properties, but in order that they should teach you the way of the Prophet of Allah. So, if any officer has acted contrary wise, tell me that I might avenge it."

              A special office was established for the investigation of complaints that reached the Caliph every now and then against the officers of the State. The Department was under the charge of Muhammad b Maslamah Ansari a man of undisputed integrity. In important cases Muhammad b Maslamah was deputed by Umar to proceed to the spot, investigate the charge and take action. Sometimes an Inquiry Commission was constituted to investigate the charge. On occasions the officers against him complaints were received were summoned to Madina, and put to explanation by the Caliph himself.

              In order to minimize the chances of corruption, Umar made it a point to pay high salaries to the staff. Provincial governor received as much as five thousand rupees a month besides their shares of the spoils of war.

              Land Administration

              As a consequence of conquests on a large scale in Iraq and Persia and elsewhere a question arose as to the administration of land in the conquered territories. The Arabs followed the maxim, "Spoils belong to the victors". On this basis all spoils that were won as a result of any victory were distributed to the extent of four-fifth among the conquering army, and one-fifth was sent to Madina as the State share. On this analogy the army insisted that all agricultural lands should be distributed among the conquering army, and the inhabitants should be made their serfs and slaves.

              Umar convoked a special assembly at Madina to consider the question from all aspects. Eminent companions like Abdur Rahman b Auf and others supported the viewpoint of the army. They argued that the lands belonged to the conquerors, and future generations had no right to them. Bilal was so vehement in the support of the demand of the army that Umar had to exclaim "May Allah save me from Bilal."

              At the assembly Umar argued that as the conquering army had already had the spoils distributed among them that was enough and the land should belong to the State. Umar advanced the argument that if the lands in the conquered territories were divided up among the army, wherefrom would they get the necessary finance for the raising and equipment of the armies in future for defense against foreign aggression and for the maintenance of law and order within the country.

              Ali, Usman, and Talha supported Umar but still no decision could be reached. Then Umar recollected Sura Al-Hashr which spoke of the poor who had fled, and of those to come thereafter. From these verses Umar inferred that lands were assets in which even the coming generations were interested and as such these should be the property of the State. These verses proved decisive and a consensus was reached:
              1. (1) that the lands conquered would be the property of the State and not that of the conquering forces;
              2. (2) that the former occupants of lands would not be dispossessed;
              3. (3) that they should continue in possession of the lands and pay specified taxes to the State.
              That was a wise decision attribute to the genius of Umar. Umar took settlement operations in a scientific way. In Iraq his Settlement Commissioners were Usman b Hanif and Hudhaifah b al-Yaman. These Settlement Commissioners measured land in Iraq with such care and precision as one measures cloth. Iraq measured 375 miles long and 240 miles wide with a superficial area of 30,000 square miles. The royal dynasty's estates, endowments of fire temples, and the estates of those who had died heirless or fled the country were declared state property.

              The rest of the lands were left in the possession of their former occupants and assessed to land revenue per jarib according to the nature of crops sown. These rates were: wheat two dirhams per jarib per year; barley one dirham; sugar cane six dirhams; cotton five dirhams; grapes ten dirhams; date palm gardens ten dirhams and so on. In the first year the income from State land amounted to seventy lakh dirhams. Land revenue assessment under private occupation worked out at 86 million dirhams.

              The whole settlement was carried out in such a way that fresh lands were extensively brought under cultivation, and the land produce increased extensively. In the year following the settlement the land revenue increased from 86 million dirhams to 100 million dirhams.

              In other conquered countries no special settlements were carried out. In such countries the existing systems continued and the records in existence were adopted. In Iraq and Persia the records were kept in Persian. Umar allowed the records to be kept in Persian even after their conquest by the Muslims. In Syria the previous records were kept in Latin, and in Egypt in the Coptic. In all such cases status quo was allowed to continue.

              Under the Pharaohs taxes on land in Egypt could be paid in cash or kind, and the settlement was for a period of four years at a time. When the Romans occupied Egypt the same system continued but besides the normal land revenue they levied additional levies "hereunder large quantities of grain were collected for presentation to the authorities at Constantinople. Umar abolished the additional levies and the system in vogue under the Pharaohs was allowed to continue. The rules about the method of collection were made simpler and milder. In the time of Umar the land revenue collected from Egypt amounted to twelve million dinars.

              In Syria the annual collection of land revenue in the caliphate of Umar was fourteen million dinars.


              In the early days of Islam there was no standing army. On the occasion of any battle contingents were raised from the various tribes and these were disbanded when the battle was over. No regular salaries were paid. Those who fought were compensated by distributing the spoils of war among them.

              Umar was the first Muslim ruler to organize the army as a State Department. This reform was introduced in 637 A.D. A beginning was made with the Quraish and the Ansars and the system was gradually extended to the whole of Arabia. A register of all adults who could be called to war was prepared, and a scale of salaries was fixed.

              The scale was:
              1. (l) Those who had fought in the battle of Badr 5,000 dirhams.
              2. (2) Those who had fought in the battle of Uhud 4,000 dirhams.
              3. (3) Those who had migrated before the conquest of Mecca 3,000 dirhams.
              4. (4) Those who had embraced Islam at the time of the conquest of Mecca 2,000 dirhams
              5. (5) Those who had fought in the battles of Yermuk or Qadissiya 2,000 dirhams.
              6. (6) For the Yamanites 400 dirhams
              7. (7) Those who had fought after the battles of Yermuk and Qadissiya 300 dirhams.
              8. (8) The rest 200 dirhams
              All men registered were liable to military service. They were divided into two categories, namely:
              1. (l) those who formed the regular standing army; and
              2. (2) those who lived in their homes, but were liable to be called to the colors whenever needed.
              For the purpose of army administration, Umar established Military Centers which were called 'Jund'. These Centers were set up at Madina; Kufa; Basra; Mosul; Fustat; Damascus; Jordan; and Palestine. At these centers barracks were built for the residence of troops. Big stables were constructed where four thousand horses fully equipped were kept ready for service at short notice at every Military Center. All records pertaining to the army were kept at Military Centers. Food stores of the commissariat were kept at these places and there from sent to other places.

              In addition to Military Centers, cantonments were established in big towns and places of strategic importance.

              Under the Army Department, there was a separate Commissariat Department. All the food stores were collected at one place, and from there disbursed on the first of every month.

              Pay and Bhatta were disbursed at different times. The pay was paid in the beginning of the Mohurram. The Bhatta was paid in spring and some extra allowances were paid during the harvesting season.

              Every tribal unit had its leader called Arifs. Such units if under Arifs were grouped and each group was under a Commander called Umar-ul-Ashar.
              Promotions in the army were made on the strength of the length of service or exceptional merit.

              Expeditions were undertaken according to seasons. Expeditions in cold countries were undertaken during the summer, and in hot countries in winter. In spring the troops were generally sent to lands which had a salubrious climate and a good pasturage.

              Much thought was given to climate and sanitation in the lay out of cantonments and the construction of barracks. Special provisions were made for roads and streets in cantonments, and Umar issued instructions prescribing the width of roads and streets.

              When the army was on the march, it always halted on Fridays. When on march, the day's march was never allowed to be so long as to tire out the troops. The stages were selected with reference to the availability of water and other provisions.

              Leave of absence was given to army men at regular intervals. The troops stationed at far off places were given leave once a year and some time twice.

              Each army corps was accompanied by an officer of the treasury, an Accountant, a Qazi, and a number of interpreters besides a number of physicians and surgeons.

              Umar issued instructions laying stress on the teaching of four things to the soldiers, namely: horse-racing; archery; walking barefoot, and swimming.
              On the battlefield the army was divided into sections. These sections were:
              1. (1) Qalb or the center;
              2. (2) Maqaddamah or the vanguard;
              3. (3) Maimanah or the right wing;
              4. (4) Maisarah or the left wing;
              5. (5) Saqah or the rear;
              6. (6) Rid-extreme rear
              Other components were:
              1. (1) Talaiah or patrols to keep watch over the movements of the enemy;
              2. (2) Ra'id or foraging parties,
              3. (3) Rukban or the camel corps;
              4. (4) Farsan or the cavalry;
              5. (5) Rajil or the infantry;
              6. (6) Ramat or the Archers.
              According to instructions every soldier was required to keep with him several things of personal need. These included among other things needles, cotton, twine, scissors, and a feeding-bag.

              Catapults were used extensively in siege operations. Under Umar another machine employed in siege operations was Dabbabah. It was a wooden tower which moved on wheels and consisted of several storeys. The tower was wheeled up to the foot of the fort under siege, and then the walls were pierced by stone throwers' wall-piercers and archers who manned the Dabbabah.

              Under the instructions of Umar, suitable arrange, meets were made for the clearance and construction of roads, and bridges. These operations were usually performed by the conquered people under the supervision of the Muslim army.

              A remarkable feature of the army organization under Umar was that he had complete control over the army at all times as if he were present in person at every field. The control was facilitated because of the sense of awe and majesty that the person of Umar inspired. The espionage and intelligence services in the army were well organized. Reporters were attached to every unit, and they kept the Caliph fully informed about everything pertaining to the army.

              Under Umar vast conquests were made in Iraq, Persia, Syria, and Egypt and this speaks for the efficiency of the army and the military organization.

              Judicial Administration

              Umar took particular pains to provide effective and speedy justice for the people. He set up an effective system of judicial administration, "hereunder justice was administered according to the principles of Islam.

              Qadis were appointed at all administrative levels for the administration of justice. Umar was the first ruler in history to separate judiciary from the executive. The Qadis were chosen for their integrity and learning in Islamic law. High salaries were fixed for the Qadis so that there was no temptation to bribery. Wealthy men and men of high social status were appointed as Qadis so that they might not have the temptation to take bribes, or be influenced by the social position of any body. The Qadis were not allowed to engage in trade. Judges were appointed in sufficient number, and there was no district which did not have a Qadi.

              Umar issued 'Farmans' from time to time laying down the principles for the administration of justice. In one of the Farmans issued to Judicial Officers, Umar laid down the following principles:

              "Praise to God.

              Verily justice is an important obligation to God and man. You have been charged with this responsibility. Discharge the responsibility so that you may win the approbation of God and the goodwill of the people.

              Treat the people equally in your presence, in your company, and in your decisions, so that the weak despair not of justice, and the high-placed have no hope of your favor.

              The onus of proof lies on the plaintiff. He who denies must do so on oath. Compromise is permissible, provided it does not turn the unlawful into lawful, and the lawful into unlawful. Let nothing prevent you from changing your previous decision if after consideration you feel that the previous decision was incorrect.

              When you are in doubt on a question and find nothing about it in the Quran or in the Sunnah of the Prophet, think over the question over and over again. Ponder over the precedents and analogous cases, and then decide by analogy.

              A term should be fixed for the person who wants to produce witnesses. If he proves his case, get him his right. Otherwise, the suit should be dismissed.

              All Muslims are reliable, except those who have been punished with flogging, or who have borne false witness or are doubtful in integrity."

              History has preserved the names of some of the eminent persons who held judicial office during the caliphate of Umar.

              Zaid bin Thabit was appointed by Umar as the Qadi of Madina. He was well versed is Syriac and Hebrew, and was an expert in civil law.

              Ka'b-b. Sur al-Azdi was the Qadi of Basra. He was a man of keen insight and wide learning. Many of the dicta laid down by him became classical and were reported by Imam Ibn Sirin.

              Ibada b. al-Samat was the Qadi of Palestine. He was one of the five men who had memorized the Holy Quran in the lifetime of the Holy Prophet. Umar held him in great esteem.

              Abdullah b Masud was the Qadi of Kufa. He was a man of great scholarship and judicial acumen. He is considered the Father of the Hanafi law.

              Qadi Shuraih succeeded Abdullah b Masud as the Qadi of Kufa. He was well known throughout the country for his intelligence and keen sense of judgment. He was regarded as a model Judge. Ali used to call him 'Aqd-ul-Arab'-i.e. the most judicious of all the Judges of Arabia.

              About Qadi Shuraih's appointment as a Judge there is a story on record. It is related that Umar purchased a horse on approval, and gave it to somebody to try it. The horse got hurt in the ride, and Umar wanted to return it, but the owner refused to take it back. In the dispute that arose as a consequence, Shuraih was chosen as the arbitrator. He gave the verdict that if the horse was ridden with the permission of the owner it could be returned; otherwise not. Umar said that that was the right decision and at once appointed Shuraih as the Qadi of Kufa.

              Public Treasury and Coins

              In the time of the Holy Prophet there was no public treasury. Whatever revenues or other amounts were received were distributed immediately. There were no salaries to be paid, and there was no state expenditure. Hence the need for the treasury at public level was not felt.

              In the time of Abu Bakr as well there was not treasury. Abu Bakr earmarked a house where all money was kept on receipt. As all money was distributed immediately the treasury generally remained locked up. At the time of the death of Abu Bakr there was only one dirham in the public treasury.

              In the time of Umar things changed. With the extension in conquests money came in larger quantities, Umar also allowed salaries to men fighting in the army. In A.D., Abu Huraira who was the Governor of Bahrain sent a revenue of five lakh dirhams. Umar summoned a meeting of his Consultative Assembly and sought the opinion of the Companions about the disposal of the money. Most of the Companions advised immediate distribution of the money. Usman advised that the amount should be kept for future needs. Walid bin Hisham suggested that like the Byzantines separate departments of Treasury and Accounts should be set up.

              After consulting the Companions Umar decided to establish the Central Treasury at Madina. Abdullah bin Arqam was appointed as the Treasury Officer. He was assisted by Abdur Rahman and Muiqib. A separate Accounts Department was also set up and it was required to maintain record of all that was spent.

              Later provincial treasuries were set up in the provinces. After meeting the local expenditure the provincial treasuries were required to remit the surplus amount to the central treasury at Madina. According to Yaqubi the salaries and stipends charged to the central treasury amounted to over three crore dirhams.

              In most of the histories of the Muslim period it is stated that among the Muslim rulers, the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Malik bin Marwan was the first to strike coins. Further historical research has established that Umar has the distinction of being the first Muslim ruler to strike Islamic coins.

              It is stated in Maqrizi's Kitab-ul-Nuqad ul-Islamia and Mawardi's Al-Ahkam us-Sultaniyah that Islamic coins were first struck by Umar. Umar struck the coins of dirhams. The coins of Umar resembled the coins of Anusherwan. These, however, bore the legends "Praise to Allah"; "Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah"; and "There is no god but Allah."

              According to Mawardi when Persia was conquered three types of coins were current in the conquered territories, namely Baghli of 8 dang; Tabari of 4 dang; and Maghribi of 3 dang. Umar made an innovation and struck an Islamic dirham of 6 dang.

              Public Words

              Umar stood for simplicity and austerity. Consequently he did not believe in any large scale program of public works involving extravagance. Nevertheless as a consequence of the extension of the Muslim rule to distant lands, the undertaking of works of public utility became imperative.

              As Muslim conquests extended east and west, and more people embraced Islam, it became necessary to construct mosques. The mosques were not mere places for offering prayers; these were community centers as well where the faithful gathered to discuss problems of social and cultural importance. During the caliphate of Umar as many as four thousand mosques were constructed extending from Persia in the east to Egypt in the west Umar enlarged and improved the Prophet's mosque in Madina. He also paved the Holy Kaaba.

              During the caliphate of Umar many new cities were founded. These included Kufa, Basra, and Fustat. These cities were laid in according with the principles of town planning. All streets in these cities led to the Friday mosque which was sited in the central chauk. Markets were established at convenient points. The cities were divided into quarters, and each quarter was reserved for particular tribes. In the construction of houses, strict instructions were laid down prohibiting the construction of palatial buildings. The houses were to be single storeyed, not exceeding specified dimensions. These instructions were vigorously enforced, and if any body constructed a double storey in violation of these instructions, such double storeys were invariably demolished. The houses did not reflect the opulence or poverty of the owners. These were symbolic of the egalitarian society of Islam, where under all were equal.

              Many buildings were built for administrative purposes. In the quarters called "Dar-ul-Amarat" Government offices and houses for the residence of officers were provided. Buildings known as 'Diwans' were constructed for the keeping of official records. Buildings known as Bait-ul-Mal, were constructed to house public treasuries. For the lodging of persons suffering sentences as punishment, prison houses were constructed for the first time in Muslim history. In important cities Guest Houses were constructed to serve as rest houses. Roads and bridges were constructed for public use. On the road from Madina to Mecca, shelters, wells, and meal houses were constructed at every stage.

              Military cantonments were constructed at strategic points. Special stables were provided for cavalry. These stables could accommodate as many as 4,000 horses. Special pasture grounds were provided and maintained for Bait-ul-Mal animals.

              Canals were dug to irrigate fields as well as provide drinking water for the people. Abu Musa Canal was a nine mile long, canal which brought water from the Tigris to Basra. Another canal known as Maqal canal was also dug from the Tigris. A canal known as the Amirul Mumnin canal was dug to join the Nile to the Red Sea. During the famine of 639 A.D. food grains were brought from Egypt to Madina through this canal and the sea. Saad canal dug from the Euphrates brought water to Anbar. Amr bin Al Aas the Governor of Egypt even proposed the digging of a canal to join the Mediterranean to Red Sea. The proposal, however, did not materialize, and it was 1200 years later that such a canal was dug in the shape of the Suez Canal.
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              • #22
                Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

                Hadith and Fiqh

                Umar and Hadith

                During his lifetime the Holy Prophet pronounced on various matters. When any one met with a problem he went to the Holy Prophet for his verdict. Such decisions remained know to the persons concerned and were not publicized. As such the decisions of the Holy Prophet remained wide spread. The traditions were not compiled in any compendium and as such the sources remained scattered. In view of the diffusion of resources there grew the risk that some traditions reported might be spurious or colored with the views or prejudices of the narrator.

                Umar was the first to realize the necessity of the proper sifting of the traditions. Umar accordingly founded the science of Hadith. The practice with Umar was that if any new problem cropped up, Umar announced in the public assembly the point at issue, and inquired if any of them remembered any tradition of the Holy Prophet on the subject. Those who narrated any tradition were required to produce some witnesses in support of the tradition. If such statement was duly corroborated and was in accordance with the spirit of the Holy Quran as well as common sense it was adopted and applied to the facts of the case in hand. In this way a rich corpus of Hadith was built up. These were recorded and copies were supplied to all provinces for guidance. Umar deputed experts in Hadith to various provinces to educate the provincial officers in Hadith.

                Umar classified the traditions in two broad categories. One category of traditions pertained to religious, moral and social affairs pertaining to the community at large. These matters emanated from the prophetic mission of the Holy Prophet. The other traditions revolved round the person of the Holy Prophet and pertained to his words and deeds as a human being. Umar distinguished between these two categories and took care to ensure that these two categories did not get mixed up. All matters falling in the first category were binding and had the status of law. The matters falling in the second category remained as ideals to be followed, but these did not have the status of law. Umar took particular care to disseminate all traditions falling in the second category. The traditions in the second category were sparingly reported or publicized.

                Umar was alive to the danger that whatever was ascribed to the Holy Prophet, right or wrong would obtain currency and venerable acceptance. Umar evolved principles on the basis of which the traditions were to be accepted. The basic principles were:
                1. (1) The report should be literally faithful;
                2. (2) Every Hadith narrated should carry with it the name of the narrator and the chain of narrators;
                3. (3) The narrators must be men of proven faith and integrity;
                4. (4) In judging the veracity of a report the occasion and circumstances involved should be taken into consideration;
                5. (5) The report should not be repugnant to the Holy Quran;
                6. (6) The report should be rational.
                There was some dispute about the number of takbirs to be said in funeral prayers. Sufficient evidence was adduced to the effect that the Holy Prophet offered four takbirs. It was accordingly laid down by Umar that in funeral prayers four takbirs should be said. The matters regarding bath for sexual impurity, Jizyah to be levied on Magians and other allied matters were decided in the light of authentic traditions of the Holy Prophet.

                It is related that Abu Musa Ash'ari the Governor of Basra once came to see Umar and by way of permission said "Assalamulaikam". Umar was busy and did not pay attention to Abu Musa. Abu Musa repeated the greetings thrice and then went away. Umar had him recalled and enquired why he had gone away. Abu Musa said that he had heard the Holy Prophet say, "Ask permission thrice, and if you do not get permission go away". Umar asked for corroborative evidence in support of the tradition. Abu Musa produced the evidence and the tradition was accepted as a guide.

                In the time of Umar a question arose whether a , woman who had been divorced but the divorce had not become I effective could remain in the house of her husband. A lady Fatima bint Qais stated before Umar that she had it on the authority of the Holy Prophet that such woman could no longer lodge with her husband. The Holy Quran clearly provided that such woman could lodge with her husband till the divorce became effective. Umar accordingly ruled: "We cannot abandon the Book of Allah on the word of a woman, for we do not know whether she remembers the tradition correctly or has forgotten it."

                Lest the people should make mistakes in reporting Hadith direct from the Holy Prophet, Umar forbade the Companions to report direct from the Holy Prophet. Umar also enjoined that Hadith should not be mixed with the Quran. Lest there might be mistake in reporting. Umar enjoined, "Report sparingly from the Holy Prophet". When Umar was asked to quote traditions he would usually say "Had I not feared that I might make a mistake in reporting Hadith I would have quoted one." Umar emphasized that extra care should be taken to ensure that there was no mistake in reporting. The checks and restraints imposed by Umar on the reporting of traditions and the high standard of accuracy required by him paid dividends and all the traditions that were accepted and publicized were free from flaw.

                Traditions On Religious Matters

                Umar was very close to the Holy Prophet. He was very careful and cautious in reporting traditions. Over five hundred traditions are on record which are said to have been reported exclusively on the authority of Umar.

                Some of the traditions on religious matters reported by Umar are noticed hereunder. The account is based on 'Sahih Bukhari'.

                Umar said that he heard the Holy Prophet say:

                "God created Adam, then passed His right hand over his back and brought forth from it his offspring saying 'I have created these for paradise and they will do the deeds of those who go to paradise'. He then passed his hand over his back and brought forth from it his offspring saying 'I have created these for hell and they will do the deeds of those who go to hell'." A man asked what was the good of doing anything. The Holy Prophet replied:

                "When God creates a man for paradise He employs him in doing the deeds of those who will go to paradise, so that his final action before death is one of the deeds of those who go to paradise, for which He will bring him into paradise. But when He creates a man for hell He employs him in doing the deeds of those who will go to hell, so that his final actions before death are the deeds of those who go to hell, for which He will bring him into hell."

                Umar stated that on the day of Khaibar some of the companions of the Holy Prophet stated that so and so were martyrs, but when they came to a man about whom they said "So and so is a martyr", the Holy Prophet declared "By no means. I have seen him in hell in a cloak which he took dishonestly."

                The Holy Prophet asked Umar: "Go, Ibn al-Khattab and announce among the people three times that only the believers will enter paradise."

                In compliance with these instructions, Umar went out and announced three times "Only the believers will enter paradise."

                Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "Do not sit with those who believe in freewill and do not address them before they address you."

                The Holy Prophet, according to Umar said:

                "If any one performs the ablution completely, then says 'I testify that there is no god but God, and that Muhammad is His servant and messenger', the eight gates of paradise will be opened for him, and he may enter by whichsoever of them he wishes."

                Umar said, "The Prophet saw me standing and passing water and said Umar do not pass water standing' and I never did it again."

                The Holy Prophet said, "Do not wash in water which has been exposed to the sun for it produces leprosy."

                The Holy Prophet said:

                "If four persons give a good testimony about any Muslim, God will cause him to enter paradise."

                The Holy Prophet was asked whether this would apply if three testified and he said it would they further asked if it applied if two testified and he said it would but they did not ask him about one.

                Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "Should any one fall asleep and fail to recite his portion of the Quran or a part of it, if he recites it between the dawn and the noon prayer, it will be recorded of him as though he had recited it during the night."

                Umar said:

                "I heard Hisham b Hakim b Hizam reciting Sura al Furqan in a different way from my way of reciting it the way that God's Messenger had taught me. I nearly spoke sharply to him, but I delayed till he had finished, and then catching his cloak at the neck I brought him to God's Messenger and said: 'Messenger of God, I heard this man reciting Sura al Furqan in a manner different from that in which you taught me to recite it'. The Holy Prophet told me to leave him, and then turning to him asked him to recite. When he recited it in the manner in which I had heard him recite it, God's Messenger said, 'Thus was it sent down'. He then asked me to recite it, and when I had done so, he said 'Thus was it sent down'. I was surprised and the Holy Prophet said, 'The Quran was sent down in seven modes of reading, so recite according to what comes most easily."

                About the Holy Quran, Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "By this Book, God exalts some people, and lowers others." Umar said that God's Messenger used to seek refuge in God from five things, namely:
                1. (1) Cowardliness;
                2. (2) Niggardliness;
                3. (3) Evils of old age;
                4. (4) Evil thoughts; and
                5. (5) Punishment of the grave.
                Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "Among God's servants there are people who are neither prophets nor martyrs but whose position in relation to God will be an object of desire by the prophets and martyrs on the day of resurrection."

                The people wanted to know who were such people and the Holy Prophet said:

                "They are people who have loved one another by reason of God's spirit, and were giving gifts to one another without being related or having common property. I swear that their faces will be light, and they will be placed upon light, neither fearing when men fear, nor grieving when men grieve."

                Umar said that the Holy Prophet sent to Najd an expedition which took much booty and came back quickly.

                A man who had not gone out said, "We have never seen an expedition return more quickly or bring finer booty than this one".

                Thereupon the Holy Prophet said:

                "Shall I not indicate to you people who have most excellent booty and a most excellent return? They are people who have been present at the morning prayer, then sat mentioning of God till the sun rose. They have the quickest return and the most excellent booty."

                Umar stated that he heard God's Messenger say:

                "Four rakaat before the noon prayer after the sun has passed the meridian are reckoned equivalent to a similar number at the dawn prayer. There is nothing which does not glorify God at that hour."

                Umar said that then the Holy Prophet recited:

                "Their shadows turn round from the right and the left prostrating themselves to God."

                Umar said that he asked the Holy Prophet about the injunction:

                "You may shorten your prayer if you fear those who are infidels may afflict you."

                About this the Holy Prophet elaborated:

                "It is an act of charity which God has done to you, so accept His charity."

                About the call to prayer, Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "When the Muezzin says 'God is most great, God is most great', and you make the response 'God is most great, God is most great', then says 'I testify that there is no god but God', then says 'I testify that Muhammad is God's Messenger', and you make the response 'I testify that Muhammad is God's Messenger', then says 'Come to prayer', and you make the response 'There is no might and no power except in God', then says 'Come to salvation', and he makes the response 'God is most great; God is most great', then says There is no god but God', and if you say this from heart, you will go to paradise."

                Traditions Of Ethical Importance

                Some traditions of the Holy Prophet of ethical importance have been reported by Umar.

                Umar reported that the Holy Prophet said:

                "Deeds are to be judged only by intentions, and a man will have only what he intended. When one's emigration is to God and His Messenger his emigration is to God and His Messenger, but when his emigration is to a worldly end at which he aims or to a woman whom he marries his emigration is to that to which he has emigrated".

                Umar reported God's Messenger as saying:

                "If any one says, on seeing some one who is suffering affliction 'Praise be to God Who has kept me free from the affliction He has brought on him and has shown me favor above many whom He has created, that affliction, whatever it may be, will not smite him."

                Umar said that he had heard the Holy Prophet say: "An oath or a vow to disobey the Lord or to break ties of relationship or about something over which one has no control is not binding on you."

                Umar stated that he heard the Holy Prophet say "Give the road its due". He was asked what was the road's due. The Holy Prophet replied:

                Lowering the eyes. Removing anything offensive. Returning salutations. Recommending what is reputable. Forbidding what is disreputable. Helping the sorrowful. Guiding people on their way. Umar reported that the Holy Prophet taught him to say:

                "O God make my inner nature better than my outer, and make my outer nature good. O God I ask Thee to give me some of the abundance Thou givest to men, in family, property and children, which neither strays nor leads astray. "

                Umar stated that he heard the Holy Prophet say:

                "He who is humble for God's sake will be exalted by God, for though he considers himself lowly he is great in the eyes of men; but he who is proud will be abased by God for though he considers himself great he is lowly in the eyes of men to such an extent that he is of less value in their estimation than a dog or a pig."

                Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "In the last days my people will be afflicted with distresses from their rulers from which no one will escape but a man who knows God's religion and strives on its behalf with his tongue, his hand and his heart, that being the one who will have surpassing felicity in Heaven; a man who knows God's religion and believes in it; and a man who knows God's religion but keeps quiet about it, who if he sees some one doing good loves him for it; that one will escape for all that he kept concealed in his heart."

                Umar stated that once he went to see the Holy Prophet and found him lying on a reed mat without any cover. The marks of the mat were on the body of the Holy Prophet. The room was bare and there was no sign of any comfort.

                Umar said to the Holy Prophet:

                "O Messenger of God supplicate God to enrich your people for He has enriched the Persians and the Byzantines, and yet they worship him not."

                The Holy Prophet replied, "Is that how you feel, Ibn-ul-Khattab? These people have been given their good things in advance in the present world. Are you not pleased that they should have the present world, and we should have the next?"

                Umar said that he went one day to the Prophet's mosque, and in the way found Mu'adh b Jabal sitting on the Prophet's grave weeping. Umar asked him what was making him weep and he replied that it was something which he had heard from God's Messenger. He had heard him say, "A little hypocrisy is polytheism, and any one who is hostile to a friend of God has gone forth to fight with God. God loves the upright, pious and retiring ones who are not missed when they are absent, and are not given invitations or treated with honor when they are present. Their hearts are the lamps of guidance and they come forth from every dusty and dark place."

                Umar and Fiqh

                Umar was the founder of Fiqh or Islamic jurisprudence. Over one thousand juristic pronouncements of Umar are on record. All the four schools of law in Islamic jurisprudence follow the law laid down by Umar. The pronouncements of Umar are cited in the Musannaf of Ibn Abi Shaiba. These are also found in Shah Wali Ullah's book Faraq's Fiqh.

                Umar not only declared the law; he also established principles of inference and construction and formulated rules therefore. He distinguished between the acts of the Holy Prophet performed in pursuance of his prophetic mission and the acts that he performed as an ordinary man. All that the Holy Prophet did in the first capacity was held by Umar to be binding and a basic source of law. In matters falling in the second category room remained for devising new laws to suit the changing conditions and circumstances.

                Umar also laid down the principle of Qiyas or logical deduction. According to this principle when the Quran and the Hadith did not mention the details of law on any point, such law could be arrived at by logical deduction. In his instructions to his judicial officers Umar said:

                "When you do not find a judgment on an issue in the Quran or Hadith and you are in doubt about it, ponder over the question and ponder again. Then look for dicta on like and similar issues, and decide accordingly."

                In addition to these fundamental principles Umar enunciated numerous rules about inference and generalization of laws which form the basis of Islamic jurisprudence,

                When some one asked Umar's verdict on a mere academic question which had not actually arisen, Umar forbade people raising hypothetical propositions.

                Umar held that one should not urinate standing.

                Umar was asked whether one could perform the ablution with sea water. Umar answered the question in the affirmative.

                Umar was asked whether one could perform ablution with water taken from a non-Muslim. Umar found no objection to such ablution.

                Umar was asked whether one who has had sexual intercourse could perform Tayammum and offer prayers. Umar said that for him bath was essential.

                Umar was very strict about the offering of prayers. He issued instructions to the provincial Governors that their foremost duty was the offering of prayer.

                Umar was asked as to the time for the morning prayer. He said "In the shadow of the twinkling stars".

                Umar held that the prayer of Zuhr should be delayed as far as possible and the prayer of Isha should be offered as early as possible.

                Umar was asked: if the meals are ready and it is also the time for prayers, which should be given priority. Umar said "first take your meals".

                When Umar saw a person offering prayer by the roadside he was advised to pray in the mosque.

                Umar forbade the people to talk loudly in the mosque.

                Umar enjoined that one should not come to the mosque having eaten some thing which produces a bitter smell.

                Umar was very particular that when offering prayers in congregation the lines should be straight.

                Umar held that journey on a Friday was not forbidden.

                Umar enjoined that around a person on death bed one should recite the article of faith.

                When one of the wives of Umar died Umar led the funeral prayers himself.

                Umar held that in one's shroud three sheets were enough.

                Umar ruled that on the occasion of a funeral prayers four Takbirs should be offered.

                Umar held that in a garden those trees the fruit whereof was reserved for distribution among the poor were exempt from Zakat.

                Umar held that if any thing was given as Sadaqa it could not be repurchased whatever the price or consideration.

                Umar held that when a man was under debt, he should offer Zakat on the value of his property after deducting the amount of the debt.

                Umar held that one should not fast unless he had seen the moon of Ramazan and he should not fast after he had seen the Eid moon.

                Umar advised the people to keep a fast on the tenth of the Muharram.

                Umar insisted that in the month of Hajj priority should be given to the Hajj and not to Umra.

                Umar prohibited the sale of wine.

                Umar held that one should not purchase anything already mortgaged with him.

                Umar held that if one passed through a garden he could pick up fruit that had fallen on the ground.

                Umar forbade Mutah.

                Umar held that where three talaqs were announced simultaneously such divorce would be irrevocable.

                Umar held that a slave woman who bore children to her master stood emancipated.

                Umar held that justice should not be delayed.

                Umar enjoined his officers to dispatch the State business expeditiously.

                Umar held that in the court the Judge should not be praised.

                All acts should be judged according to the test of public interest.

                Any act which did not harm any one and was otherwise not forbidden under law was permissible.

                In the famous Fidak case Umar held that the property which vested in the Holy Prophet vested after him in the State and not in his heirs.

                Matters About Fiqh

                Umar said:

                "I provided a man with a horse to ride on God's path, but as he who had it did not look after it well, I wanted to buy it, and I thought he would sell it at a cheap price. I therefore asked the Prophet, but he said 'Do not buy it, and do not take back what you gave as Sadaqa even if he gives it to you for a Dirham, for the one who takes back what he gave as Sadaqa is like a dog which returns to its vomit."

                Umar said:

                "Once, captives came to the Holy Prophet among whom was a woman whose breast was oozing with milk. She was running and when she found a child among the captives she took him, put him to her breast and suckled him. Then the Prophet said to us 'Do you think this woman will cast her child into the fire?' We replied 'Not so long as she is in a position not to do so'. He said 'God is more merciful to His servants than this woman to her child."

                Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "Gold for gold is usury unless both hand over on the spot; silver for silver is usury unless both hand over on the spot; wheat for wheat is usury unless both hand over on the spot; barley for barley is usury unless both hand over on the spot; dates for dates is usury unless both hand over on the spot."

                Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "He who brings goods for sale is blessed with good fortune, but he who keeps them till the price rises is accursed."

                Umar also reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                "If any one keeps grain from the Muslims waiting for the, price to rise, God will smite him with tubercular leprosy and insolvency."

                Umar said:

                "God sent Muhammad with the truth and sent down the Book to him, and the verse of stoning was included in what God Most High sent down. God's Messenger had people stoned to death and we have done it also since his death. Stoning is a duty laid down in God's Book for married men and women who commit fornication when proof is established, or if there is pregnancy, or a confession."

                Umar said that a man called Abdullah whose nome-de-plume was 'ass' used to make the Prophet laugh. The Prophet had beaten him because of wine drinking, but when he was brought to him one day and he gave orders and had him beaten, and then one of those present said, "O God curse him; how often he is brought', the Prophet said, "Do not curse him. I swear by God that for all I know he loves God and His Messenger."

                Umar reported the Holy Prophet as saying:

                When you find that a man has been unfaithful with regard to spoils in God's way, burn his goods and beat him."

                Umar stated that the Holy Prophet reserved three things exclusively to himself namely: the Banu an Nadir; Khaibar; and Fidak. The Banu an-Nadhir property was kept wholly for his own purposes. Fidak was kept for travelers. Khaibar was divided into three sections, two for the Muslims and one for the maintenance of his family. If anything remained after meeting the needs of his family, that was divided among the poor Muhajreen.
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                • #23
                  Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab-Inter-Personal Relations and Interaction Part 1 of 2

                  Inter-Personal Relations and Interaction

                  The Land Of Fidak

                  When during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet, the Muslims conquered Khyber, the Holy Prophet deputed Mahisa bin Masud Ansari to Fidak a neighboring township to invite the inhabitants to Islam. The township was a Jewish settlement, the chief being a Jew Yusha bin Nun. After the fall of Khyber, the Jews of Fidak were in no mood to offer resistance. The Jews submitted, and offered to surrender one half of their land.

                  About the disposal of the land in Fidak, God revealed:

                  "What Allah has made this people (the Jews) to deliver,
                  To conquer which you did not lead any force,
                  Vests in the Apostle,
                  And Allah empowers His Apostles over whom He pleases."

                  The Holy Prophet accordingly reserved the land for himself. The proceeds from the property were utilized by the Holy Prophet for the maintenance of His family. These were also utilized for charity, and for the relief of those in distress.

                  After the death of the Holy Prophet, Fatima as the successor of the Holy Prophet claimed the land at Fidak. Abu Bakr did not concede the claim. Abu Bakr declared that He had heard from the Holy Prophet that prophets leave no inheritable property and that all that they have is public trust.

                  Fatima died during the caliphate of Abu Bakr. After the death of Abu Bakr, Ali and Abbas lodged before Umar a claim to the land of Fidak. Umar upheld the decision of Abu Bakr. He held that the land was a reserve of the Holy Prophet, but it was a reserve for public purposes, and after his death the reserved vested in the State, and could not be claimed by his successors as if it was his personal property.

                  On this occasion, explaining his decision, Umar said:

                  "The Holy Prophet used to take from the land of Fidak the maintenance of his family for the year. The rest he spent in the way of Allah. This was the Holy Prophet's practice as long as he lived. When the Holy Prophet, on whom be peace and blessings, died, Abu Bakr said 'I am the successor of the Apostle of Allah'. So he took possession of land and used it as the Holy Prophet had used it. Then Abu Bakr died. Now I am the successor of Abu Bakr, and I have had the land in my possession for two years, and have done with it as the Holy Prophet, and Abu Bakr had done before."

                  The upshot of Umar's decision was that the land at Fidak was a public trust to which the ordinary law of inheritance did not apply.


                  When after the battle with Banu Nadir the lands of the Jews were occupied the question arose as to how such lands were to be distributed. To solve this issue, the following verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet:

                  "Whatever lands fall to you from the people of the town, they belong to Allah and the Apostle and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and the poor among the Muhajreen who were driven from their homes, and for all those who come after."

                  During the caliphate of Umar when extensive conquests were made in Iraq and Syria, the combatants demanded that all agricultural funds left by the enemy should be distributed among them.

                  Umar convened an assembly at which this question was discussed. Abdul Rahman bin Auf, Zubair bin Al-Awam, and Bilal bin Rabah among others were strongly of the view that such lands should be distributed among the soldiers.

                  Umar observed that there were various aspects of the question and each aspect had to be taken into consideration carefully.

                  The economic aspect of the question was that if such lands were distributed no assets would be left with the state to provide the source of revenue for the future. Under the circumstances the best course was that such lands should be state property so that income accruing therefrom could be utilized for meeting the future needs.

                  The social aspect was that if such lands were distributed some people would get rich, while the others would remain poor. Those who have fought on various fronts would on that basis get lands in various countries and that would create great disparity among the ranks of the Muslims. That was repugnant to Islam.

                  Umar emphasized that in the verse of the Holy Quran on the subject (quoted above), the words 'and those that will come after,' were of particular significance. The implication was that such lands should remain state property so that the coming generations might also profit therefrom.

                  Umar elaborated:

                  "These lands belong to the coming generations and are therefore the property of the nation. How can I then distribute them among those who are present and deprive those who will come after."

                  The debate lasted for several days, and ultimately the consensus of opinion emerged in favor of the view advanced by Umar. According to the four schools of law that emerged subsequently three schools upheld the view taken by Umar. The school of Imam Shaf'i, however, insisted that the conquered lands should have been divided among the combatants.


                  Umar was the first Muslim ruler to levy Ushr. Ushr as the name implies was an import duty levied at ten per cent on the value of goods imported.

                  When the Muslim traders went to foreign lands for the purposes of trade they had to pay a ten per cent tax to the foreign states. Ushr was levied on reciprocal basis on the goods of the traders of other countries who chose to trade in the Muslim dominions.

                  Umar issued instructions that Ushr should be levied in such a way so as to avoid hardship. The tax was levied on merchandise meant for sale. Goods imported for consumption or personal use but not for sale were not taxed. The merchandise valued at two hundred dirhams or less was not taxed.

                  The instructions provided that the tax should be charged only on goods which were brought in openly, and the personal luggage was not to be searched.

                  When the citizens of the State imported goods for the purposes of trade, they had to pay the customs duty or import tax at lower rates. In the case of the Dhimmis the rate was five per cent and in the case of the Muslims 2 1/2 per cent. In the case of the Muslims the rate was the same as that of Zakat. The levy was thus regarded as a part of Zakat and was not considered a separate tax.

                  A story is told that a certain Christian of the Banu Taghlib tribe and a citizen of the Muslim state imported a horse. The horse was valued at 20,000 dirhams, and being a Dhimmi the import tax on the horse was assessed at 5 per cent, i.e. 1,000 dirhams. He paid the tax but then went out of the country on business riding that horse. He returned after some time, and the taxing authorities demanded the Ushr on the horse again. He represented that as he had already paid the tax, it was a case of hardship to pay the tax for the second time.

                  The Christian waited on Umar at Madina, and represented his case. Umar after hearing the case merely said, "Alright, you can go." The man thought that Umar had probably not agreed with his view point. He accordingly went to the tax authorities and expressed his willingness to pay the tax. The taxing authorities told him that they had already received instructions from Umar that when any goods had been subjected to Ushr, these should not be subjected to the tax on re-import within a year.

                  Hearing of this order, the Christian trader said, 'How just is Umar; verily the religion that he follows is the Truth." Thereupon he declared the article of faith and became a Muslim.


                  Before Islam, the usage in Arabia was that whatever spoils were won in a battle these were distributed among the combatants, subject to the condition that one-fourth of the share was given to the chief of the tribe. This implied that whatever spoils fell into the hands of a combatant belonged to him.

                  The first battle fought by the Muslims was the battle of Badr. After the victory some Muslims went in pursuit of the enemy and gathered some booty. They took the plea that whatever they had obtained belonged to them. Those who had stayed behind to guard the Holy Prophet argued that as they had taken part in the war, they had the right to an equal share in the booty.

                  To solve the matter, the following verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet:

                  "People ask thee about the spoils,
                  Say, they belong to the Allah and the Apostle."

                  This verse abrogated the principle that the spoils were the exclusive right of the combatants. The verse, however, did not indicate how the spoils were to be distributed. To settle that issue, another verse was revealed as follows:

                  "Whatever spoils of war you capture;
                  One-fifth of them belongs to
                  Allah and the Apostle and to the near of kin,
                  And the poor and the wayfarers."

                  In accordance with this injunction the practice with the Holy Prophet was that four-fifths of the spoils were distributed among the Muslims at large, and one-fifth was retained by the Holy Prophet for his personal use and for the use of persons closely related to them. A part was used for providing relief to the poor, the widows, and the orphans.

                  This one-fifth was known as 'Khums'. This became a subject of controversy in the time of the caliphate of Umar. Ali, Abbas, and other Uashmites pleaded that even after the death of the Holy Prophet, 'Khums' should be distributed among those who were related to the Holy Prophet.

                  Umar did not accept this view. He distributed four-fifths among the warriors participating in the war, and the 'Khums' was credited to the Baitul Mal for the use of the Muslims at large.

                  Umar argued that the Holy Prophet himself declared that the prophets leave no inheritance, and as such the relatives of the Holy Prophet could claim no preference in the matter of distribution of the spoils of war. The entire Muslim community was the heir of the Holy Prophet, and as such the 'Khums' was to be used for the benefit of the entire Muslim community, and could not be earmarked as a privilege for any particular section.

                  Umar's view was that as with his death, the Holy Prophet lost his share of the 'Khums', his relatives lost that special privilege as well. After the death of the Holy Prophet, the relatives of the Holy Prophet and the other Muslims were to be treated at par. Thus they could have their share as Muslims and not on the basis of relationship with the Holy Prophet.

                  Umar also argued that if it was held that the relatives of the Prophet were to enjoy a special privilege even after his death, this would imply that this practice should continue for ever. Such a course would be irrational. That would imply the creation of a privileged group within the Muslims, a sort of Brahmins with born privileges and that would be repugnant to Islam.

                  During the caliphate of Umar, the Hashmites felt unhappy at the decision of Umar though they did not challenge it. Among the four schools of the law that developed among the Muslims, the school of Imam Shafi argued vehemently in favor of special privilege for the relatives of the Holy Prophet. The other schools upheld the decision of Umar.


                  Imra-ul-Qais was a great poet of Arabia of the pre Islamic period. His grandfather was King Harith of Kinda, the antagonist of Mundhir III, king of Hira. King Harith was killed in a battle against Hira. On the death of Harith, his kingdom was split up into a number of principalities. One of such principalities, the Banu Asad was ruled by Hujr who was the father of Imra-ul-Qais.

                  There is a story that Imra-ul-Qais was banished by his father who despised him for being a poet, and was enraged by the scandals of the adventures of his love. Imra-ul-Qais led a wild life, and came to be known as the 'Vagabond prince.'

                  Hujr was killed by an enemy. When the news of the death of his father reached Imra-ul-Qais, he cried "My father wasted my youth, and now that I am old, he has laid upon me the burden of avenging his death. Wine to-day, business tomorrow." Seven nights he indulged in carouse. Thereafter he swore not to eat flesh, or drink wine, nor use ointment, nor wash his head until he had avenged the death of his father. He visited the oracle in the valley of Tabala north of Najran, and drew the omen by drawing an arrow. The arrow that he drew was to the effect that such vengeance was forbidden. He broke the arrow and dashed it against the face of the idol saying "If your father had been killed, you would not have hindered me."

                  Thereafter he set out for Constantinople, where he was favorably received by the Byzantine emperor Justinian, who desired to see the power of Kinda re-established as a counter poise to Hira which was subject to Persia. At Constantinople' Imra-ul-Qais was involved in a love affair with a Byzantine princess. In order to get rid of him, the emperor appointed him the Governor of Palestine. He was awarded an official robe which he was required to wear throughout his journey. The robe was poisoned, and Imra-ul-Qais died of the effects of the poisoned robe in the course of the journey around 540.

                  In Stray Thoughts, Iqbal has assessed the poetry of Imra-ul-Qais in the following terms:

                  "Of the poet Imra-ul-Qais who flourished about 40 years before Islam, our Prophet is reported to have said, 'He is the most poetic of all poets and their leader to hell'. Now, what do we find in the poetry of Imra-ul-Qais. Sparkling wine, enervating sentiments and situations of love, heart rending moans over the ruins of habitations long swept away by stormy winds, superb pictures of the inspiring scenery of silent deserts-and all this in the choicest expression of old Arabia. Imra-ul-Qais appeals more to imagination than to will, and on the whole acts as a narcotic on the mind of the reader. The Prophet's criticism reveals this most important art principle-that the good in art is not necessarily identical with the good in life. It is possible for a poet to write fine poetry and yet lead his society to hell. The poet is essentially a seducer; woe to the people if instead of making the trials of life look beautiful and attractive he embellishes decadence with all the glories of health and power, and seduces the people to extinction. Out of the richness of his nature he ought to lavish on others something of the super-abundance of life and power in him, and not steal away, thief-like, the little they already happen to possess."

                  Umar admired the excellency of the poetry of Imra-ul-Qais and the originality of his themes. It is related that Abdullah bin Abbas once asked Umar of his opinion about Imra-ul-Qais when he said:

                  "He was the foremost. He brought fresh water from the well of poetry and gave sight to blind themes?"

                  Nabigha Al-Dhubyani

                  Nabigha was an Arabic poet of the pre-Islamic period. He flourished at the court of the princes of Hira.

                  Numan III the ruler of Hira was a tyrant. He loved his step mother Mutajarrida who was a famous beauty of the age. She did not return his love but he forced her to marry him.

                  Nabigha wrote some beautiful poetry in the praise of Mutajarrida. He was accused of being in love with the Queen, whose beauty and charm he described in minute detail in his poems. To escape the vengeance of Numan III, Nabigha fled from Hira and sought refuge in the court of the Ghassanid kings in Syria.

                  Umar admitted the poetry of Nabigha. He was fond of quoting verses from Nabigha.

                  The following verses of Nabigha were quoted by Umar on different occasions:

                  "Remember Sulaiman when God said to him;
                  Stand up on the earth and mark out a portion for yourself."

                  "I come to you in rugged clothes,
                  Lest you should entertain evil notions about me."

                  "I have sworn and have left no room for doubt in your heart;
                  And for a man there is no way beyond Allah."

                  "Whatever has been told to you about me is false;
                  If I am dishonest the man who has been backbiting
                  Against me is fraudulent and false."

                  "If you do not reform your brother
                  You will have to forego him."

                  "Crooked thorns tied in strings,
                  When such strings are in your hand
                  These attract me to you."

                  "Like night, you will get hold of me,
                  If I ever think that leaving you I can go anywhere."

                  "Towards Ibn Muhariq I led my dromedary
                  When the world was asleep."

                  "I saw that the trust had not been betrayed,
                  Likewise Nuh did not betray his trust."

                  Zuhair Bin Abi-Salma

                  Zuhair bin Abi Salma was a poet of the pre-Islamic period. His most well known work is Mu'allaqa. In his poems he preached the principles of noble conduct for individuals and society. He belonged to a family which produced great poets. These included; his father-in-law Aus bin Hajr; his sister Salma; his daughter al-Khansa; and his son Ka'b.

                  In his Mu'allaqa he praised the magnanimity of the chiefs of Dhubyan who brought about peace among the tribes after so many years of bloodshed.
                  He warned the tribesmen against vengeance and hatred. He said:

                  "Then cannot hide their guilt from God,
                  It will be recorded and punished on the day of retribution
                  Or avenged in this life,
                  They know war and its bitterness,
                  They should not revive that monster
                  Which brings only woe and destruction."

                  Talking about his patrons and his poetry he said:

                  "Your gifts have vanished, but my poems are still alive;
                  They are robes of honor which do not become worn out by time."

                  Umar had great admiration for the poetry of Zuhair. He used to call him the most poetical of all poets. Once Abdullah bin Abbas asked Umar the reason for his admiration of the poetry of Zuhair. Umar said that he admired Zuhair because he did not use rare words. His poems were free from complexity. He dealt with only such subjects in which he was at home. When he praised any one, he spoke only of those virtues which the person praised really possessed.

                  Umar quoted the following verses of Zuheir to establish his point:

                  "Qais bin Ghailan has attained the height of nobility;
                  Now if anybody tries to exceed him, he will only come to shame.
                  If praise could have given immortality to a man,
                  Thou wouldst never have died,
                  But people's adulations never make one immortal."

                  Umar admired Zuhair because his poetry was chaste, and though he belonged to the pagan period, his language was so refined that he gave the impression of being a poet of the Islamic period. He used simple language and did not indulge in exaggeration.

                  Zuhair's patron was an Arab chief Harm b. Sinan. Once a son of Zuhair and a son of Harm met Umar. Umar asked the son of Harm to recite some poems of Zuhair composed in the praise of Harm. Thereupon Harm's son recited some poems. Umar said that Zuheir wrote well in the praise of Harm and his family. Harm's son said 'He was paid well for that'.

                  Thereupon Umar said, "What your father gave has perished, but what Zuhair gave lives."

                  Then turning to Zuhair's son, Umar asked where were the robes of honor that Harm had bestowed on his father. He said that those had perished. Thereupon Umar said, "Time will never destroy the robes that Zuhair bestowed on Harm".

                  Aghlab and Labid, the Poets

                  Aghlab and Labid were two well known poets of the time of Umar. They resided at Kufa. They were allowed by Umar a stipend of 2,000 dirhams each.

                  When Mugheera bin Shaaba was the Governor of Kufa, Umar asked him to call these poets and hear from them the poetry they had written after conversion to Islam.

                  Mugheera called Aghlab and asked him to recite some verses which he had written since his conversion to Islam. He recited:

                  "Do you want a battle song or a panegyric,
                  Verily you have made a simple demand."

                  Then Mugheera called Labid, and asked him to recite some verses.

                  He said:

                  "If you like I could recite for you the verses that I wrote during the period of ignorance."

                  Mugheera said:

                  "No, let us hear something which you have written during the Islamic period."

                  Thereupon Labid recited some verses from the Holy Quran and said:

                  "Since I have become a Muslim, the Holy Quran is my poetry."

                  Mugheera reported to Umar what Aghlab and Labid had said.

                  Thereupon Umar wrote to Mugheera reducing the stipend of Aghlab from 2,000 dirhams to 1,500 dirhams, and raising the stipend of Labid from 2,0OO dirhams to 2,500 dirhams.

                  Aghlab felt grieved and he wrote the following verses to Umar:

                  " Umar asked me to recite my verses
                  I complied with his order
                  There was nothing wrong with my verses
                  But Umar reduced my stipend
                  That was a strange reward
                  For compliance with the orders of the Caliph."

                  Umar regretted the reduction in the stipend of Aghlab and passed orders for the restoration of the stipend of 2,000 dirhams to Aghlab. The stipend of Labid was not touched and he continued to enjoy the stipend of 2,500 dirhams.

                  When Umar Was Put To Explanation
                  It was noon of a Friday. The faithful at Madina had gathered in the Prophet's mosque to offer the Friday prayers.

                  Umar, the Caliph arrived to lead the prayers. He said his preliminary prayer and then proceeded to deliver his address to the congregation. He began by reciting some verses from the Holy Quran. Then addressing the congregation he said "Now listen".

                  A young man from the congregation stood up to say, "We will not listen to you, until you give us the explanation that you owe to us."

                  The people were startled at this audacious interference. Umar paused for a moment, and then turning to the young man said, "Explanation for what?"

                  The young man said "The other day each one of us obtained a piece of cloth from the Baitul Mal. Today I find two pieces of cloth on the person of the Caliph. I want to know what right had the Caliph to get a share twice the share of an ordinary Muslim?"

                  Before Umar could explain Abdullah the son of Umar rose up and said, "Friends, the truth of the matter is that like every other person my father and myself obtained a piece of cloth each from the Baitul Mal. My father is so tall that the piece of cloth that he got from the Baitul Mal did not suffice him. So I gave him my piece of the cloth".

                  This explanation satisfied every one. The young man who had interrupted the Caliph said, "We are satisfied. You can now proceed with your address. We will listen to you and, obey your commands."

                  Turning to the audience Umar said, "What will you do, my friends, in case I deviate from the truth one day?"

                  Thereupon a man rose up and said, "When you willfully deviate from the truth, we will withdraw our allegiance to you and I for one would feel it my duty to kill you with my sword."

                  The Caliph said with an apparent show of anger "Man, do you know to whom you are speaking?"

                  The man said, "Yes, I am talking to Umar, the Commander of the Faithful."

                  "Then how dare you threat him with your sword" said the Caliph.
                  The man said, "You are our Caliph and Commander as long as you follow the truth. When you deliberately deviate from the path of the truth you no longer command our allegiance. Then we have the right to kill you, because you lead us in the wrong way."

                  At this the face of Umar lit up, and a smile of satisfaction played on his lips. Raising his hands towards the heaven he said in a voice choked with emotion "Great Allah, I offer you my thanks that there is no dearth of men among the faithful who have the courage to lift the sword even against the head of Umar when he deviates from the Truth."

                  Turning to the faithful, Umar said: "I enjoin you to follow me as long as I follow Allah and his Prophet. When there is any deviation on my part correct me. If I deliberately deviate from the Truth do not follow me. Play that you and I may steadfastly keep to the path of the Truth enjoined by Islam."

                  Umar and Self Remorse

                  Once Umar was busy with some important affairs of the State, when a person came to him and, complaining about some petty grievance, asked for immediate redress.

                  Thus disturbed, Umar felt very much annoyed. He took the lash and struck the man saying:

                  "When I sit for redressing the grievances of the common men you do not come, and when I am engaged in other important work you come with your grievances to disturb me."

                  The person walked away in a sullen mood. When the man went away, Umar felt struck with remorse for having treated the man shabbily. Umar ran after the man, and overtaking him handed him his lash and said:

                  "I have been hard on you and lashed you. You take this lash, and strike me so that the account may be squared."

                  The man was overwhelmed with the sense of justice of Umar. He said: "O Commander of the Faithful, how can I raise my hand against you. I seek no revenge. I forgive you. May Allah forgive you."

                  Umar went home and offered a special prayer of repentance. He upbraided himself loudly:

                  "O Umar, you were low but Allah elevated you. You were wandering astray but Allah guided you. You were base but Allah ennobled you and gave you sovereignty over the people. Now one of them comes and asks you for requital for the harm done to him, and you beat him.

                  What answer would you give before Allah?"

                  Umar kept chiding himself long. Holding a straw in his hand he said:

                  "I wish, I were a straw like this." Turning to himself he said, "I wish my mother had not given birth to me."

                  Friends Who Could Straighten Him

                  True to the title 'Al-Farooq', Umar was an embodiment of truth. He did not hesitate to speak the truth, in the best interests of the Muslim State. Such truth was sometimes bitter, and the people held him in awe.

                  Some people understood him, and appreciated his sterling qualities of courage, conviction, and truthfulness. Some people misjudged him and felt that he was unduly hard and harsh with the people.

                  Umar knew that he was more feared than loved. Under a stern exterior, Umar had a heart full of the milk of human kindness. Whenever Umar came across a person who was in distress or was in any way oppressed, Umar was all sympathy for him, and he did all he could to alleviate his distress.

                  Umar did often reflect and ponder over the responsibilities that had come to vest in him and the way he discharged them. He did not feel very happy with the equation between himself and the people. He regretted that the people did not understand him properly.

                  Hudhaifa a prominent companion has left on record that one day he went to see Umar and found that he was feeling much perturbed. Seeing the disturbed state of the mind of Umar, Hudhaifa enquired as to what was the matter.

                  Umar said:

                  "I was feeling unhappy that the people have awe of me. They generally avoid me, and hesitate to bring my shortcomings to my notice. I was just thinking as to what, would happen if I were to fall in erroneous ways, and because of the awe that the people have of me, no one comes forward to restrain me."

                  Thereupon Hudhaifa said:

                  "Your awe is because of the truth at your command. If you deviate from the path of truth, the people will not be afraid to call you to account. Verily if I see that you are in the wrong, I will fix you up, and straighten you."

                  At this Umar felt very happy. He said:

                  "Thank God, there are friends who will straighten me when I err. If I have such friends around me, I need have no fear of falling into error."

                  The Man Who Came To Murder Became A Convent

                  By 638 A.D., the whole of Syria was under the occupation of the Muslims. Heraclius the Byzantine emperor had left Syria and withdrawn his forces. His parting words were:

                  "Farewell Syria, never again will I come to this beautiful land. What a fine country I am leaving for the enemy."

                  Some of the Christian Arabs felt grieved at the discomfiture of the Christians at the hands of the Muslims. In a spirit of fanaticism they vowed vengeance against the Muslims. Having failed to defeat the Muslims on the battlefield they decided to resort to underhand means and murder some high ranking Muslims. A Ghassanid Arab Wasiq by name undertook to murder Umar the Caliph of Islam.

                  Wasiq waited on Heraclius at Constantinople, and volunteered to rid the Byzantine emperor of his enemies. The scheme appealed to Heraclius. He paid Wasiq a huge sum and promised to pay much more when he succeeded in his mission. Thus patronized, Wasiq decided to proceed to Madina.

                  Arab as he was, Wasiq found no difficulty in coming over to Madina in cognito. He posed himself as a Muslim coming from the interior of the desert to pay a visit to Madina. Wasiq carried a poisoned dagger carefully hidden in the folds of his cloak. Having reached Madina, he was on the look out for a suitable opportunity when he could come face to face with the Caliph of Islam, and kill him with his dagger in an unguarded moment.

                  He had thought that the ruler of the Muslim state would be surrounded by heavy body-guards at all times and it would be difficult to reach him. He was surprised to learn in Madina that there were no body-guards around the Caliph of Islam. Wasiq felt happy that unguarded as the Caliph was, he could easily get an opportunity to fulfill his mission.

                  Wasiq waited for a suitable opportunity. One day at noon Wasiq found Umar sleeping under a tree, all alone and without any guard. There was no body near at hand. Wasiq thought that this was a golden opportunity for him and he could dispatch the Caliph of Islam without any difficulty.

                  Cautiously with measured steps and hushed breath Wasiq stepped upto Umar and took his sword. He was about to plunge his sword in the body of Umar when his eyes fell on the face of Umar. The sight of the unadorned majesty of the pious Caliph sent a shudder through the body of Wasiq, and the sword dropped from his trembling hands. With the noise of the dropping of the sword, Umar opened his eyes. He was quick to take hold of the fallen sword and then rising up faced his would be assassin.

                  Wasiq fell at the feet of the Caliph, implored his forgiveness and embraced Islam.

                  Criticism Against Umar

                  One day in a Friday address Umar said that he had tried to serve Islam and the Muslims to the best of his capacity. He added that being a human being he was apt to make mistakes. He requested the faithful to point out his mistakes if any, so that he may correct himself.

                  After the prayers Umman bin Sawad stepped upto Umar and said that he wanted to apprise him of his mistakes. Umar invited him to come along to his house where they could talk over the matter at leisure.

                  Umman bin Sawad said that he had no intention of criticizing the Caliph; as a well wisher he merely wanted to bring some points to his notice. Umar said that such observations and counsels were most welcome to him.

                  Umman bin Sawad said that he had four objections and these were:
                  1. (1) That Umar had prohibited Umra in the month of Hajj;
                  2. (2) That Umar had declared Mut'ah unlawful.
                  3. (3) That Umar had emancipated slave girls who bore their masters children.
                  4. (4) That Umar was harsh and stern.
                  Umar enquired whether these were all the objections against him or whether there were any other objections as well. Umman said that these were the only points of criticism against him.

                  About the first charge Umar said:

                  "I have not prohibited Umra. My only instructions are that in the month of Hajj priority should be given to Hajj over the Umra. Some of the persons were prone to think that when they had performed the Umra that was enough and that thereafter Hajj need not be performed. Such a course was derogatory to Hajj and in order to preserve the integrity and sanctity of Hajj. I have merely instructed that in the month of Hajj, the pilgrims should concentrate on the Hajj. In the other months it is open to them to perform Umra."

                  About the Mutah, Umar said:

                  "Mutah was an ancient practice with the Arabs. The Holy Prophet did not like the practice though he tolerated it on some occasions due to special circumstances. Even then on at least two occasions he prohibited the practice. God has spoken of the sanctity of the marriage ties, and if the marriage is held sacred on one side and Mutah is allowed on the other that would be inconsistent. If Mutah is allowed that would be a sort of sanctioned prostitution. That is repugnant to Islam. If any person marries the idea is to establish a home. If a person marries for a few specified days that is foreign to the establishment of a home. Mutah is thus repugnant to Islam. If any person wants to dissolve the marriage after a few days it is open to him to give the divorce in the usual way. I have prohibited Mutah in the interests of the sanctity and integrity of Muslim homes. That is a social reform. There is no express injunction allowing Mutah and by disallowing it I have not contravened any provisions of Islamic law."

                  As regards the emancipation of slave girls, Umar explained:

                  "We have already laid down that no Arab can be a slave. If the slave girls were not emancipated there would have been the anomaly that while the children were free their mother was not free. Moreover for every marriage there is a dower. In the case of slave girls the dower is that when they become mothers they would be emancipated. This is a humanitarian reform strictly in accordance with the Spirit of Islam."

                  As regards the fourth charge Umar said:

                  "I am harsh and stern only for the wrong doer, the tyrant and the oppressor. For the weak and the meek I am never harsh or stern."

                  After hearing these explanations Umman bin Sawad said: "Verily Umar you have spoken the truth. You have done well in whatever you have done. You have acted in the interests of Islam. May God bless you. No blame rests on you."

                  The Eid Moon

                  Uqba bin Farqad was the Governor of Azarbaijan. It was the month of the Ramadan. When 29 fasts were over the faithful gathered to sight the Eid moon, but no moon was seen. Uqba bin Farqad accordingly ordered that the fast should be kept for the thirtieth day of the Ramdan as well.

                  The next day Uqba kept the fast, and went on tour in the interior of the country. The Governor said the noon prayers and then retired to rest. When he woke up, he was told that the new moon was visible in the sky. Uqba went out and he saw that though there were yet a few hours for the sun to set, the moon was visible in the sky.

                  On sighting the moon, the Governor summoned the Ulema and sought for their opinion about the observance of the fast in the Eid. The consensus of opinion was that after the noon had been sighted the observance of the fast was not lawful. In deference to this opinion Uqba broke the fast before sunset and other Muslims did likewise.

                  A difficulty, however, arose about the celebration of the Eid. It was so late in the day that Eid could not be celebrated hat day. After consulting the Ulema Uqba decided that trough the fast was to be broken, the Eid was to be celebrated he following day.

                  As the issue involved an important question of religious aw, Uqba referred the case to Umar for the final verdict in matters concerning the sighting of the moon in daylight and the celebration of the Eid.

                  When the case was referred to Umar, he gave the following decision:
                  "When you see the moon in the earlier part of the day you should break the fast and celebrate the Eid. A moon appearing in the earlier part of the day is indicative of the fact that it actually appeared on the horizon the previous night, but for some reason could not be seen. When you see the moon in the later part of the day keep the fast an celebrate the Eid on the following day. Sometimes the moon is bigger and it becomes visible before the evening but it is not a moon of the previous day. It is really for the day to follow. Moon seen in the earlier part of the day belongs to the previous day and the moon seen in the later part belongs to the following day."

                  Umar's Attitude To Sinners

                  Some time in 639 A.D. the year of the famine and the plague some Muslims in Syria drank wine. When called to question, they argued that in the Holy Quran, no definite punishment was prescribed for drinking and as such they were not liable to any punishment. Abu Ubaida reported the matter to Umar.

                  In reply, Umar instructed Abu Ubaida to call the delinquents to the mosque and there before the congregation ask them whether they considered drinking lawful or unlawful. If they considered it lawful they should be deemed to have apostatized and in that case they should meet the penalty for apostasy namely death. If they held that drinking was unlawful then they should be inflicted eighty lashes. Umar explained that although the Holy Quran did not provide the penalty for drinking, it did not forbid the prescription of such penalty. The State could therefore in public interest prescribe a penalty. The State had after due deliberation provided a penalty of 80 lashes and this was in no way repugnant to Islam.

                  When the instructions of Umar were received at Emessa, Abu Ubaida called the delinquents to the mosque. These included Zarrar bin Azwar and Abu Jandal. There before the congregation Abu Ubaida put them the question whether they regarded drinking as lawful or unlawful. They held that they regarded it unlawful. Abu Ubaida then said that if they had done an unlawful thing they exposed themselves to punishment. They argued that no punishment was due as none had been prescribed by the Quran. Abu Ubadia explained in the terms of the instructions of Umar that when a person was guilty of an unlawful act, the State could prescribe a penalty. Abu Ubaida accordingly inflicted on the delinquents the punishment of eighty stripes.

                  The delinquents took the punishment to heart. Abu Jandal was particularly very disconsolate. He locked himself in his house and refused to come out and face the people. Abu Ubaida felt for him and reported the matter to Umar. Thereupon Umar wrote a conciliatory letter. He wrote:

                  "It is a fact that when you violate the principle of the unity of God, and create rivals to Allah the sin is too serious to be forgiven. Allah does not forgive this sin. As regards other sins God in His Mercy and Kindness forgives such sins when one is repentant. Allah says 'O my people, if you transgress and then repent do not despair of the mercy of Allah for He is Forgiving and Merciful."

                  In the letter Umar advised Abu Jandal to seek the forgiveness of Allah and come out of his house and attend to the affairs of the world as usual. To the general public Umar advised in the letter:

                  "Do not exult over the sins of others. Do not ridicule them. If they are repentant help them in the process of repentance so that Allah may forgive them."

                  When the letter of Umar was received, Abu Ubaida called Abu Jandal and other delinquents to the mosque and there read the letter of Umar before the gathering. The letter had the necessary solacing effect. The delinquents repented and then applied for being sent to some expedition on Jihad. Abu Ubaida sent them to fight and they fought with a sense of dedication.

                  Abu Sufiyan And Umar

                  Before the conquest of Mecca, Abu Sufiyan was the leader of the Quraish in Mecca. He was very hostile to Islam. He led the Quraish at the battle of Uhud. He was the leader of the Quraish at the battle of the Ditch. The Muslims suffered considerably at the hands of Abu Sufiyan. Umm Habiba a daughter of Abu Sufiyan, however, accepted Islam and was married to the Holy Prophet.

                  As Abu Sufiyan was the bitter enemy of Islam, Umar was very bitter against him. At the time of the conquest of Mecca when Abu Sufiyan came to the Muslim camp for negotiation, Umar sought the permission of the Holy Prophet to kill Abu Sufiyan. The Holy Prophet asked Umar to wait and watch further developments.

                  Thereafter Abu Sufiyan and all the Quraish of Mecca became Muslims. As Abu Sufiyan was an aristocrat, even after becoming a Muslim he could not get rid of his past arrogance.

                  In Madina a complaint was lodged before Umar against Abu Sufiyan. It was complained that Abu Sufiyan had constructed a house, and blocked the drainage so that the drainage water was diverted to the houses of neighbors thereby creating a nuisance and damaging such houses.

                  Umar decided that when he visited Mecca on the occasion of the Hajj he would see the site, and pass the necessary orders on the spot. When Umar came to Mecca he visited the site. It transpired that Abu Sufiyan had placed some stones in the drain in such a way that the flow of the sullage in the proper direction was obstructed and was instead diverted to the houses of the neighbors. Umar felt convinced that the conduct of Abu Sufiyan was not fair.

                  Umar summoned Abu Sufiyan and asked him to remove the stones so that the sullage should flow unobstructed. Abu Sufiyan contended that he had acted within right and as such was not going to comply with the orders of the Caliph. Umar flourished his whip and said, "Abu Sufiyan I command you to remove these stones forthwith, otherwise I will whip you, your status notwithstanding."

                  Without further contention, Abu Sufiyan removed the stones in the manner desired by Umar.

                  Thereupon turning his face to the Kaaba Urrar said:

                  "Praise be to God, Who, because of the power of Islam, made an ordinary man like Umar dominate over a chief like Abu Sufiyan."

                  Abu Sufiyan said:

                  "All praise is due to God Who blessed me with the light of Islam which has shown me the true path, and made me bow before the truth."

                  Umar said:

                  "Abu Sufiyan! Congratulations, for Islam has shown you the true path."

                  Umar's Wife Acts As A Midwife

                  It was the usual practice of Umar that he would patrol the streets and suburbs of Madina to watch the interests of the people, and attend to their needs.

                  One day Umar noticed a tent pitched in an open space outside Madina. A person was sitting outside the tent, and some one inside the tent was groaning.

                  Umar went to the man, greeted him, and wanted to know who he was.
                  The man said that he was a man of the desert, and had come to Madina to wait on the Commander of the Faithful and seek his assistance.

                  Umar next asked who was groaning inside the tent. The man said that inside the tent his wife was groaning with labor pains. He said that he was a stranger in Madina and did not know what to do. Umar enquired whether he had any woman to look after the confinement of his wife. He said that there was none.

                  Umar said, "Do not worry. I will make the necessary arrangements."

                  Umar came home, and asked his wife Umm Kulsum to accompany him on a mission of service. Umm Kulsum got ready and took with her such things as might be needed for the purposes of confinement. Umar took with him some provisions for the purposes of cooking a meal.

                  Umar returned to the camp with his wife. Umm Kulsum went inside the tent to attend to the woman in pain, while Umar sat outside the tent with the Bedouin and began cooking some meals for him.

                  After an hour or so when the meals had been cooked, Umm Kulsum from inside the tent addressed Umar: Amirul Mominin! Congratulate your guest on the birth of a son."

                  Hearing this the Bedouin felt much embarrassed. Turning to Umar he said, "Amirul Mominin, why did you not reveal your identity? You have overwhelmed me with your benevolence."

                  Umar put all his fears to rest saying: "That's all right. There is nothing to worry about. Thank God I have been of some service to you at the time of your need. You may come to me tomorrow and I will see what can be done further to help you".

                  It was late at night when Umar and Umm Kulsum left. The Bedouin thanked God and said: "God be praised. I came to seek the Commander of the Faithful, and God sent the Commander of the Faithful to seek me."

                  Atika Bint Zaid

                  Atika was the daughter of Zaid bin Amr bin Naufal. Zaid was the uncle of the Umar. Atika was thus a cousin of Umar.

                  At Madina, Atika was married to Abdullah the son of Abu Bakr. Atika was very beautiful and Abdullah was much enamored of her. He was so much lost in her love that he failed to participate in the various expeditions undertaken by the Muslims. He even neglected to offer his prayers in the mosque.

                  The love of Abdullah and Atika became proverbial. Abdullah felt that Atika was the most valuable thing in the world. When Abu Bakr came to know that Abdullah had not taken part in the various expeditions and had even neglected his prayers, he put him to explanation. He had no explanation to offer. The matter of fact position was that he was so much overwhelmed by the love of Atika that he could not attend to other duties.

                  Abu Bakr gave vent to anger and told his son in plain words that his failings and shortcomings were too grave to be passed over. Abdullah placed himself at the mercy of his father, and Abu Bakr decreed that Abdullah should divorce Atika within three days.

                  Abdullah was torn between two minds. At times he thought that he should be faithful to his love. On second thought he felt that the command of his father should be obeyed whatever the cost. After three days Abdullah divorced Atika. This decision made Abdullah deranged. He would neither eat nor drink. He sobbed and sighed and sang heart rending verses giving expression to his great grief over the loss of his beloved.

                  The divorce of Atika became the matter of talk in Medina. When the Holy Prophet came to know of the matter, he felt sympathy for Abdullah. The Holy Prophet revoked the divorce, and the two lovers were reunited.

                  Abdullah was very particular thereafter to ensure that the love for Atika did not stand in the way of his duty to God. In all the campaigns that were undertaken by the Holy Prophet thereafter, Abdullah took part therein, and fought valiantly. In the battle of Taif, Abdullah was wounded, and later he died of such wounds at Madina.

                  Atika bitterly mourned the death of Abdullah, and in a touching elegy she said:

                  "Abdullah I have sworn that my eyes
                  Shall not cease grieving over thee;
                  And my body shall ever remain,
                  Covered with dust."

                  Atika resolved that after Abduliah she would not marry any one. She kept her resolve for four or five years. Umar felt for her. He felt distressed that one so young and beautiful should remain a widow. Umar advised her that she should marry. When Umar became the Caliph, he himself offered to marry. After some hesitation, Atika accepted the proposal.

                  After the consummation of the marriage, when Umar held the marriage feast, Ali congratulated Umar, and sought his permission to talk to the bride. Umar permitted and Ali reminded Atika of her resolve not to marry any one after Abdullah. Thereupon Atika burst into weeping. Umar consolingly said:

                  "Atika do not be grieved. All women do like that. May God bless you. By re-marriage you have conformed to the injunctions of Islam."

                  Of Umar, Atika had a son "Ayaz."

                  Umm Hakim

                  Umm Hakim was the daughter of Harith bin Hisham who belonged to the Makhzun tribe of the Quraish. Her mother was the sister of the famous General Khalid bin Walid.

                  Umm Hakim was married to Ikrama the son of Abu Jahl. The family was known for its opposition to Islam, and Umm Hakim opposed Islam tooth and nail. In the battle of Uhud she was with the Quraish of Mecca who fought against the Muslims.

                  When the Muslims conquered Mecca, the Quraish were converted to Islam. At that time Umm Hakim also became a Muslim. Her husband Ikrama being afraid of the wrath of the Muslims fled to Yemen.

                  Umm Hakim waited on the Holy Prophet, and prayed for amnesty for her husband. Seeing her fidelity, the Holy Prophet acceded to her request. She went to Yemen in person, and brought Ikrama to Madina, where he was converted to Islam.

                  Thereafter Ikrama became a staunch Muslim, and he participated in all the campaigns undertaken by the Muslims. In the time of the caliphate of Abu Bakr, Ikrama fought in the apostasy wars. Later he went to Syria and fought against the Byzantines. Umm Hakim went with Ikrama to Syria and remained in the military camp. Ikrama was martyred at the battle of Ajnadin.

                  After the death of Ikrama, Umm Hakim stayed in Syria. Khalid bin Saeed sent her the proposal of marriage. She accepted the proposal, but said that the marriage should be held after the war against the Byzantines was over. Khalid bin Saeed said that be had a feeling that he was not going to survive the battle, and as such be wanted the marriage to be held immediately. Thereupon Umm Hakim gave her consent and the marriage was celebrated.

                  The marriage was consummated in the military camp at Marj-al-Saffar outside Damascus. The next day Khalid bin Saeed went to fight and he was martyred. The tent of Umm Hakim was surrounded by the enemy. Though dressed in bridal clothes, Umm Hakim showed great presence of mind. She plucked the poles from the camp, and struck to death all the Byzantine soldiers who attempted to seek admittance to the camp. In the resultant confusion she escaped and sought safety in the midst of the Muslim forces.

                  Then she returned to Madina. She was a cousin of Umar and Umar condoled with her over the deaths of Ikrama and Khalid b. Saeed. Umar was much impressed with her heroism in killing nine Byzantine soldiers with the poles of the tent at the time when she was dressed as a bride.

                  Umar saw that she was feeling disconsolate. Umar proposed marriage and after some consideration Umm Hakim accepted the proposal. Umar and Umm Hakim were married in the third year of the caliphate of Umar.

                  Of Umm Hakim, Umar had a daughter who was named Fatima.

                  Umar Marries A Milkmaid To his Son

                  One night, Umar as usual went in disguise with his comrade Ibn Abbas to see the condition of the people. They strolled from one quarter to another. At last they came to a colony where very poor people lived.

                  While passing by a small hutment, the Caliph heard a whispering talk within. The mother was telling her daughter that the amount fetched by her that day on account of the sale of milk was very little. She told her that when she was young, and used to sell milk, she always mixed water with milk, and that led to considerable profit. She advised her daughter to do the same.

                  The girl said, "You adulterated milk, when you were not a Muslim. Now that we are Muslims, we cannot adulterate milk."

                  The mother said that Islam did not stand in the way of he adulteration of milk.

                  The daughter said, "Have you forgotten the Caliph's order? He wants that the milk should not be adulterated."

                  The mother said, "But the Caliph has forgotten us. Were so poor, what else should we do but adulterate milk in order to win bread?"

                  The daughter said "Such a bread would not be lawful, and as a Muslim I would not do anything which is against he orders of the Caliph, and whereby other Muslims are deceived."

                  The mother said, "But there is neither the Caliph nor any of his officers here to see what we do. Daughter you are still a child. Go to bed now and tomorrow I will myself mix the milk with water for you."

                  The girl refused to fall in with the plan of her mother. She said, "Caliph may or may not be here, but his order is order, and it must be obeyed. My conscience is My Caliph. You may escape the notice of the Caliph and his officers, but how can we escape the notice of Allah and our own conscience?"

                  Thereupon the mother remained quiet. The lamp was extinguished and the mother and the daughter went to sleep.

                  The next day, Umar sent a man to purchase milk from the girl. The milk was unadulterated. The girl had kept her resolve.

                  Umar turned to his companion and said, "The girl has kept her resolve in spite of the exhortation of her mother. She deserves a reward. What reward should I give her?"

                  "She should be paid some money" said Ibn Abbas.

                  Umar said, 'Such a girl would become a great mother Her integrity is not to be weighed with a few coins; it is to be measured in the scale of national values. I shall offer her the highest award in my gift, and which shall also be in the highest interest of the nation."

                  The Caliph summoned the daughter and the mother to his court. The mother trembled as she stood before the mighty ruler. But the girl faced the Caliph boldly and with great equanimity. She was beautiful, and there was an impressive dignity about her.

                  Then before the gathering, Umar related how he had overheard the mother and the daughter, and how in spite of the exhortations of the mother the daughter had kept he resolve.

                  Someone suggested that the mother should be taken the task. The Caliph said that ordinarily he would have punished the mother, but he had forgiven her for the sake of he daughter. Turning to the girl the great Caliph said, "Islam needs daughters like you, and as a Caliph of Islam it devolve on me to reward you by owning you as a daughter".

                  The Caliph called his sons, and addressing them said "Here is a gem of a girl who would make a great mother. I desire that one of you should take this girl as wife. I know of no better bride than this girl of sterling character. In matters of wedlock, it should be the character, and not the stature in life that should count."

                  Abdullah and Abdur Rahman the elder sons of the Caliph were already married. Asim the third son was yet unmarried, and he offered to marry the girl. Thereupon with the consent of the milkmaid and her mother Asim was married to the girl, and the milkmaid became the daughter-in-law of the Caliph.

                  From this union was born a daughter Umm Asim, who became in due course the mother of Umar bin Abdul Aziz. Umar bin Abdul Aziz became a Caliph in due course.

                  While other Caliphs of the Ummayad dynasty reveled in luxury, Umar bin Abdul Aziz as a Caliph set up standards for austerity and simplicity following in the footsteps of Umar the second Caliph of Islam. It is said that if ever there was a noble Caliph after the 'Rightly guided Caliphs', such a man was Umar bin Abdul Aziz. And he inherited the noble qualities of the milkmaid who married the Caliph's son, and those of Umar Farooq who had the eye to discern the nobler qualities of sterling character in a poor girl.

                  Umar Flogs His Son To Death

                  Abu Shahma was a son of Umar. He fought in the battles in Egypt. After the conquest of Egypt he built a house for himself in Fustat.

                  One day in the company of a friend he inadvertently drank wine and became unconscious. The following day he went with his friend to Amr bin Al Aas, confessed their guilt, and wanted to be punished. Amr bin Al Aas said that as they had drunk the wine inadvertently, and were feeling repentant, that was enough and no further punishment was called for.

                  Abu Shahma did not wish to avail of the benefit of inadvertence. He insisted that he should be punished according to law, failing which he would bring the matter to the notice of the Caliph. Thereupon Arm bin Al Aas inflicted the usual punishment of lashes in the compound of his house. Abu Shahma's head was also shaved off in the house of the Governor.

                  The Reporter reported the matter to Umar, and Umar addressed a letter to Amr b. Al Aas in strong terms as follows:

                  "O Amr bin Al Aas it has come to my notice that you have been derelict in the performance of your duty. You have shown undue favor to Abu Shahma by awarding him punishment in your house rather than at a public place. You were apparently moved by the consideration that he is my son. You should know that in such matters I cannot tolerate any concession to a person on the ground that he is related to me. As soon as you get this letter send Abu Shahma to Medina on a naked camel."

                  Amr bin Al Aas complied with the instructions and dispatched Abu Shahma to Madina. In the way Abu Shahma fell sick and when he reached Madina he could hardly walk.

                  Umar was furious, and he ordered that Abu Shahma should be lashed in the public. Abdul Rahman b. Auf pleaded that the boy had already been lashed in Egypt and no further punishment was called for Abu Shahma said that he was suffering, and the punishment should be deferred till he was recovered.

                  Umar brushed aside these pleadings Abu Shahma was flogged publicly. Abu Shahma could not withstand the ordeal. He fell senseless after a few stripes had been inflicted. He remained in a state of agony for a few days and then died a martyr to the highly developed sense of justice of his father.
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                  • #24
                    Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab-Inter-Personal Relations and Interaction Part 2 of 2

                    The Woman Who Pined For Her Husband

                    In the wars that were conducted during the rule of Umar, the soldiers on the front remained absent for considerable periods. Umar introduced the reform that leave should be granted to every soldier after he had served on the front for four months. A story is recorded as to how this reform was brought about.

                    It is related that one night Umar went on his round in Madina as usual. It was the dead of night, and every where was quiet. From one of the houses in the street, Umar heard a lady lamenting. She said:

                    "The night is wearisome and keeps me sleepless;
                    For I have none to keep me company.
                    I fear Allah, Who keeps watch over our souls,
                    And would not take another companion,
                    But who could tell Umar,
                    That he should not be so cruel,
                    As to keep my husband away from me,
                    For such a long period."

                    Umar knocked at the door, and when the lady came to the door he said:

                    "I have heard, what you wanted to be conveyed to Umar.

                    How long has your husband been away."

                    The lady said, "About a year."

                    Umar said, "Rest assured your husband would come back to you shortly."

                    Umar consulted Hafsa as to the maximum period for which a man might remain separate from his wife. She suggested a period of four months. Umar accordingly issued orders to the effect that unless a man of the armed forces could take his wife with him, he should be allowed a spell of leave after every four months of active service on the front.

                    Umar And His Whip

                    It is related that once while riding a camel, the whip of Umar dropped. Many persons who saw the whip fall rushed to pick up the whip to hand it over to the Caliph. Umar asked them to mind their own business, and not to bother about his whip. Umar dismounted and picked up his whip himself.

                    Iqbal has dramatized the episode in his classic poem 'The Secrets of the Self'. Iqbal exhorts:

                    "Like Umar, come down from the camel,
                    Beware of incurring obligations, beware"

                    From this episode, Iqbal deduces a code of conduct, the highlights whereof are:

                    "Do not incur the obligation of any person,
                    Do not debase yourself by receiving benefits.
                    Self is weakened by asking; asking disintegrates the Self,
                    By asking, poverty is made more abject.
                    By begging, the beggar is made poorer,
                    Even if you are poor and overwhelmed by affliction,
                    Do not seek your bread by the bounty of another."

                    Iqbal further elaborates:

                    "God loves a man that earns his living;
                    Woe to him that accepts bounty from another's table.
                    The more your hands are empty, the more you are master of yourself.
                    Seek no favors and walk with your head erect like the pine.
                    Sweet is a little dew gathered by one's own hand,
                    Be a man of honor, and like the bubble
                    Keep the cup inverted even in the midst of the sea."

                    Umar's Care For The Poor

                    It was the year of the famine. Umar took pains to ensure that adequate relief reached all people, and that there were no persons in the city who went to sleep hungry.

                    One night as usual Umar went on his round. He was accompanied by his slave Aslam. As he strolled from street to street all was quiet and the people seemed to be asleep. Umar thought to himself, "Thank God, there is no one in this city whom the famine has afflicted."

                    Then as he turned a corner he saw a cottage where light was burning, and from where the sound of the weeping of the children was heard. Umar went to the cottage. He saw that the lady of the house was cooking something on the hearth, and the children were crying.

                    Umar knocked at the gate, and addressing the lady of the house Umar enquired why were the children crying. She said that they were crying because they were hungry. "And what are you cooking", asked Umar. The lady said that in the kettle there was only water and stones. That was to while away the children that food was being cooked for them. She hoped that exhausted the children would go to sleep.

                    Hearing this tale of woe, Umar felt guilty. He had thought that because of the arrangements made by him, no one was afflicted in the city and here was a family which was starving. Umar said to the lady that he would arrange relief for her family immediately.

                    Umar went to the Baitul Mal. There he put the necessary provisions in a bag and carried the bag to the cottage. His slave insisted that he would carry the bag, but Umar said that he would carry his burden himself. Umar handed over the bag of provisions to the lady. Umar sat by the hearth and helped the lady cook the meals. When the meals were ready the children were awakened and served with the delicious meals. As the children ate to their fill and were satisfied they smiled the smile of happiness. Seeing the destitute children smile Umar also felt happy.

                    Umar enquired of the lady whether there was none to support. She said that the father of the children had died, and there was no body to support. Whatever little was in the house had been gradually used up and they were starving since the last three days.

                    Umar asked the lady why she had not brought her distress to the notice of the Caliph. The lady said that in spite of her poverty she had some sense of self-respect and she could not go and beg the Caliph for any favor. She added that it was incumbent on the Caliph to ascertain that there was no one in his charge who was starving.

                    Umar said, "You are right. Please excuse me for the remissness in the past. For the future it will be my responsibility to see that your wants are satisfied."

                    And when the lady realized that the man who had come to her relief was the Caliph himself, she felt satisfied that the Caliph had discharged his onerous responsibilities creditably.

                    Stipends For Children

                    When Umar opened the register for public allowances, and allowed stipends for children as well, he laid down the condition that the children were not to get any allowance until they were weaned.

                    In their desire to get allowances for the children, the parents cut down the period of weaning.

                    One night Umar went on his rounds as usual. As he was patrolling a street, he heard the voice of a baby crying. Umar stood outside the house for some time, but the baby did not stop crying.

                    Umar knocked at the door and was admitted inside the house. He saw that a woman held a small baby in her lap and the baby continued to cry.

                    Umar turned to the lady and said, "What sort of mother you are. The baby is crying, and you do not feed it with you milk."

                    The woman said, "Go and ask Umar as to what sort of Caliph he is He has ordained that a child would not get a stipend until it was weaned. In order to secure the stipend for our child we are trying to wean it."

                    Umar argued that it was cruel to wean a baby at such an early age.

                    The woman retorted, "The blame for such cruelty rests on Umar who has created artificial distinction between child and child. Justice demands that every child should get a stipend, weaning or no weaning."

                    Umar said, "All right. Feed your baby with your milk, and rest assured you will get the stipend for your baby even though it is not weaned."

                    The following day Umar passed orders that stipends would be allowed for children from their date of birth. These orders were given a retrospective effect and the previous orders were rescinded.

                    Umar Finds Clue To Murder

                    Once the dead body of a beardless youth was found in an isolated place in Madina. Umar wanted the relatives of the dead boy to take care of the body and give it a burial. No one came forward to claim the body. Umar had the body buried. Thereafter he initiated an inquiry to trace the murder, but the murder could not be traced. Umar prayed to God that he may facilitate his task by providing some clue to trace the murder.

                    After about nine months, a new born baby was found at the same site where the dead body of the young man had been found. Umar entrusted the foundling to a wet nurse at state expense. He instructed the nurse that if any lady came to enquire about the baby, or caressed it, he should be informed. Umar felt sure that before long the mystery of the dead young man would be solved.

                    After a few months the nurse reported that a lady so and so had come to see the baby, and caressed it as if she was its mother. Umar noted the name and address of the lady, and after having girded his sword went to see the lady.

                    It transpired that the lady was unmarried and was the daughter of a respectable Ansar chief. Umar took the chief into confidence, and said that he wanted to talk to her daughter as he suspected her to be guilty of murder.

                    Umar went inside the house and then branding his sword said, "You are according to my investigation guilty of murder. If you have any defense to offer, let me hear what you have to say."

                    The girl said, "It is true that I murdered the young man. You may listen to my story, and then you may pass whatever verdict you may pass."

                    Umar said, "Yes. You may narrate your story. But mind you, speak nothing but the truth".

                    The girl said, "A few years ago I engaged an old woman as a maid servant. She was very kind and affectionate. She treated me as a daughter, and I looked to her as a mother. Some time later she said that she would be going to her village but would like to leave her young daughter with me." She brought her daughter and left her with me. The girl was of my age, and we soon became intimate friends. She would sleep in the same room as myself and we would talk of pleasant things till late hours in the night.

                    One night we talked of love and allied matters till midnight. Then feeling heavy with sleep I dozed while she kept sitting on my bed. After some time I found to my horror that whom I had taken to be a girl was a boy, and was doing foul action with me. In the heaviness of sleep I did not know what had happened, but when I regained my senses and found that I had been betrayed I took the dagger and killed the boy. Thereafter I had thrown the dead body at a solitary spot.

                    Nine months later a baby was born. I did not kill it but had it thrown at the spot where the dead body of its father had been thrown previously."

                    After hearing the story, Umar said, "You have spoken the truth. You were betrayed and in killing the boy you vindicated your honor. You acted within the bounds of law, and I pronounce the verdict of 'Non-guilty'. You can even keep the baby with you, if you like."

                    Jabala Bin Aiham

                    Jabala bin Aiham was a Ghassanid prince. He became a convert to Islam and came to Madina. At Madina, Jabala stayed as the personal guest of Umar. A few days later Umar and Jabala traveled to Mecca for the purposes of pilgrimage. In Mecca too, Jabala was the State guest.

                    As Jabala was circumambulating the Holy Kaaba, his pilgrim scarf was accidentally trodden by a poor Arab of the Banu Fazara. That aroused the wrath of Jabala. Without waiting to listen to any explanation, Jabala buffeted the Arab in the face bruising him severely in the nose.

                    The Arab lodged a complaint with Umar. Umar sent for Jabala and asked him whether the charge levied against him by the Arab was true. Jabala answered haughtily "This rascal trod on my reverence for the Kaaba and, but for the prohibition to shed blood within the sacred premises, I would have slain the man on the spot, instead of merely thrashing him."

                    Umar put the Arab to explanation and he said on oath that due to extraordinary rush, he trod on the scarf of Jabala accidentally.

                    Turning to Jabala, Umar said, "Do you agree that what happened was accidental, or did this man deliberately offend you."

                    Jabala said, "I am not concerned with that. It might have been accidental but the fact remained that he trod on my scarf thereby uncovering me. It must be borne in mind that I am a prince while he is a commoner."

                    Umar said, "In Islam there is no distinction between a prince and a commoner. You could not take the law in your own hands merely on the ground that you are a prince, and he is a commoner".

                    Jabala felt annoyed and said, "I had thought that Islam would add to my dignity and prestige, and here Islam is becoming an instrument for my humiliation".

                    Umar said, "Law must have its own course, and I am obliged to do justice. There are two alternatives. Either patch up with the man and satisfy him, or be prepared to face my verdict."

                    When Jabala saw that Umar was serious in invoking the penal provisions of law he said, "Give me one day to ponder over the matter".

                    Hazrat Umar deferred his judgment for one day. That very night Jabala left for Syria secretly along with his retinue. From there he proceeded to Constantinople. In Constantinople he become a Christian. He said, "I denounce Islam because it does not discriminate between a peasant and a commoner."

                    When Umar came to know on the following day that Jabala had slipped away, he allowed the poor Arab adequate compensation from the Bait-ul-Mal.

                    Harat Umar And Nasr B. Hajjaj Alsalmi

                    It is related that when one night, Umar was on his usual round in the streets of Madina, he heard a girl in a house singing:

                    "Can I get some wine to drink;
                    Can I ever find access to Nasr bin Hajjaj
                    A young man known for his beauty, youth and manners,
                    He who is of noble birth,
                    He whose company was a matter of joy".

                    Another girl friend sitting by her enquired who was Nasr
                    The girl said, "Nasr is the most beautiful young man in Madina. I long that he should spend a night with me, when he and I should be alone."

                    The following day, Umar summoned Nasr. When he saw him he wondered at his beauty. Undoubtedly he was the most beautiful young man in Madina. He had beautiful curly hair. Umar called a barber and had the hair of Nasr cut.

                    Thereupon Nasr composed the following verses:

                    "Umar could not see my curls,
                    My hair which when combed waved like a chain;
                    He made that head bald where once there were profuse hair;
                    He who was bald headed felt jealous of him who had hair,
                    As he could not be proud of his hair, he deprived me of his hair."

                    Umar called Nasr again. Even though deprived of his hair he looked still more attractive. Umar ordered that he should wear a turban.

                    Umar called him again, and with turban he looked more manly and attractive. Thereupon Umar said:

                    "You cannot live with me in this city where women long for you."

                    He ordered that Nasr should go to Basra.

                    When Nasr went away to Basra the girl Zulfa who had sung about him felt worried about her fate. She wrote verses to the effect that she had sung of wine and Nasr only in an imaginary mood; otherwise she was a girl of excellent character, and did not actually crave for wine or Nasr.

                    Umar made enquiry about the girl, and it transpired that she commanded good character. Umar assured her that he proposed no action against her, but warned her that as a good girl she should not think of things forbidden by law."

                    At Basra, Nasr became the guest of Mujasha bin Masud. When Mujasha's wife Shameela saw Nasr she felt attracted. Nasr reciprocated her love. When Mujasha came to know of this clandestine love affair he turned out Nasr from his house and divorced his wife.

                    From Basra, Nasr wrote a letter to Umar supplicating that the orders of his exile should be rescinded, and he should be allowed to come to Madina. Nasr's mother waited on Umar and said, "Your sons are with you, but you have exiled my son. That is not fair." Umar said, "Your son is a source of danger to the morals of the maidens of Madina. As long as I live, I would not allow him to come, and tempt innocent maidens with his looks."

                    When Umar died, Nasr returned to Madina.

                    Punishment For Illicit Love

                    Abul Siara was a native of Madina. He fell in love with a beautiful lady who was the wife of one Abi Jandab. Abul Siara saw the lady and pressed his suit vehemently. The lady warned him to desist from such a course. She told him that if her husband came to know of his approach he would murder him. In spite of the warning, Abul Siara continued his suit. The lady reported the matter to the younger brother of Abi Jandab. He warned Abul Siara in strong terms, but he took no need and persisted in his erroneous course.

                    Exasperated, the lady reported the matter to her husband Abi Jandab. Abi Jandab laid down a trap for catching Abul Siara. He gave out that he was going out for the grazing of his camels, and he would return after a few days. At night, thinking that Abi Jandab was not at home, Abul Siara knocked at the door of his beloved. The lady asked him to go away as she was married and could not reciprocate his love. He sighed and sobbed and made declarations of love in pathetic terms. He said that he was so much lost in her love that he would even welcome death. Apparently moved by the frenzied state of her lover, the lady admitted Abul Siara to her house. She advised him to hide himself in the room. In the meantime she would decorate herself and then come to him.

                    As soon as Abul Siara entered the room, Abi Jandab who was already there started beating Abul Siara with sticks and whips. Abul Siara cried and shrieked. The lady asked the younger brother of Abi Jandab to intervene lest the man might be killed. At his intervention, Abi Jandab withdrew his hand. Badly bruised with his bones broken, Abul Siara was carried out and thrown in the way of camels. When Abul Siara came to consciousness and the people asked as to what had happened he said that he had fallen from a camel and broken his bones.

                    The matter came to the notice of Umar. He summoned the parties and recorded their statements. The lady stated how Abul Siara tried to seduce her and how she resisted his love. Abi Jandab stated how a trap had been laid to catch Abul Siara red handed. Abul Siara confessed his guilt. Umar highly praised the conduct and character of the lady. He absolved Abi Jandab of the charge of violence against Abul Siara. Abul Siara was pronounced guilty and awarded punishment.

                    Dismissal Of A Governor For Writing Poetry

                    Al-Numan was the son of Adiy. Adiy was an early convert to Islam. He migrated to Abyssinia under the instructions of the Holy Prophet and died there. Al. Numan was born in Abyssinia. Later he returned to Madina. He was a good poet.

                    During the caliphate of Umar, he was appointed the Administrator of the district of Maisan in Iraq. He had a beautiful wife al-Hasna who stayed at Madina.

                    In a poetic vein, Al-Numan composed some verses and sent them to his wife at Madina.

                    The verses read:

                    "Hasn't al-Hasna heard that her husband in Maisan
                    Is drinking from glasses and jars?
                    If I wished the chief men of the city would sing to me
                    And the dancing girls whirl in ecstasy.
                    If you are my friend, give me a drink in the largest cup,
                    Don't give me the half-filled cup,
                    Perhaps the Commander of the Faithful will take it amiss
                    That I am indulging in the drinking of wine."

                    Al-Hasna showed the letter of her husband to some of her girl friends. They appreciated the verses of al-Numan. The verses got popular and Umar also came to hear them. Hearing the verses, Umar said:

                    "He is right. By God I do take it amiss, and I will call him to account."

                    Umar forthwith dismissed Al-Numan from his office.

                    Al-Numan came to Madina. He saw Umar and pleaded that he had never acted in the way that his verses implied. He urged that he was a poet who wrote in an exaggerated way.

                    Umar said, "The penalty for writing in an exaggerated way is dismissal; if you had acted in the way the verses implied I would have lashed you in the public. Know that I want the rulers to have a balanced view of things, and If they write in an exaggerated way, poetry or otherwise, they are not fit to hold administrative offices."

                    Saeed Bin Aamir

                    Umar appointed Saeed bin Aamir as the Governor of Emessa in Syria. Saeed was highly advanced in piety and led a very austere life. Umar had a very high opinion about his integrity.

                    When Umar went to Syria, he asked the people of Emessa whether they had any complaint against their Governor. The people said that they had four complaints against the Governor.

                    Umar summoned Saeed bin Aamir, and then in his presence asked the complainants to state their complaints.

                    The first complaint was that he came out of his house very late in the morning. Umar put Saeed to explanation and he said, "We have no servant. I and my wife are alone. On rising up in the morning we offer our prayers, then read the Quran. Thereafter my wife cooks the meals and I help her. That takes time."

                    The second complaint was that at night he did not attend to any body.

                    When asked to explain, Saeed said, "I have reserved the day for the people, and the night for God. As I attend God during the night I cannot attend to any person when I am attending God."

                    The third complaint was that once a month, he came out of his house very late in the afternoon. Saeed said, "I have only one change of clothes with me. I wash them once a month myself. Washing and drying the clothes takes time, and that is why once a month I am held up in my house till the afternoon."

                    The fourth complaint was that sometimes he fell into fits of unconsciousness. Saeed said that in Mecca he had witnessed how Khabib a convert to Islam was tortured to death by the Quraish of Mecca. The Quraish offered him safety and wealth if he disowned the Holy Prophet. He spurned their offer. He was asked whether he would not like Muhammad (peace be on him) to be tortured in his place. Khabib replied that he could not suffer even a thorn pricking the Holy Prophet. Thereupon the Quraish hung him dead downward along a date tree and did him to death. Saeed added, "At that time I was an infidel and did not do anything to come to the relief of Khabib. I recall how Khabib died calling 'Muhammad'. Now whenever I recall that tragic event, I am overwhelmed with remorse, and I swoon."

                    Umar dismissed the complaints. He said:

                    "Thank God, my opinion about Saeed has been confirmed by this trial. Verily he is a great Muslim, and those who complain against him their ignorance owe him an apology."

                    Umair Bin Saad

                    Umair bin Saad held the office of the Governor of Emessa for some time during the caliphate of Umar. Umair was more of a saint than a statesman. Instead of amassing wealth he distributed all that he had in the way of Allah.

                    For a year Umair remitted no revenue to Madina. Umar felt suspicious that Umair had misappropriated the revenues. He issued instructions calling upon Umair to come over to Madina.

                    As soon as the instructions of the Caliph were received Umair started for Madina. He took a tiffin carrier for carrying the meals, and a small waterskin for carrying water. He took a staff in his hand and started for Madina on foot. When he reached Madina he waited on Umar.

                    Umar enquired how did he do.

                    Umair said, "You can see for yourself."

                    Looking at his strange appearance, Umar enquired whether he had come all the way from Emessa to Madina on foot.

                    Umair answered the question in the affirmative.

                    Umar then asked why did he not hire an animal for the purposes of the journey.

                    Umair said that he had no money to pay for the hire. Some persons offered him a free ride in consideration of the office held by him, and such offers were rejected by him.

                    Umar then enquired about the revenues. Umair said that all the revenues were spent for the use of the people.

                    Umar wanted him to go back to Emessa, and ensure that in future the State share of the revenues was sent to Madina.

                    Umair said that he was not fit to be a Governor and that some one else should be appointed in his place.

                    Umar prevailed upon him to take back his resignation but Umair said that his decision was irrevocable.

                    Umair took leave of the Caliph, and retired to his village which was a few miles from Madina.

                    Umar was surprised at the behavior of Umair. He thought that Umair had affected such austerity to cover up the misappropriation of revenues. Umar deputed a man to go to the house of Umair and submit a report. Umar instructed, "Go to the house of Umair and there be his guest for three days. Watch him carefully. If you see any signs of opulence about him, furnish me a report. Take this bag of money. If you find that he is in straitened circumstances make him a gift of this money."

                    The man deputed by Umar went to the house of Umair and there lodged with him as his guest. There he found that Umair subsisted on bare barley bread and there was no sign of opulence about him. When the agent of Umar was about to depart he presented him the bag, of money Umair refused to accept the money.

                    When the report was submitted to Umar, he said that Umair was a great man.

                    Mugheera Bin Shu'Ba

                    Mugheera bin Shu'ba belonged to the tribe of Thaqeef of Taif. He was converted to Islam in 528 A.D. He took part in the battle of Yamama. He was a brave fighter. In one of the battles he lost an eye.

                    When Utba b. Ghazwan was the Governor of Basra, Mugheera was his deputy. In 639 A.D., Utba left for Mecca and Madina for performing Hajj and left Mugheera as the acting Governor of Basra.

                    At Madina, Utba waited on Umar and wanted to be relieved of the office of the Governor. Umar did not agree and Utba was required to return to Basra in national interest. On the way to Basra Utba fell off his camel and died from the fall. On the death of Utba, Umar confirmed Mugheera in his appointment as the Governor of Basra.

                    Mugheera b. Shu'ba was known for his weakness for women. He would marry women and would divorce them after some time to make room for more beautiful faces. In this way, he married no less than 80 wives, taking steps to ensure that at a time his wives were not more than four, the limit prescribed by the Shariah.

                    In those days at Basra, there was a beautiful woman Umm Jamil. She belonged to the same tribe as that of Mugheera. Her husband had died and she became notorious for loose morals. Mugheera was attracted by her and she visited him often.

                    Some Muslims in Basra became critical of the conduct of Mugheera. Among them was Abu Bakra Thaqeefi whose house across the street faced the house of Mugheera. One day a strong wind blew and the windows of the houses of Abu Bakra and Mugheera got opened through the force of the wind.

                    Abu Bakra saw through his window that in this house Mugheera was locked up in an uncompromising state with a woman. He thought that the woman was Umm Jamil. He had some friends with him, and they also saw Mugheera involved with a woman.

                    Abu Bakra Saqeefi wrote to Umar accusing Mugheera of adultery. The report was endorsed by four witnesses who had seen Mugheera in an uncompromising state with a woman.

                    Umar took prompt action. Umar appointed Abu Musa as the Governor of Basra and removed Mugheera from the office. Mugheera was summoned to Madina to face the trial. Abu Bakra and the other witnesses who had made the complaint were also summoned to Madina.

                    At the trial, Mugheera pleaded not guilty. His defense was that the woman in question was his wife and not Umm Jamil. With great indignation he averred that Abu Bakra and the men with him had no right to interfere in his privacy.

                    Abu Bakra on the other hand maintained that the woman was Umm Jamil. Three other witnesses corroborated the statement of Abu Bakra. The fourth witness Ziyad stated that he had seen the event, but he had not seen the face of the woman and did not know who she was. The other witnesses were cross examined, and it was found that there were some weak points in their evidence. They were asked whether the woman had her back or her face toward them. They said that she had their back to them. They tried to make out that even from her back she could be identified as Umm Jamil. They argued that the scandal of Mugheera and Umm Jamil was very common in Basra, and that lady was none else but Umm Jamil.

                    Under the Quranic law in order to press the charge of adultery definite evidence of four witnesses was necessary. As in this case the fourth witness was not sure of the identification of the woman, Mugheera was given the benefit of doubt and acquitted. Abu Bakra and his companions who had leveled the charge were punished with lashes for making a charge which could not be established.

                    In spite of his acquittal, Mugheera was not restored to the office of the Governor, and was detained in Madina. Mugheera made some show of indignation at having been treated shabbily in a case which was false. Umar called him to his presence and issued the warning:

                    "O Mugheera offer thanks to God that full evidence was not forthcoming against you, and you have been saved from disgrace by a technical flaw. Grounds of suspicion against you were very much there, and I have given you the benefit of doubt. Remember that if the evidence was complete, you would have been stoned to death."

                    Abdullah Bin Qart

                    Abdullah bin Qart was appointed by Umar as the Governor of Emessa. When Umar went on a tour of Syria, he enquired of the people of Emessa as to how was their Governor. The consensus of opinion was:

                    "He is a good man, but he has some pride and haughtiness about him, and he has constructed a double storeyed house for himself, while the houses of all other Muslims are single storeyed."

                    Umar deputed an agent to verify whether Abdullah had in fact built a double storeyed house. The agent was further instructed that if the house was in fact double storeyed the door on the upperstorey should be burnt as indicative of the displeasure of the Caliph. The agent found that a double storeyed house had actually been constructed. He, therefore, in compliance with the order of Umar had the door burnt. Abdullah watched the burning of the door with a sense of hurt pride. This was reported to Umar.

                    When Umar returned to Madina, he summoned Abdullah bin Qart to Madina. Having arrived at Madina, Abdullah bin Qart waited on Umar. Umar did not see him for three days and kept him waiting.

                    When after three days, Abdullah was admitted to the presence of Umar, Umar asked him whether he had built the second storey with his own money, or with money produced through unlawful means. Abdullah produced accounts to show that the house had been constructed with his own money. Umar showed his satisfaction on that count. Thereupon Abdullah behaved haughtily and asked "When the house was constructed with my own money, where lay the offence."

                    Umar cast a searching look at Abdullah and then said with some show of anger, "As a Governor of a Muslim state, you had to set a standard of equality among the Muslims. You have violated this principle by constructing a double storeyed house for yourself, thus placing yourself above the people."

                    Umar ordered Abdullah to see him at Harrah the following day. Harrah was the state pasture a few miles from Madina. When Abdullah appeared at Harrah, Umar ordered him, "Take off your costly clothes, and don this dress of a shepherd. Till further orders you have to look after the camels in this pasture". Abdullah reluctantly complied with the orders. Umar visited Harrah a fortnight later and asked Abdullah as to how he felt. Abdullah said, "I feel I repentant". Thereupon Umar said, "A Muslim Governor cannot be haughty or proud. If you are repentant I send you back as Governor. I hope you have learnt the lesson that a Governor is not superior to the people; he is only one of them, with great responsibilities."

                    Abdullah returned to Emessa a changed man.

                    Abu Musa Ashari

                    Abu Musa Ashari was the Governor of Basra. He held the chief command of the operations in Persia. After the victory of Isfahan Abu Musa sent a delegation of sixty persons to Madina. A young man Zaba bin Mahsin waited on Abu Musa and desired that he should also be included in the delegation. Abu Musa regretted his inability as persons more deserving than Zaba had been included in the delegation. Zaba felt dissatisfied and he held out a threat of complaining to the Caliph. Abu Musa informed Umar of the threat of Zaba.

                    Zaba went to Madina and there lodged a complaint against Abu Musa. Umar recorded the complaint and summoned Abu Musa to Madina. When Abu Musa came to Madina, Umar showed him the list of charges against him and asked for his explanation.

                    The first charge was that out of the captives he had kept sixty captives for himself. Abu Musa explained that these captives had applied for being ransomed and he had kept them with him till they were ransomed. Umar held that the charge was not established.

                    The second charge was that he had paid one thousand dirhams to a poet. Abu Musa said that he had paid the amount out of his money. Abu Musa presented the accounts. Umar felt satisfied and this charge was dismissed.

                    The third charge was that Abu Musa had a maid Aquila who was given two shares. Abu Musa explained that there was something curious with the maid as her consumption of food was twice that of an average adult. As such she had to be given two shares.

                    The fourth charge was that Abu Musa had entrusted most of his work to a young man Ziyad. Abu Musa explained that he had done so in public interest as Ziyad was most intelligent.

                    Umar summoned Aquila and Ziyad to Madina. He verified that Aquila actually consumed food twice the normal food of an adult. By questioning Ziyad Umar felt convinced that Ziyad was highly intelligent and that it was in public interest to avail of his intelligence.

                    Abu Musa acquitted of the charges, and was asked to resume his office at Basra.

                    On another occasion a person came to Umar, and complained against Abu Musa. He said that at the time of the distribution of spoils Abu Musa gave him a smaller share. He protested and urged that he should be given the full share due to him. Thereupon Abu Musa felt annoyed, struck him with twenty lashes and had his hair shaded. Ajmar asked the complainant to return to Basr. and there level the charge against Abu Musa before a congregation. If the charge was established he could have his revenge from Musa. Iladrat Umar gave the complainant the necessary authority in this behalf. The complainant returned to Basra and there in the mosque leveled the charge against Abu Musa. There were many in the congregation who came forward to support the charge. Abu Musa turning to the congregation said, "You can have your revenge. You may beat me, or accept some money from me at your option.' Thereupon the complainant said, "Thou I feel satisfied and I forgive you in the name of Allah."

                    Trial Of Saad Bin Abi Waqas

                    Saad bin Abi Waqas was the victor of Qadisiyya. He was a prominent companion and a maternal uncle of the Holy Prophet Umar appointed him as the Governor of Kufa. In spite of his very high position, Saad could not escape from the scrutiny of Umar and had to face a trial.

                    It was reported to Umar that Saad had constructed a palace, and had provided a door which could be shut at his option. The orders of Umar were that where the Governors sat to meet the people or attend to their complaints there should be no door so that all people could have access to the Governor at all times.

                    Umar deputed Muhammad bin Masalma to hold an enquiry on the spot and if he found that a door had in fact been constructed it should be burnt. Muhammad went to Kufa and found the door. Saad argued that as a market adjoined his house the door was necessary to shut down the noise. This explanation was not accepted and Muhammad burnt the door.

                    On the eve of the battle of Nihawand when Saad was commanding the operations Jarah bin Sanan Asadi lodged some complaints against Saad. It was a critical time when all attention had to be concentrated at mobilizing forces for confrontation with the Persians. In spite of critical situation, Umar decided to hold the enquiry. The complainant along with his witnesses was summoned to Madina. Saad was also summoned to Madina to face the trial.

                    The charges against Saad were:
                    1. (1) that in the battle-field he did not fight personally:
                    2. (2) that he did not make fair distribution; and
                    3. (3) that he did not offer the prayers correctly.
                    Saad explained that he could not fight personally as there were boils on his body. Nevertheless he directed all field operations personally and God made the Muslims victorious. Umar accepted the explanation and absolved Saad of the charge.

                    As regards the charge of unfair distribution, Saad presented the entire record. Umar scrutinized the record and agreed that the distribution in all cases had been made according to merit. He was accordingly absolved of this charge.

                    Umar asked Saad as to how he offered prayers. Saad explained in detail how he offered his prayers. Umar was satisfied that there was nothing wrong with the way in which he offered his prayers.

                    Umar accordingly absolved Saad bin Waqas of all the charges against him. He said that he knew that the charges were baseless but he had held the enquiry to establish the integrity of Saad.

                    In the enquiry Jarah bin Sanan Asadi had lodged the complaint and Asama bin Qatada had given evidence against Saad. After the enquiry Saad cursed Jarah as well as Asama. His curse fell on these two persons. Jarah became blind and was afflicted with poverty. Asama was killed by his own people.

                    Amr Bin Al Aas

                    Amr bin Al Aas was the conqueror of Egypt. He enjoyed a high position but in spite of that he did not escape from the scrutiny of Umar.

                    It was reported to Umar that Amr had amassed much wealth. Umar wrote to Amr:

                    "It has come to my notice that you have amassed considerable wealth. Originally you were a man of ordinary means. Whence comes such wealth?"

                    Amr explained that he owned some land which brought good income. Moreover the salary that he got was ample which he could invest in business.

                    Umar was not satisfied with the explanation. He had half of the wealth of Amr confiscated to the State. Umar reprimanded Amr in the following terms:

                    "O ye Governors you have sat on the springs of wealth. Nothing stands in your way in amassing wealth. You people are playing with fire."

                    Amr bin Al Aas had a pulpit for himself in the Juma Mosque at Fustat. Umar rebuked Amr for that in the following terms:

                    "I cannot approve that the Muslims should sit low while you should sit above them. Do away with the pulpit."

                    Amr bin Al Aas complied with the orders.

                    Once on the occasion of the Hajj in the presence of all the Governors, Umar addressed the people:

                    "O ye people, I have not sent the Governors so that they may maltreat you or deprive you of your lawful possessions. I have sent them so that they may be a source of inspiration to you in leading life according to the Islamic way. If any Governor violates these terms, please inform me and would take action."

                    A man rose up from the congregation to enquire whether a Governor could on his own account beat a Muslim. Umar said that if any punishment was inflicted as a result of a judicial trial the man could be punished; otherwise not. The man complained that Amr bin Al Aas the Governor of Egypt had inflicted eighty stripes on him without any judicial trial. Amr said that he had beaten the man to enforce discipline Umar said that unless the man was judicially tried and found guilty no punishment could be inflicted on him. Umar asked the complainant that as Amr beat him without authority, he could strike him with a similar number of lashes to vindicate himself. Amr begged for Umar's permission to conciliate the man. Umar agreed, and Amr bin Al Aas conciliated the man after paying him a substantial amount.

                    On one occasion Amr called a man 'Munafiq'. The man came to Umar and complained. Umar gave the complainant the authority to return to Egypt, confront the Governor with the charge before the public and if it was established claim indemnity. The man returned to Egypt and confronted the Governor with the charge in the main mosque. Amr denied the charge but the man asked the men in the congregation to say on oath whether they had heard the Governor on such and such a day calling him 'Munafiq'. Many persons stood up to corroborate the statement. Thus cornered Amr said to the complainant, "You may take your revenge". Thereupon the complainant said, "Now I forgive you."

                    On another occasion an Egyptian complained before Umar that in a horse race his horse was leading but Muhammad the son of Amr beat him and had his own horse to be the winner. When the matter was brought to the notice of Amr he put the complainant in prison. The complainant escaped from the prison and came to Madina to lodge his complaint with Umar. Umar summoned Amr and his son to Madina. They were apprised of the complaint against them. They could not offer a satisfactory explanation. Umar ordered that the complainant should beat Muhammad the son of Amr in the same way as Muhammad had beat him. The complainant beat Muhammad the son of Amr accordingly and felt satisfied.

                    Harith Bin Wahb Yashi

                    Harith bin Wahb Yashi was a prominent companion. Umar appointed him as a Governor of a province.

                    Umar had an intelligence service in each province and this department was under the direct control of Umar himself. This Department was required to report from time to time about the activities of the officers in the province.

                    The Intelligence Department reported to Umar that Harith bin Wahb Yashi the Governor had sold some camels for one hundred diners.

                    Umar summoned Harith bin Wahb Yashi to Madina and put him to trial.

                    He was asked whether it was a fact that lie had sold some camels for one hundred diners.

                    He admitted that he had sold some camels for this amount.

                    He was next asked, "From where did you get the camels".

                    He replied that these camels were the share of his spoils.

                    "What profit did you earn from the sale of the animals", was the next question put by Umar.

                    Harith bin Wahb said that he could not be sure as to the exact amount of the profit, but it might be fifty diners.

                    Thereupon Umar gave the verdict:

                    "I sent you as a Governor and not as a trader. Deposit the amount of the profit in the public treasury, and do not indulge in trading activities as long as you hold the office of the Governor."

                    Harith bin Wahb deposited the amount in the public treasury and submitted his resignation. He said:

                    "By God, I will not serve under you."

                    Umar said:

                    "By God, I will not appoint you as Governor again."

                    Qadama Bin Mazaun

                    Qadama was the son of Mazaun who was one of the earliest converts to Islam. The Holy Prophet had great regard for Mazaun. A sister of Qadama, Zainab was the wife of Umar. Qadama was the maternal uncle of Abdullah and Hafsa.

                    Umar appointed Qadama as the Governor of Bahrain. Qadama was a good administrator and he ruled his province well Umar had his intelligence service in Bahrain and the Department reported that though Qadama was honest and a good administrator he was apt to indulge in drinking.

                    Once a companion Jarud came from Bahrain and he reported to Umar that Qadama had drunk and he had seen him in an unconscious state.

                    Umar asked whether he could produce a witness.

                    Jarud said that Abu Hurairah be summoned as a witness.

                    Umar called Abu Hurairah, and asked him whether he could give any evidence on the point whether Qadama had drunk.

                    Abu Hurairah said: "I did not see Qadama drinking, but I saw him in an unconscious state."

                    Umar summoned the wife of Qadama Hind bint Al-Walid who was a sister of Khalid and was related to Umar. Hind was asked to give evidence on the point whether her husband drank. She gave evidence against her husband.

                    Umar summoned Qadama from Bahrain and put him on trial.

                    When faced with the evidence of his own wife, Qadama did not choose to rebut the charge. He took the stand that drinking was not specifically prohibited.

                    Umar said, "Qadama I put you the question whether you regard drinking as lawful."

                    Qadama said, "I would not say that it is lawful, but I do maintain that drinking is not punishable."

                    Umar said, "You are not correct that drinking is not punishable. I will inflict on you the usual punishment. I cannot make any exception in your case on the ground that you are my brother."

                    Umar inflicted the punishment on Qadama. Qadama resigned the office and refused to be on speaking terms with Umar. He also divorced his wife who had given evidence against him.

                    When Umar went on Hajj he had a dream in which he was asked to reconcile with Qadama. Qadama happened to be in Mecca. Umar went to Qadama, and sought his conciliation. After some discussion both the sides decided to forgive and forget. Qadama said that he would not serve again under Umar but he promised that he would not I drink again.

                    Dismissal Of Khalid

                    Some time in 637 A.D., Khalid had a special bath in which he rubbed his body with a certain substance which had an ingredient of alcohol in it. This was reported to Umar, who reprimanded Khalid as follows:

                    "It has come to my notice that you have rubbed your body with alcohol. Lo Allah has made unlawful the substance of alcohol as well as its form, just as he has made unlawful both the form and substance of sin. He has made unlawful the touch of alcohol in a bath no less than the drinking of it. Let it not touch your body for it is unclean."

                    Khalid explained that the drug had been boiled before use and all alcohol therein had evaporated. Umar did not accept the explanation, but he chose to take no action.

                    After the battle of Marash in 638 A.D., Athath bin Qais a Kinda chief and poet wrote a panegyric in the praise of Khalid. Khalid gave the poet a reward of 10,000 dirhams. When this was reported to Umar, he commanded Abu Ubaida:

                    "Bring Khalid in front of the congregation, tie his hands with his turban and take off his cap. Ask him from which funds he gave such a high award to Athath, from his own pocket or from the spoils acquired in the expedition of Marash. If he confesses to having given the award from the spoils, he is guilty of misappropriation. If he claims that he gave the money from his own pocket, he is guilty of extravagance. In either case dismiss him and take over the charge from him."

                    The command of Umar was carried to Abu Ubaida by Bilal, the Muezzin. Bilal arrived at Emessa and handed over the Caliph's letter to Abu Ubaida for compliance. Khalid who was then at Qinissrin was summoned to Emessa.

                    At Emessa when Khalid called on Abu Ubaida, he was informed of the Caliph's charge against him. Abu Ubaid asked Khalid whether he was inclined to confess his guilt. Khalid wanted some time to consider the matter and this was allowed. Khalid consulted his sister who was at Emessa. She advised him against confession. Khalid accordingly told Abu Ubaida that as he was not guilty, there was nothing to be confessed.

                    A congregation of the Muslims was held in the principal mosque at Emessa. Here Bilal faced Khalid and enquired, "O Khalid, did you give Athath ten thousand dirhams from your own pocket or from the spoils?" Khalid was astounded, and for some time he was quiet. Bilal walked unto him; took off his turban and tied his hands therewith. Bilal said that he had done so in accordance with the orders of the Caliph. He repeated his question as to from where ten thousand dirhams had been paid to Athath. After some time Khalid found his voice and said that he had paid the money from his own pocket.

                    Abu Ubaida took over the charge from Khalid and instructed him to proceed to Madina to see the Caliph.

                    Khalid arrived at Madina as an embittered man. When Khalid met Umar, Umar paid him a tribute: "Khalid you have done what no other man has done; but it's not the people who do; it is Allah Who does".

                    Khalid protested against the treatment meted out to him. Umar said, "Whence comes all this wealth?"

                    Khalid said, that it was the share of his spoils Khalid estimated that his wealth did not exceed 60,000 dirhams. He offered, "Whatever exceeds 60,000 dirhams is yours."

                    Umar had the possessions of Khalid checked and evaluated. The assessment worked out to 80,000 dirhams. Umar accordingly confiscated Khalid's possessions valued at Rs. 20,OOO. After this transaction, Umar said to Khalid:

                    "That settles the case. I have no more charge against you. I assure you that you are honorable in my eyes' and you are dear to me. After this day you will have no further cause of complaint against me."

                    Khalid felt bitter. After staying in Madina for a few days, Khalid left for Syria. Many people gathered to bid farewell to the General. The people felt that Khalid the hero of their dreams had been treated with injustice.

                    After Khalid had left, the people of Madina waited on Umar and wanted him to return to Khalid his property which had been confiscated. Umar did not accept the appeal He said, "I do not trade with what belongs to Allah and the Muslims". The issues which agitated the public mind were: Whether Umar had taken such drastic action because of his personal ill will against Khalid or whether Khalid was really dishonest. Umar clarified:

                    "I have not dismissed Khalid because of my anger or personal ill will against him. I have not dismissed Khalid because he was dishonest. I have dismissed him because the people glorified him and were misled. I feared that the people would rely on him. I want the people to know that it is Allah Who does all things; and that there should be no wavering in the faith of the people in Allah by attributing success in any field to any human being."

                    Ayad Bin Ghanam

                    Ayad bin Ghanam was the conqueror of the Jazira, the land between the Tigris and the Euphrates in the upper part of Iraq. He served as the Governor of Jazira for some time. Later he was transferred to Egypt.

                    One day a Bedouin came to Umar and said, "Umar, beware of the fire of hell."

                    Umar enquired what was the matter.

                    The Bedouin said, "You have enjoined upon your Governors to lead a simple life and be accessible to the people at all times. But do you know that Ayad your Governor of Egypt is living a luxurious life and he is not accessible to the people."

                    Umar noted the complaint and assured the complainant that suitable action would be taken thereon. He deputed an agent to Egypt to verify the complaint. He instructed further that if the complaint was correct, Ayad should be summoned to Madina.

                    On reaching Egypt the agent deputed by Umar felt satisfied that the Governor dressed himself in fine clothes, and that he was not easily accessible to the public. The emissary of Umar accordingly summoned Ayad to Madina.

                    When Ayad was presented to Umar, the latter could not recognize him. When he was told that he was in fact Ayad, he said:

                    "When I sent you as Governor you were neither so white nor so fat as you are now. Prima facie you have abused your position."

                    Umar asked him to take off his fine clothes, wear the dress of a shepherd and look after the goats of the Baitul Mal in the State pasture. Iyad complied with the order. A few days later Umar went to the State pasture and enquired of Ayad as to how he felt. Iyad said, "My father was a shepherd, and I feel no humiliation in following in the footsteps of my father."

                    Thereupon Umar said, "If that is so, it means that your conscience is not guilty. I have checked your accounts and these have been found in order. You are not corrupt but you have indulged in luxury. You became arrogant because of the office held by you. I hope you are now rid of your pride and arrogance. What sort of man will you be if I send you back to your office."

                    Ayad said, "I have no desire for the office, but if that is your command, I will do as you ordain."

                    Umar said, "That is well said. I order you to resume charge as the Governor of Egypt. Dress yourself as a simple man and avoid wearing Egyptian finery. Let there be no guard at your door, and see that you are accessible to the people at all times."

                    Ayad said, "The orders of the Caliph still be complied with strictly."

                    Ayad returned to Egypt, a changed man. He strictly complied with the orders of Umar both in letter and spirit.

                    Abu Ubaid As Commander-In-Chief In Iraq

                    During the caliphate of Abu Bakr under the command of Khalid bin Walid the Muslims conquered a greater part of Iraq. In June 634 A.D., Khalid was asked to proceed to Syria, and Muthanna was left in command of the Muslim forces in Iraq. With the departure of Khalid to Syria there was a lull in fighting on the Iraq front. Roughly the position was that the Persians held the territory to the east of the Tigris while the Muslims held the territory to the west of the Euphrates. The position about the territory between the two rivers known as the "Suwad" was somewhat obscure. It was no man's land. Sometimes parts thereof were occupied by the Persians and sometime by the Muslims. The people of the region thus kept shifting their loyalties, sometimes to the Persians and sometimes to the Muslims.

                    In July 634 a battle was fought between the Persians and the Muslims in the 'Suwad', somewhere near ancient Babylon. The Persians were under the impression that with the departure of Khalid and a diminution in the strength of the Muslim forces, it would be easy for them to defeat the Muslims. The battle of Babylon belied these hopes. Muthanna rose to the occasion, and after a violent battle the Persians were defeated.

                    Soon after there was a revolution in Persia. The Persian king was killed, and a lady Puran Dukht ascended the throne of Persia. The veteran General Rustam became the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian forces and he undertook to drive away the uncouth Arabs from the fertile land of Iraq.

                    Anticipating a Persian offensive on a larger scale under the new set up Muthanna felt that the Muslims should get ready for such a war, and for that more reinforcements were needed. In the third week of August 634 Muthanna went personally to Madina to get reinforcements for the Iraq front.

                    When Muthanna reached Madina, the Caliph Abu Bakr lay on the death bed. Muthanna waited on the dying Caliph, and apprised him of the situation in Iraq. He stated that the Persians were going to launch a big offensive, and that the Muslim forces in Iraq were too inadequate to meet the challenge. He made a strong plea for further reinforcements.

                    Abu Bakr though dying listened to Muthanna very carefully. He then sent for Umar the Caliph designate and when he came addressed him thus:

                    "Listen O Umar to what I say to you and act upon my words. I hope to die this very day and when I am dead let not the evening come upon you before you have exhorted the people to go with Muthanna. And if I survive till nightfall, let not the morning come before you have exhorted the people to go with Muthanna."

                    Ahu Bakr died that night, the 21st of August 634. He was buried the same night. After the funeral prayers, Umar exhorted the assembled Muslims to join Muthanna in the Iraq campaign.

                    On the morning of 22nd August the Muslims assembled to take the oath of allegiance to the new Caliph. After the ceremony was over Umar once again exhorted the Muslims to volunteer themselves for war on the Iraq front. Again there was no response. The Muslims were ready to join war in Syria but they hesitated in participating in a campaign against the Persians in Iraq. Although the Persians had been defeated in some campaigns, they were still held in awe, and the Muslims felt that the Persians were a hard nut to crack.

                    In his heart of hearts, Umar felt much upset at this want of response from the Muslims. He decided that whosoever was the first to offer his services for fighting on the Iraq front would be made the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces in Iraq.

                    On the 23rd August, the Muslims were once again exhorted to Jihad in Iraq. Seeing the hesitation of the people, Muthanna took up the stage, and spoke eloquently of the need of pushing the war in Iraq to a successful conclusion. He said:

                    "Ye Muslims, listen to me! You should have no fear of the Persians. I have tested the courage of the fire worshippers and discovered that they are not at home on the battle-field. Years of luxury have made them easy going, and it would not be difficult for us to overpower them. We have already conquered most of the important districts of Iraq, and humiliated the Persians. With a little more effort and with the help of God we can become the masters of the whole of Iraq. It is incumbent on us to take the message of Allah and His Messenger to these fire worshippers and offer them the true faith of Islam."

                    Then Umar delivered a thrilling speech highlighting the mission of Islam. That appeared to move the audience. Then the Caliph asked for volunteers. Abu Ubaid the chief of the clan of Thaqafi rose up to offer his name. Umar welcomed the offer and said, "Abu Ubaid, I appoint you as the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces in Iraq.

                    Then other people offered their names. By 25th August over 1,000 Muslims were ready to proceed to the Iraq front. Thereupon Muthanna left for Iraq. Abu Ubaid and his contingent were to follow.

                    Abu Ubaid was a man of great courage and dash, but he had no experience of actual fighting in any war. Umar was advised that for such an important campaign some veteran companion of the Holy Prophet seasoned in war should be appointed to lead the campaign.

                    Umar said:

                    "The Companions are entitled to such precedence because of their courage and love for Jihad. Here I have been giving the call to Jihad ever since we buried Abu Bakr, and I have had no response from the companions. Now that a young man who is not a companion has given the dead, I am determined to appoint him as the Commander-in-Chief. The Companions have lost this precedence by their own fault, and they should serve under a man who has given a greater show of courage."

                    Umar however appointed a few Companions as the advisers of Abu Ubaid. Abu Ubaid was instructed by the Caliph that he should act on the advice of these advisers.

                    After a few days when the necessary preparations had been made Abu Ubaid left Madina with a force of one thousand fighting men. He was further instructed that as he proceeded to Iraq he should recruit more fighting men from the tribes on the way.
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                    • #25
                      Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

                      Al Firdaus, these hadiths may interest you:)


                      Anas related, as a , Love of Abu Bakr and Omar is ImanMarfu'Hadith: A Hadith which is traced back to Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam directly.

                      Abu'l-Fadl Abd-Rahman Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuti:The Khalifahs Who Took The Right Way
                      ربِ إشرح لي صدري ويسر لي أمري


                      • #26
                        Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

                        Originally posted by Reema
                        Al Firdaus, these hadiths may interest you:)


                        Anas related, as a , Love of Abu Bakr and Omar is ImanMarfu'Hadith: A Hadith which is traced back to Rasulullah Sallallahu Alayhi Wassallam directly.

                        Abu'l-Fadl Abd-Rahman Jalal ad-Din as-Suyuti:The Khalifahs Who Took The Right Way
                        As-salamu-'alykum-wa-rahmatullaahi-wa-barakatuh, Reema. Thank you, very much for bringing these Hadiths to my attention. I had not known of them until I read your post. It also pleases me to no end in learning what I have upon reading your post. All Praise Be To Allah Most High in that in all this time I have been helping myself towards Paradise in this respect, insha Allah, without prior knowledge! Allah (swt) is indeed Most Merciful.
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                        • #27
                          Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

                          Asalam Alaykum akhi, your very welcome.

                          I have many more beautiful hadiths like this, these are just a select few I picked, I can share them with you if you want in this thread. Many of them are related to Abu Bakr and Omar and have a very significant meaning, also some excellent hadiths on the life of Uthman and Ali ibn Abi Talib too.

                          Just let me know! I just thought because you have this thread already open, there would be no harm in putting related hadiths in here.:)

                          Originally posted by AL-FIRDAUS
                          As-salamu-'alykum-wa-rahmatullaahi-wa-barakatuh, Reema. Thank you, very much for bringing these Hadiths to my attention. I had not known of them until I read your post. It also pleases me to no end in learning what I have upon reading your post. All Praise Be To Allah Most High in that in all this time I have been helping myself towards Paradise in this respect, insha Allah, without prior knowledge! Allah (swt) is indeed Most Merciful.
                          ربِ إشرح لي صدري ويسر لي أمري


                          • #28
                            Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

                            Originally posted by Reema
                            Asalam Alaykum akhi, your very welcome.

                            I have many more beautiful hadiths like this, these are just a select few I picked, I can share them with you if you want in this thread. Many of them are related to Abu Bakr and Omar and have a very significant meaning, also some excellent hadiths on the life of Uthman and Ali ibn Abi Talib too.

                            Just let me know! I just thought because you have this thread already open, there would be no harm in putting related hadiths in here.:)
                            By the Grace of Allah (swt), by all means do. :up: And of course there is no harm. Even if I did not want them, I am sure other Muslims would like to read them. As would I! :)
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                            • #29
                              Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

                              Expansion of Islam and Military Campaign

                              Battle Of Namaraq

                              Muthanna returned from Madina to Hira in September 634 A D.The Persians commissioned two forces to fight against the Muslims. One was placed under the command of Narsi and it was stationed at Kaskar. The other army under the command of Jaban was required to march to Hira. Heralds were sent to various parts of Iraq to foment an insurrection against the Muslims by appealing to their sense of religious honor.

                              Seeing the Persians to be in an offensive mood, Muthanna decided to remain on the defensive. All Muslim outposts in Suwad were pulled back and all Muslim garrisons were withdrawn to the west of the Euphrates. As Jaban marched through Suwad he met no resistance from the Muslims. As Jaban approached Hira, Muthanna evacuated Hira and moved to Khaftan closer to the desert. The strategy was to tempt the Persians come as near the desert as possible.

                              Abu Ubaid set off from Madina in September 634 with a force of one thousand fighting men. In the way he recruited more fighting men from the tribes, and when he reached Khaftan early in October he had a force of 4,000 fighting men with him.

                              Jaban crossed the Euphrates and camped at Namaraq near the site of modern day Kufa. Abu Ubaid moved with the Muslim forces from Khaftan, and came to Namaraq. At Namaraq the two armies were deployed for battle. The Persians led the attack, but the Muslim ranks held fast. Then the Muslims led the charge, and the Persians had to fall back. The Muslims redoubled the charge, and the Persians retreated confusion. The battle ended in the defeat of the Persians, who lost heavily. Jaban himself was captured by a Muslim soldier. Jaban did not reveal his identity and he bargained with his captor that if he was released he would offer two Persians in his place. The unsophisticated Muslim warrior agreed to the bargain, and Jaban was set free.

                              Later it was found that Jaban was the commander of the Persian forces and that he had escaped due to a stratagem. The matter was reported to Abu Ubaid. Abu Ubaid felt satisfied that a Muslim soldier had in fact given the promise to Jaban, and the Muslims could not go back on that promise.
                              This episode has been versified by Allama Iqbal in his poem.

                              "The Mysteries of Selflessness" as an illustration of Muslim brotherhood.The poem reads:

                              "A certain general of Kind Yazdjird
                              Became a Muslim's captive in the wars;
                              A fireworshipper he was, inured to every trick
                              Of fortune, crafty, cunning, full of guile.
                              He kept his captor ignorant of his rank
                              Nor told him who he was, or what his name,
                              But said, "I beg that you will spare my life
                              And grant to me the quarter Muslims gain."
                              The Muslim sheathed his sword. "To shed thy blood,"
                              He cried "is forbidden for me."
                              When Kaveh's banner had been rent to shreds,
                              The fire of Satan's sons turned all to dust"
                              It was disclosed the captive was Jaban
                              The Commander of the Persian host.
                              Then was his fraud reported,
                              And his blood petitioned from the Arab General.
                              But Abu Ubaid the Muslim Commander
                              Answered their request
                              "Friends, we are Muslims, strings upon one lute
                              And of one concord.
                              Ali's voice attunes with Abu Dharr's,
                              Although the throat be that of Qanbar or Bilal.
                              Each one of us is trustee to the whole community
                              And one with it in malice or in truce.
                              As the Community is the sure base
                              On which the individual rests secure,
                              So is its covenant his sacred bond.
                              Though Jaban was a foeman to Islam,
                              A Muslim granted him immunity;
                              His blood, O followers of the best of men
                              Cannot be spilled by any Muslim sword."

                              Battle Of Kasker

                              After the battle of Namaraq, the defeated Persian force who survived sought refuge with Narsi at Kaskar. Narsi was a cousin of the Kisra Puran Dukht and Kaskar was his estate. Kaskar was the Tigris downstream of Ctesiphon the capital of Persia. It was about two hundred miles from Namaraq across the entire Doab between the Euphrates and the Tigris.

                              Narsi had a good concentration of force at Kaskar. With the coming of the Persian forces who had been defeated at Namaraq the strength of the Persian forces at Kaskar further increased. The Persian Commander-in-Chief promised to send some more Persian forces under the command of Jalinus to Kaskar. With these forces at his disposal, Narsi felt secure at Kaskar. Kaskar was so far away from the Muslim camp that Narsi felt that no Muslim attack could be imminent.

                              Abu Ubaid, the Muslim commander, thought otherwise. He thought that it would have a good psychological effect if in the wake of the battle of Namaraq the Muslims rushed to Kaskar and deal with the Persian forces there before the forces under Jalinus could come to their assistance. Abu Ubaid accordingly ordered a march across the Suwad to Kaskar. Dashing across the Suwad the Muslim forces appeared before Kaskar. The two forces met at Saqatia a few miles from Kaskar. The strategy of the Persians was to defer action till the arrival of the force under Jalinus. The strategy of the Muslims was to press the attack and force immediate decision.

                              The right wing of the Persian army was commanded by Banduyah and the left wing by Tairuyah. Both of them were the cousins of Kisra. Abu Ubaid launched the attack. The battle was hotly contested. No details about the battle are available. All that we know is that the Persians were defeated, and those who survived retreated to Ctesiphon. Immense booty fell to the Muslims. The most prized possession that the Muslims got was the Narsi garden which was known throughout Persia for its delicious fruit. The fruit of the garden were heretofore reserved for Narsi, and he sent occasional gifts to the Kisra. On getting hold of the garden the Muslims distributed the fruit among all soldiers. Some fruit was also sent to Umar to taste.

                              Abu Ubaid stayed at Kaskar but he sent Muslim contingents in the adjoining areas to bring the people under Muslim rule. Muthanna was sent with his force to the region of Barosma. Walid was sent against Zawabi Asim was sent against Nahrjubar. No resistance was offered anywhere. The chiefs of these places waited on Abu Ubaid at Kaskar and offered submission. They also offered him some delicious food. He asked whether this food was meant for the entire Muslim army. The chiefs stated that the food was meant for him and his officers and that they would give a feast for the army later. Thereupon Abu Ubaid refused to accept the food and returned it with the remarks that as the General of the Muslim army he could only eat what the common soldiers ate.

                              In the meantime the Persian force under Jalinus advanced. While the Persian force was still in the territory of Barosma, Abu Ubaid advanced from Kaskar to meet it. The two forces met at Baqsiasa after a hot contest the Persians were defeated and they retreated after leaving many soldiers dead on the battle-field.

                              Abu Ubaid wrote to Umar a detailed report of the battles of Kaskar and Baqsiasa. Umar in reply advised Abu Ubaid in the following terms:

                              "You have entered the land of trickery and guile, dishonesty and oppression. You have marched against a people who love evil and know it well and abjure goodness of which they are ignorant. So be on your guard and watch your tongue. Reveal not your secrets for those who guard their secrets are secure against unpleasantness and loss."

                              Battle Of The Bridge

                              The Muslims under the command of Abu Ubaid had won a few initial successes against the Persians. That emboldened Abu Ubaid.

                              The Persians now sent another force under Bahman. Bahman was a veteran General of considerable standing, and he undertook to drive away the Arabs from the soils of Persia.

                              Bahman marched with his army towards Hira and camped at Quss Natif on the east bank of the Euphrates some distance north of Hira, and little below the site of Kufa.

                              When Abu Ubaid came to know of the movements of the Persian army, he marched the Muslim forces from Hira and camped with 9,000 men on the west bank of the Euphrates at the village called Marauha.

                              Now the river Euphrates lay between the two forces, Bahman sent an emissary to Abu Ubaid with the message "Either you cross and come over to our side; or we will cross and come over to your side."

                              Abu Ubaid was advised that he should ask the Persiaus to cross. The Persian emissary played on the emotions of Abu Ubaid, and said that in the Persian camp the general belief was that the Muslims were afraid of the might of Persia. Abu Ubaid made him understand that one Arab was equal to ten Persians. The emissary said that if such claim was not an empty boast, the Muslims should substantiate it by taking the initiative and crossing over to the Persian side. In a vainglorious mood Abu Ubaid declared, "We will cross the river; go and tell your Commander accordingly."

                              As soon as the Persian emissary had left, Abu Ubaid ordered that the Muslim forces should prepare for crossing the river. Saleet bin Qais who had been appointed by Umar as the Adviser to Abu Ubaid told Abu Ubaid that his decision to cross the river was not sound. Abu Ubaid retorted "Saleet, you are frightened Have trust in God."

                              Muthanna who commanded the cavalry also tried to persuade Abu Ubaid reconsider his decision. Abu Ubaid remained adamant and he removed Muthanna from the commend of the cavalry. In his place he appointed his cousin Abu Mihjan to the command of the cavalry.

                              Some other veterans in the Muslim army said to Abu Ubaid, "O Commander do not cut your means of escape, and do not make yourself a target of the Persians." Abu Ubaid said that such were the counsels of the chicken-hearted, and I that those who were fighting in the way of God should have the courage and boldness to beard the lion in its den.

                              The previous night, Dauma the wife of Abu Ubaid who was with him in the camp had a dream. In the dream she had seen a man come down from heaven with a vessel from I which Abu Ubaid drank. Thereafter his brother al-Hakam drank from it. Next his son had a drink from it, and then some other members of the tribe of Abu Ubaid drank from the vessel. After all had drunk the person concerned carried the vessel back to the heaven.

                              When Dauma related her dream to Abu Ubaid, he interpreted it to mean that he and all the other people who had drunk from the vessel would be blessed with martyrdom. That did not in any way unnerve Abu Ubaid. On the other hand he felt happy at the prospects of martyrdom.

                              A bridge of boats was thrown across the river, and the Muslim army marched along the bridge on the morning of 28th November 634 A D. The Persians watched the Muslim army cross the river. They, however remained arrayed in battle order in light formation.

                              As the Muslim army crossed over to the other side of the river they found that the space at their disposal was circumscribed, and there was no room for any maneuvers or out" flanking movements.

                              Immediately after crossing, the Muslims formed themselves into battle formation and faced the Persian hosts. The Persian army had with them a large number of war elephants. Each elephant carried a howdah in which sat soldiers armed with javelins and bows. To each howdah branches of palm trees were tied to give the illusion of size. Bells were tied round the neck of the elephants, and these appeared to produce an unearthly din.

                              When the battle began the Muslim cavalry advanced to the charge. At the sight of the monster elephants the Arab horse shied, turned, and bolted. That led to confusion and the Muslim cavalry was disorganized.

                              Seeing this confusion in the Muslim ranks, Bahman ordered an advance by the Persian forces. As the Persian forces advanced the noise from the bells of the elephants became louder. The Persians seated in the howdahs of the elephants made good use of their bows and arrows and drove several wedges in the Muslim front.

                              At this stage Abu Ubaid ordered the Muslim cavalry to dismount and attack on foot Abu Ubaid himself led the attack. He exhorted his men to attack the elephants and cut their girths. In the attempt many Muslims were killed, but some Muslims succeeded in cutting the girths of some elephants. Abu Ubaid rushed at the leading elephant, a white monster elephant, with his javelin. The beast was blinded in one eye. Then Abu Ubaid got under the elephant and cut its girth bringing down the howdah and its occupants. In the scuffle that followed the elephant knocked down Abu Ubaid and trampled him under its heavy foot.

                              Al Hakam the brother of Abu Ubaida rushed to the spot. He shot the animal dead. He picked up the standard and led fighting. After some time he too fell fighting and the command was taken over by Jabr the son of Abu Ubaid. The battle waged with unrelenting fury and one after another all the Muslim commanders were martyred. All those whom Dauma the wife of Abu Ubaid had seen drink from the vessel brought from the heaven tasted martyrdom.

                              The Persians increased the violence of their attack and the Muslims fell back. At this stage Abdullah bin Marthad who belonged to the clan of Abu Ubaid cut off the boat bridge and to those who sought the bridge he shouted' O people die for what your Commanders have died." Some people turned back to fight and fell dead at the battle-field. Others plunged in the river and were drowned.

                              The Muslim forces were at this stage without a Commander, and the Persians increased the violence of their assaults. At this critical moment Muihanna took command of the army. He ordered the bridge to be rebuilt and when it was ready he organized a rear guard action. With a select force he faced the Persians, and asked the others to cross calmly without being panicky. Muthanna and his reserves remained at their posts until the entire army had crossed. Muthanna was the last to cross. In guarding the bridge he had received innumerable wounds and as he reach the Muslim camp he fell exhausted.

                              As the Muslim forces assembled at Marauha on the other side of the Euphrates, only 3,0OO persons assembled out of the total strength of 9,000. Some 2,000 persons fell fighting, some 2000 persons were drowned in the river, and some 2,000 persons fled away to Madina and elsewhere.

                              The immediate worry of Muthanna was pursuit by the Persians. If in the wake of their victory the Persians had crossed the Euphrates, all that had been left of the Muslim army would not have been able to face the Persians. Bahman felt elated at his victory over the Muslims. He had demonstrated that the Persians were still a mighty force. He had a mind to pursue the Muslims across the Euphrates but at that crucial moment there was a revolt against Rustam at the Persian capital, and Rustam recalled Bahman to al-Madain to help in putting down the revolt.

                              When the scouts brought the news that the Persians were marching back to al-Madain Muthanna felt relieved. Hira was now unsafe for the Muslims. Muthanna accordingly abandoned Hira and marched with his weary army to Ulleis.

                              Abdullah bin Zaid carried the news of the tragedy of the Battle of the Bridge to Madina. Umar felt grieved at the reverse of the Muslims, but the disaster did not unnerve him in any way.

                              In this moment of crisis Umar rose to great heights of leadership. Instead of apportioning blame, he said:

                              "O Lord every Muslim is in my charge and I am a refuge for all Muslims. May Allah bless Abu Ubaid. Having crossed the river he should have secured his position by the side of a hill. I wish he had not crossed, and sought his death, but had returned to me."

                              Some persons who had fled from the battle-field and had returned to Madina wept bitterly at the disaster. To them, Umar consoled with the following words:

                              "Do not weep. I am your refuge, and you have returned to me."

                              To Muthanna at Ulleis, Umar sent the message: "Stay at your post. Help will soon come."

                              Battle Of Buwaib

                              After the disaster of the Bridge the Muslim army under Muthanna was stationed at Ulleis. Both Umar and Muthanna sent heralds and emissaries to all parts of Arabia inviting the Arabs to participate in the war against the Persians.

                              In response to this call volunteers came from all parts of Arabia. Makhnaf b. Salim the chief of the Azd tribe came with 700 horsemen. A contingent of a thousand men of the Banu Tameem came under the command of Hasin b. Mabid. Adi the son of the legendary Hatim Tai came with a large contingent of his tribesmen. Contingents also came from the tribes of Rabab, Banu Kinanah, Khath'am, Banu Hanzalah, and Banu Dabbah. The Christian Arabs of the tribes of Narmr and Taghlab also joined to reinforce the Muslim war effort. To the clan of Bajeela led by Jareer bin Abdullah, Umar offered an additional share of the booty, out of the Khums-the state share.

                              After having received reinforcements, Muthanna moved to Zu Qar a few miles south of Qadisiyya. When the Persians came to know of the preparations of the Muslims they decided to send a strong force against the Muslims fed by Mihran. Mihran had been in Arabia and was regarded as an expert in the Arabian way of war. The Persian army under .Mihran marched to the Euphrates and camped on the east bank opposite he site of modern Kufa.

                              Muthanna with the Muslim army advanced from Zu Qar, and arriving on the west bank of the Euphrates camped at Nakheila. At Nakheila a stream Buwaib took off from the Euphrates.

                              Mihran sent a message to Muthanna whether the Muslims would like to cross the Euphrates, or whether they would like the Persians to cross over to their side. The Muslims have had a bitter experience of crossing the river in the 'Battle of the Bridge', and so Muthanna said to the Persian emissary "You cross."

                              The following day, the Persians crossed the river, and Mihran arranged his forces in battle order with display of much splendor and pomp.

                              One wing of the Muslim army was led by Adi b. Hatim, and the other wing was led by Jareer. Masud, a brother of Muthanna held the command of the infantry. Muthanna mounted his horse 'Shams', and rode from one and to the other. Addressing the army he said:

                              "Brave soldiers! beware, lest, on account of you, the stigma of dishonor should fall to the Arabs."

                              The Persians dashed forward roaring like thunder. Muthanna shouted to his men not to pay any heed to such noise, as it was mere sound signifying nothing. He asked the wing commanders to stick fast, as he was going to make a rush on the Persian forces.

                              With the shouts of Allah-o-Akbar the Muslim army rolled forward, and such was the overwhelming impetuosity of their onslaught that they rent asunder the serried ranks of the Persian right flank, and penetrated the Persian center. The Persians reeled before the terrible onset, but they rallied and fought so desperately that the Muslim ranks began to waver.

                              Seeing some Muslims turn back, Muthanna thundered: "O Muslims' whither are you going. I am here; come to me. Muthanna rallied his forces and ordered a fresh attack. Masud the brother of Muthanna received many wounds, and fell down. That made the Muslims lose heart. Turning to the Muslims, Muthanna said:

                              "O Muslims, never mind if my brother is killed. Valiants always die like that. See that the standard that you carry is not lowered."

                              Masud himself while dying cried, "Let not my death make you lose heart; you must forward to your task."

                              Anas b. Hilal, a Christian commander fighting with the Muslim forces fell fighting heroically. Muthanna took him up in his arms, and laid him alongside his brother Masud. Many Muslim officers of note were killed, but Muthanna wanted his men to persevere. Mihran the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian army fought heroically. Muthanna asked his men to advance, and make Mihran their target. A youthful warrior of the Taghlab tribe rushed forward with great courage and intrepidity, and penetrating the Persian ranks slew Mihran with his sword. The youth proclaimed:

                              "I am a young men of the Taghlab tribe; "I have killed Mihran, the Persian Chief."

                              The death of Mihran turned the tide of the battle. The Persians lost nerve, and fled in disorder. Muthanna at once made a dash for the bridge and captured it. That prevented the Persians from recrossing the river. The Muslims made mincemeat of the Persians. According to the annals, no battle had ever left so many corpses for its sanguinary souvenir as were strewn on the battle-field of Buwaib. For years thereafter the travelers in the region witnessed the grim spectacle of heaps of bones scattered in all directions.

                              The battle of Buwaib was the reply of the Muslims to the battle of the Bridge. In the battle of the Bridge a greater part of the Muslim army managed to escape; in the battle of Buwaib the entire Persian army was annihilated.

                              At the conclusion of the battle, Muthanna said:

                              "I have fought Arabs and Persians. I have fought them in the time of Ignorance and again in the time of Islam. By Allah during the days of Ignorance a hundred Persians were stronger than a thousand Arabs, but to-day a hundred Arabs are stronger than a thousand Persians."

                              The battle of the Buwaib was fought in April 635.

                              Campaigning In South Iraq

                              Uballa on the Persian Gulf was the key of South Iraq. When Khalid bin Walid began his campaigns in Iraq he started with Uballa and occupied it without much resistance. Later as the Muslims won victories after victories in Iraq the focus shifted north west to Hira.

                              When Khalid bin Walid went to Syria very few Muslim forces were left in Iraq. Consequently the Muslims abandoned many posts in Iraq including Uballa. Uballa was re-occupied by the Persians. A small Muslim force under Qutba bin Qatada, however, continued to be stationed in the neighborhood of Uballa to protect the routes to Arabia.

                              When Umar sent Abu Ubaid on the main Iraq front, he felt that it was necessary to send some reinforcement to the southern sector as well. Umar accordingly sent a contingent under Shareeh b. Amr to reinforce Qutba. Qutba was instructed to raid deeper into Persia.

                              Qutba sent Shareeh across the Tigris to raid Ahwaz. In the way at Daris, Shareeh was intercepted by the Persian forces and killed.

                              After the battle of Buwaib, Qutba wrote to Umar asking for more aid for intensifying activities in the southern sector.

                              Umar realized the importance of the southern sector. He sent for Utba b Ghazwan an early Companion and offered him the command of the southern sector. Addressing him the Caliph said:

                              "Allah Most High and Mighty has given Hira and what is around it to your brothers who have subdued the region of Babylon. Many of the Persian nobles have been killed. I feel that the Persians from the south will go to the help of the Persians in the north west. My strategy is to prevent the Persians on one side from helping the Persians on the other. Go to the region of Uballa and keep the people of Ahwaz and Fars and Meisan occupied so that they do not help their comrades in the Suwad.

                              Fight them in the hope that Allah will give you victory. March with faith in Allah and fear Allah. Be fair in judgment; say your prayers at the appointed times and remember Allah much."

                              Utba bin Ghazwan set off from Madina with 2,000 men and arrived in the neighborhood of Uballa in June 635. He took over the command of the sector. The Muslims were encamped at a site twelve miles from modern Basra amidst the ruins of an ancient town.

                              The Commander of the Persian forces of the district of Furat marched to battle. His strategy was to fall upon the, Muslims unawares and thereby crush them. When the Persian forces arrived they found the Muslims ready for war. In the battle that followed the Persians were defeated. The Muslims pursued the defeated Persians to Uballa. No resistance was offered to the Muslims at Uballa which was occupied by the Muslims in September 635 A.D.

                              With Uballa as the base, Utba sent a force across the Tigris which occupied the district of Furat. The Muslim forces next marched into the district of Meisan. The Persians contested the advance of the Muslims but they were defeated and the entire district of Meisan was occupied by the Muslims. Another Muslim force advanced further afield and occupied the district of Abarqubaz. Another column captured Mazar. After subjugating these areas the Muslim forces returned to Uballa. The southern sector was now under the command of the Muslims, and the Persian supply line from Fars was cut off.

                              A little later the Governor of Abarqubaz revolted. Utba sent a column under Mugheera b. Shu'ba to deal with the revolt. The two forces met at Marghab. The Persians were defeated, and their Commander Feelhan was killed.

                              Next, there was a revolt in the district of Meisan. A column under Mugheera marched against the rebels and the revolt was successfully suppressed.

                              By November 635 A.D. the Muslim hold in the southern sector was quite firm Utba went on a short leave to Madina, where he died. Umar appointed Mugheera b. Shu'ba to the command of the Muslim forces in South Iraq.

                              S'aad Bin Abi Waqas

                              Another revolution in Persia brought Yazdjurd to the throne of Persia. He was young and intelligent, and on coming to the throne his principal concern was to take effective steps to drive away the Arabs from the soil of Iraq.

                              Heretofore some battles had been fought on the soil of Iraq, but these had not been decisive. "The Muslims had occupied some areas, but their hold had not been firm. In the counter movements of the Persians the Muslims were pushed out of such areas. The Muslims retaliated and occupied such areas again. And again they abandoned them either of their own accord for strategically reasons or were pushed back. This to and fro process had been repeated several times, and this had led to political instability in the Suwad, the fertile area between the Euphrates and the Tigris.

                              Yazdjurd decided to organize things in a big way, and mobilize the resources of his empire for a titanic struggle with the Arabs. The Persians mustered a strong force under the veteran General Rustam. The force fully armed and equipped was cantoned at Sabat near al-Madain.

                              When these developments were reported to Umar, he realized that the scanty. Muslim forces in Iraq under the command of Muthanna were exposed to great danger. The Caliph ordered Muthanna to abandon Hira and other advanced posts in Iraq and to withdraw to the edge of the desert. Musanna pulled back his forces and stationed them at Sharaf close to the edge of the desert. In the southern sector the Muslims also pulled back and encamped in the hills of Ghuzayy.

                              The entire Suwad and all the main cities of Iraq were once again under Persian occupation. The war against the Persians, had to start once again from the periphery. Umar gave the call to Jihad. Throughout the Arabian peninsula messages were sent to the Governors and the chiefs of tribes to muster in full strength at Madina. The command of Umar was:

                              "Leave none who has weapons or a horse or strength or intelligence. Take him and send him to me. Hurry, O hurry!"

                              The response to the call was encouraging. Volunteers began to pour into Madina. Umar organized the camp at Sirar three miles from Madina on the route to Iraq. In March 636 A D. the first concentration of troops was complete, and Umar moved in person to the camp at Sirar leaving the administration at Madina to the charge of Ali.

                              Umar addressed the troops mustered at Sirar, apprised them of the situation in Iraq, and invited their reaction. The congregation said with one voice, "Go, and we go with you for the glory of Islam." Umar said, "Prepare for war, and I will go with you unless some better counsel comes forth."

                              Umar summoned a council of war at Sirar to which leading Companions were invited. The council was required to advise whether the campaign in Iraq should be led personally by Umar, or should some one else be appointed to the command.

                              Ali said, "Go yourself for that will have a greater psychological effect both upon the Muslims as well as the enemy". Talha endorsed this view.

                              Abdur Rehman bin Auf said, "Stay, and send the army; and the will of Allah in respect of your wishes will be manifested in the fortunes of your army. If it is defeated, it will not be your defeat; but if you are killed or defeated, it would be a humiliation and a terrible blow to Muslim prestige."

                              After discussion, and the weighing of the pros and cons the consensus emerged in favor of the view advocated by Abdur Rahman bin Auf.

                              The Caliph next sought advice to the person who should be appointed as the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces in Iraq Abdur Rahman bin Auf proposed the name of Saad bin Abi Waqas.

                              Saad bin Abi Waqas was at that time the Governor of Nejd. He was one of the earliest converts to Islam. He was among the 'Ashra Mubashara', the Ten Companions who had been given the news of Paradise in their life time. He was the only man to whom the Holy Prophet had said, "I sacrifice my father and mother to you." He was the maternal uncle of the Holy Prophet.

                              Umar said, "I know that Sand is a brave man He fought at Badr and Uhud. My only anxiety is that he does not have sufficient knowledge about the strategy of war."

                              Othman said, Saad should be appointed to the command, and he should be instructed to seek counsel from men of experience and knowledge of war, and not act without their advice." This view was endorsed by all and ultimately agreed to.

                              The following day Umar ordered a congregation of the army at Sirar, and addressed them as follows:

                              "Lo! Allah Most High and Mighty has gathered his people to Islam and his joined their hearts and made them brothers one to another. The Muslims are like one body of which the entire body suffers, if any part suffers. It is incumbent upon the Muslims to decide their affairs in a council of men of judgment. The troops must follow the one appointed to command by mutual agreement and consent; and the one appointed to command must accept the decision of men of judgment in the strategy of war. O people, I am just one of you, but men of judgment have dissuaded me from going with you. I have decided to remain here, and send another person in command; and I have consulted all in this matter."

                              Saad was called from Nejd, and as he appeared before Umar, the Caliph said:

                              "I have appointed you Commander of the war in Iraq. Remember my words for you are proceeding on a difficult and fearful mission in which right can only prevail."

                              In May 636 A.D., Saad bin Abi Waqas marched from the Sirar camp with an army of 4,000 men. At the time of departure Umar prayed for the success of the mission they had undertaken. His parting instruction to Saad was:

                              "Stop when you get to Zarud and disperse in the region. Urge the people there to join you ami take all who have courage, intelligence, strength and weapons."

                              Umar promised that he would send more and more of help. He said that he would hurl every chief, every noble, and every warrior in Arabia against the Persians.

                              As the army under the command of Saad marched past Umar, the Caliph raised his hands in prayers and said:

                              "O Mighty Allah! These people are going to fight in your way. Bless them with victory."

                              Campus At Zarud And Sharaf

                              Saad arrived with his force of 4,000 at Zarud and went into camp. The troops were spread in the region, and couriers were sent to all the tribes in Northern Arabia calling the tribesmen to war in the name of Allah. As a result of these efforts about 7,000 warriors were recruited from the tribes particularly the Bani Asad and Bani Tameem. Among those who joined the Muslim forces was Taleaha who had during the apostasy campaigns of the time of Abu Bakr claimed to be a prophet and had fought against the Muslims. He had escaped to Syria where he was converted to Islam. Those who had once apostated were not allowed by Abu Bakr to be recruited to the Muslim forces. Hazrat Umar, because of the large scale campaigns to be undertaken lifted the ban. Availing of this concession Taleaha and his tribesmen joined the Muslim forces in Iraq in large numbers.

                              Umar sent another force of 4,000 men to join the main army at Zarud. The strength of the army at Zarud now rose to 15,000. Muthanna with 3,000 men was stationed at Sharaf some sixty miles from Zarud on the main route to Iraq.

                              From Zarud the main Muslim army marched to Sharaf, and they arrived there in July 636 A.D. Before Saad arrived, Muthanna was dead. In his will Musanna had desired that Saad bin Abi Waqas should marry his widow Salma bint Khasfa. He also left a message for Saad which ran as follows:

                              "The Muslims should not fight the Persians when they are concentrated in their homeland, but should fight them on the boundary near the desert. Thus if Allah should give the Muslims victory, they will have whatever lies behind the Persians, and if the result is otherwise, they can withdraw into a region the routes whereof they know best and of which they are masters-until Allah decides that they should return to battle."

                              Saad prayed for the soul of Muthanna. He paid rich tributes to his bravery. In fulfillment of the will of Muthanna, Saad married his widow Salma. He was impressed with the parting advice of Muthanna, and decided to follow it. He reported this advice to Umar who approved of it.

                              Umar instructed Saad as follows:

                              "Organize the army into tens and let the men know their units. Appoint the commanders of the corps and let them see and know their men. Give the contingents Qadisiyya as the meeting point. Get Mugheera bin Shu'ba to join you with his cavalry. Comply with these instructions and then write to me."

                              Saad organized the army in accordance with the instructions of Umar. From the Uballa sector Mugheera bin Shu'ba joined Sad with his cavalry of 800 horse.

                              Umar next instructed Saad as follows:

                              "March with the Muslims from Sharaf towards the Persians. Place your faith in Allah and seek His help, and know that you are advancing against a people whose numbers are vast, whose equipment is superb, whose strength is great and whose land is difficult. Even its plains consist of rivers and heavily-watered land. When you meet them or any of them, attack them fiercely, but beware of facing them if they are all together. Let them not trick you, for they are wily plotters and their ways are not your ways.

                              When you get to Qadisiyya, remain there and leave not your place. They will find your continued stay intolerable and will come out against you with all their strength of horse and foot. And if you stand fast against them, you shall overcome them, and should they ever assemble again in great numbers, they shall do so without hearts.

                              And should the result be otherwise, you will have the desert behind you and can withdraw into a region which you know and control and of which they are ignorant and afraid. And there you should stay until Allah decides victory for you and you return to battle."

                              To Qadisiyya

                              In July 6.36 A.D. the main Muslim army marched from Sharaf to Qadisiyya. Qadisiyya was on the west bank of the Ateeq, a branch of the Euphrates. It was the last staging camp in Arabia on the route to Iraq. Hira lay about thirty miles ahead.

                              After establishing the camp, organizing the defenses, and securing the river heads, Saad sent parties inside the Suwad to conduct raids. In one of these raids the Muslims captured the bridal procession of the daughter of Azazbeh the Persian Governor of Hira. A large booty was captured including the bride and other Persian damsels.

                              From Qadisiyya, Saad wrote to Umar:

                              "The enemy has sent no one against us and has not appointed, so far we know, anyone to command the campaign. When we get the information, we will report to you and seek Allah's help."

                              To this Umar replied in the following terms:

                              "Strengthen your heart and your army with sermons and right intentions and worthiness; and as for those who forget, remind them. Steadfastness and again steadfastness! For help comes from Allah according to one's intentions and His reward according to one's deserts. Caution and again caution! For grave is the matter upon which you are embarked. And pray to Allah for his blessings.

                              Write to me when you know of the concentration of their army and who commands it, for in the absence of knowledge about their army and its commander I am not able to give you much guidance.

                              Describe the place where you are and the land between you and Medina. Describe it so clearly that I may see it with my own eyes, and become one of you. Fear Allah and in Him rest your hopes."

                              Saad sent the required topographical information. The intelligence reports of the spies were also forwarded to Umar. Saad stated that all the people of the Suwad who had entered into pacts with the Muslims had gone back on their pledges. They were collaborating with the Persians and were preparing for war against the Muslims.

                              Saad wrote:

                              "The Commander of the Persian army is Rustam, and he has some other top-ranking Generals. They seek to weaken us and pounce upon us and we seek to weaken them and attack them. The command of Allah is as good as bone and His decision will be according to whatever He wishes for us or against us. We beseech Allah for the best of decisions and the best of judgments."

                              In reply, Umar instructed:

                              "Remain where you are until Allah fixes your enemy for you.
                              And if Allah should give you victory, pursue them until you fall upon Madain, which Allah willing will be destroyed."

                              A week later, Umar further instructed:

                              "My heart tells me that when you meet the enemy you will God willing defeat him. So dispel all doubt from your mind, and if any of you gives a promise of peace to a Persian, with sign or speech, even if he does not understand it, let him fulfill the promise.

                              Beware of jesting, faithfulness and again faithfulness. Errors committed in good faith are acceptable but deliberate unfaithfulness leads to destruction. In it will lie your weakness and your enemy's strength, the depression of your courage and the elevation of the courage of your enemy.

                              I caution you not to bring dishonor to the Muslims, nor be a cause of their disgrace."

                              Saad reported about the large strength of the forces of the Persians. To this Umar replied as follows:

                              "Let not the information which you get about the enemy distress you. Seek Allah's help, and in Him place your trust."

                              Umar also desired that a delegation of some intelligent persons should be sent to the emperor of Persia to call him to Islam.

                              After the battle of Yermuk some forces were released from the Syrian front and sent to Iraq under the command of Ath'ath bin Qais. The strength of Saad's army at Qadisiyya now rose to 29,000.

                              The Muslim forces intensified their raiding activities. The entire Suwad now became a hunting ground for the Muslim raiders. These raids were undertaken partly to gather supplies for the Muslim army, and partly to demoralize the Persians.

                              The inhabitants of the Suwad appealed to the Persian emperor to do something urgently to save them from the raids of the Muslims. The emperor Yazdjurd assured them that he was sending a large force under Rustam against the Muslims, and he would crush the Arabs.

                              Adventures Of Taleaha

                              Taleaha bin Khuwalid was an adventurer. He was the chief of the Bani Asad. He was a poet and a soothsayer, and commanded respect in Arabia during the days of ignorance.

                              When the Holy Prophet declared his mission, Taleaha became a vicious enemy of Islam. In the Battle of the Ditch Taleaha sided with the Quraish, and commanded a contingent of the Bani Asad in the coalition of the infidels who fought against the Muslims.

                              In the battle of Khyber he sided with the Jews but was worsted. In 631 A D. when all other Arabian tribes accepted Islam, he also became a convert to Islam. In 633 A.D. he renounced his allegiance to Islam, and declared himself to be a prophet. He introduced a new way of prayer in which there were no prostrations. Many clans of Central Arabia joined him, and soon he became a powerful enemy of Islam.

                              In the apostasy campaigns, Taleaha was defeated by Khalid bin Walid in the battle of Buzakha. From Buzakha Taleaha fled to Syria. When Syria was conquered by the Muslims, Taleaha once again became a convert to Islam.

                              Later he returned to Arabia, and joined the war against the Persians. In the camp at Qadisiyya, Saad bin Abi Waqas deputed Taleaha to go to the Persian camp and gather some intelligence.

                              Taleaha crossed the Ateeq and proceeded in the direction of Najaf. He had hardly gone four or five miles when he came upon the Persian camp at Kharara.

                              The men with Taleaha decided to return, but Taleaha moved on and went into the Persian camp. He soon came upon a beautiful white rent, outside which a beautiful horse stood together. Taleaha took the horse. He cut the ropes of the tent, which collapsed upon the sleeping inmate. A little further he came across another good horse and a fine tent. He took that horse as well. Here again he cut the ropes of the tent which fell on the man who slept inside.

                              A little further there was another horse and a tent. This time again he took the horse, and by cutting the ropes made the tent collapse. It transpired that these tents lodged gladiators, called 'Hazer Mard', each gladiator being deemed equal in strength to a thousand men.

                              Taleaha now outside the Persian camp mounted his own horse and began his return journey leading the three captured horses. He had not gone far when the three gladiators caught up with him.

                              Undaunted, Taleaha turned to his pursuers. One of the gladiators challenged him to personal duel, and Taleaha agreed. The gladiator charged at Taleaha with his lance, but Taleaha side stepped and avoided the charge. As the Persian hurled past him, Taleaha swung round in his saddle, and plunged his spear in the back of his adversary who fell down dead.

                              Next the second Persian champion grappled with Taleaha. He attacked and Taleaha side stepped. Then Taleaha charged and the Persian champion fell dead.

                              Then the third champion came forward, and overpowering him, Taleaha rode with him as a captive to the Muslim camp. Before dawn Taleaha was back in the Muslim camp with three Persian horses and a 'Hazer Mard' as a captive.

                              The Persian captive was presented to Saad bin Abi Waqas, and he gave much useful information about the Persian moves. The Persian champion said on oath that he had seen war ever since he was a boy and had defeated and killed many champions in his lifetime but he had never seen such a fighter as Taleaha.

                              Taleaha offered the Persian champion Islam, and he accepted the faith of Islam. In the war that followed the Persian 'Hazar Mard' fought valiantly by the side of Taleaha.

                              The Muslims Carried The Earth Of Persia

                              In compliance with the instructions of Umar, Saad bin Abi Waqas sent a delegation of twelve Muslims to offer Islam to Yazdjurd the emperor of Persia. The Muslim delegation included Noman b. Muqrin, Muthanna bin Haritha, Asim b. Amr, and Mugheera bin Zurara.

                              The Muslim delegation rode to Ctesiphon or al-Madsen the capital of Persia. The Muslims dismounted outside the palace of the emperor. A large crowd of the Persians gathered to stare at the shaggy horses and stern faced hard sons of the desert.

                              The delegation was ushered into the presence of the emperor Yazdjurd surrounded by interpreters and couriers. The Persians used to prognosticate events by omen. In a playful mood Yazdjurd asked the Muslim envoys what a mantle was called in Arabic. They said that it as called "burd". "Burd" in Persian meant to carry away, and the emperor felt; that the Arabs were to carry away Persia.

                              Then he asked what was the Arabic name for a whip and they said that it was 'Saut'. He construed it as 'Sokht', which in Persian meant "burned". The emperor felt in his heart that the Muslims were going to burn Persia.
                              Yezdjurd next asked, 'What compels you to invade our land. Is it because we have left you in peace that you have grown so bold?"

                              Noman b. Muqrin speaking on behalf of the delegation said that. Allah had been kind to them. God had sent a prophet to them who bad shown them the right way. Under the leadership of the Prophet they had been transformed.

                              They were the chosen people of God, and God had entrusted to them a mission, the mission of spreading the true faith.

                              Noman added:

                              "In pursuance of our mission, we call you to our faith. If you accept our faith we will leave you with the Book of God, and leave you to your land. If you are not agreeable to join our faith you should accept our overlordship and pay us 'Jizya'. If this alternative is also not acceptable to you, then the sword will decide the issue between us."

                              Yazdjurd retorted:

                              "Don't you recollect that you were the most wretched and most miserable people that the world ever saw. Whenever you showed signs of recalcitrance we had only to issue orders to the commanders of our frontier outposts and they crushed your mutinous spirit."

                              Thereupon Mugheera bin Zurara said that what the emperor said about the Arabs was true in the days of Ignorance; after the advent of the Prophet things had changed and they were no longer wretched or miserable. It was not hunger or misery that had brought them to Persia. They had come carrying the message of the new faith for them. If the message was accepted they would be happy and treat them as brothers. If they were not inclined to accept the new faith or pay Jizya, then there was no option but fight.

                              The emperor was enraged at these bold words of the Muslims. He shouted, "But for the fact that envoys are not killed, I would surely have killed you. Know that we are a great people whose history extends over ages and such people are proud of their faith which they would not change. And as regards Jizya, I would put dust in your mouth.

                              And as regards the fight know that we are not afraid of you. Tell your Commander that I am sending Rustam against him with a large force, who will teach you a bitter lesson."

                              Then Yazdjurd asked a court attendant to fetch a basket of earth. When the basket was brought, addressing the Muslim envoys he said, 'Here is the Jizya for you; carry it".

                              Asim b. Amr stepped forward, and carried the basket on his head. Turning to the emperor he said, "You have of your own accord handed over your land to the Muslims. We accept your gift."

                              Thereafter the Muslim envoys rode back at great speed to the Muslim camp carrying the basket of the earth of Persia.

                              Immediately thereafter Rustam saw Yazdjurd, and the emperor told him that he had given the Muslim envoys dust to carry. Rustam said that was a bad omen for it signified that the Muslims had carried away Persia.

                              Rustam sent off a group of horsemen to pursue the Muslim envoys and get the fateful basket containing the dust of Persia back from them. To these horsemen Rustam said, "Proceed with the speed of lightning and snatch your mother-earth from the Muslims. lf you recover the basket our land will be safe; if you fail then we are doomed."

                              The Persian party set off at a brisk pace in pursuit of the Muslim envoys, but they could not catch the Muslims.

                              The Muslims crossed the Ateeq bridge to safety long before the Persians could arrive at the bridge head. The Persians returned crest fallen to report to Rustam the failure of their mission.

                              In the Muslim camp, there was rejoicing. Presenting the basket containing the dust of Persia to Saad b. Abi Waqas Asim b. Amr said: "Commander Allah has given us the keys of their kingdom. Rejoice for this is a sign that we are going to conquer their land."

                              In the Persian camp, Rustam sulked and muttered to himself: "The enemy has snatched away the keys of our kingdom."

                              Rustam And Muslim Emissaries

                              At the head of the Persian army Rustam marched against Qadisiyya and encamped on the east bank of the Ateeq. The Muslim forces lay entrenched at Qadisiyya on the west bank of the Ateeq.

                              Rustam the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian forces sent a message to the Muslim Commander Saad asking him to send on emissary for talks. Saad deputed Rabi bin Amir as the envoy. Rabi crossed the bridge and made for the camp of Rustam. Rabi appeared before Rustam wearing a coat of shining mail over which was wrapped a coarse woolen cloak.

                              Around his head was a veil held by thongs of a camel's girth. His sword hung at his side in a sheath of coarse cloth. In his right hand he carried his spear. Rabi mounted on a shaggy horse arrived at the edge of the carpet at which Rustam and his couriers were seated.

                              The Persians wanted Rabi to lay aside his arms. Rabi said, "I have not come to you to lay down my weapons. You invited me, and I have come, if you do not wish me to come the way I like, I shall return."

                              Rustam asked his men to let the Muslim come in the way he wished.

                              Rustam asked Rabi as to what was their mission. Rabi said that their mission was to spread Islam. He said, "If you accept Islam we are brothers and there is peace between us; if you refuse we fight you and leave things to God."

                              "What do you expect in return", asked Rustam.

                              Rabi said, "Victory if we survive, and Paradise if we die fighting in the way of Allah".

                              Rustam said that he should be allowed some time to think over the matter further.

                              Rabi said that according to a tradition of the Holy Prophet he could give him a time of three days.

                              "Are you their chief", asked Rustam.

                              Rabi said, "No, but the Muslims are like one body, and the lowest is equal to the highest."

                              The next day Rustam asked again for an emissary. This time Saad deputed Hudhaifa bin Mihsan. He rode over the carpet to Rustam's throne, and remained seated on his horse throughout the talks.

                              Rustam wanted to know why the envoy of the previous day had not come. Hudhaifa said, 'Our Commander treats us equally in on joying favors and bearing hardships. This time it is my turn."

                              "What do you expect of us", asked Rustam.

                              Hudhaifa said, "We would expect you to become Muslims or pay Jizya."

                              Rustam said, "What if we do not agree to both these alternatives."

                              Hudhaifa said that in that case the arbitration would rest with the sword. Saying that Hudhaifa rode back from the Persian camp.

                              For the third time Rustam asked for another envoy. This time Muheera bin Zurara was chosen as the Muslim emissary. Mugheera rode forward and sat on the throne beside Rustam. The Persians wanted to unseat him, but he held fast, and Rustam said, "Let him remain seated."

                              Looking at the short light arrows which protruded from the quiver of Mugheera, Rustam said, "O Arab what do you do with these spindles?"

                              Mugheera said, "We shoot them."

                              "And why is your sword wrapped in rags", asked Rustam.

                              Mugheera said, "It is clothed in rags but it strikes like steel".

                              Rustam said that it was perhaps their hardship that had I brought the Arabs to Iraq. He said:

                              "It shall give your commander a set of clothes, a mule and 1,000 dirhams, and to every man among you two garments and a bag of dates. And you shall go away from us for I have no desire to kill you or take you in captivity."

                              Mugheera said that times had changed, and because of Islam the Arabs were no longer fighting because they were poor or were subject to any hardship. They were fighting in the way of Allah, and they did not stand in need of any gifts from the Persians.

                              Rustam thereupon said, "This means that there can be no peace between us. When we go to the battle, we will slay the whole lot of you."

                              Thereupon Mugheera walked away from the Persian camp.

                              The following day a delegation consisting of four Muslims namely Busr b. Abi Ruhm; Arfaja b. Harsama, Qirfa b. Zahir and Mazur b. Adi went to see Rustam.

                              This time Rustam talked in parables. He said:

                              "We are like the man who had a vineyard and saw a fox in it one day. He said one fox did not matter. But the fox called other foxes to the vineyard. When they had all gathered in it, the owner closed the hole in the wall of the vineyard through which they had entered, and then killed all the foxes.

                              And you are like the rat who found a jar of grain with a hole in it and went through the hole. His friends called to him to come out but he refused and went on eating the grain until he became fat. Then he felt a desire to show his friends how beautiful he looked, but found that because of his bulk he could no longer get through the hole. So he complained to his friends of his trouble and asked for their assistance. They asked him to starve himself so that he might become as thin as before. The rat starved itself but in the meantime the owner of the jar came to know of it and killed it."

                              Rustam further said:

                              "And you are like the fly that saw a bowl of honey and said to his friends, 'Whoever gets me to that honey shall have two dirhams'. The other flies tried to stop him, but he went on to the honey and then into it. As he began to drown in the honey he cried out 'whoever gets me out of the honey shall have 4 dirhams."

                              Rustam narrated another parable. He said:

                              "You are like the fox who came into a vineyard, thin and starving and began eating as God wished. The owner of the vineyard saw him and pitying his condition, let him stay. But when the fox had been there for some time and grown big and fat, he turned wicked and started to destroy more grapes than he consumed. This angered the owner, who along with his servants, took a big stick and came after him. The fox dodged them and ran to the hole in the vineyard wall through which he had come, but that hole was big enough for him only when he was thin, and now he was too fat to get through it. So the owner and his servants caught up with him and beat him with sticks until he was dead.

                              O Arabs you came when you were thin, and now you are fat. See how you get out."

                              The Arabs said that these parables were idle narrations which carried nowhere. They reiterated their usual demands, Islam, Jizya or sword.

                              Exasperated Rustam said, "If that is that, let the sword decide."

                              He asked, "Will you cross the river to our side, or shall we cross to your side."

                              The Muslims said, "You cross to our side."

                              When the Muslim envoys returned they apprised Saad of the proceedings. Thereupon the Muslim Commander-in-Chief sent word in the Muslim camp that they should get ready for war.

                              The Battle of Qadisiyya

                              The Persians crossed the Ateeq on the 16th November, 636 A.D. The previous night Rustam had a dream in which he had seen Umar seal the arms of the Persians. As Rustam woke he said to himself: "This Umar has eaten my heart. May God burn him."

                              As Rustam saw his warriors cross the river and take up their positions for battle, he felt over-confident. He remarked to an Officer, "With this army we will shatter the Arabs into pieces." The Officer added the words, "If God wills it." Rustam was in a defiant mood and he retorted, "Even if He does not will it."

                              The Persian army was deployed with five corps holding the front and one corps in reserve, each corps having a depth of 13 ranks. The center was commanded by Rustam himself. The other Commanders were: Left Center: Beerzan; Right Center: Jalinus; Left Wing: Mihran; and Right Wing: Hormuzan. The reserve was commanded by Bahman.

                              The Persian army had a strength of 60,000 men. There were 33 war elephants in the Persian army each mounted by several men armed with javelins and bows.

                              At an elevated seat shaded by a canopy near the west bank of the river sat Rustam wearing his Armour. By his side waved the Dirafashe-Kavian the standard of the Persians.

                              The Muslim Commander-in-Chief Saad b. Abi Waqas was suffering from sciatica, and there were boils all over his body. In Qadisiyya there was an old royal palace which stood at the extremity of the battle-field. Saad took a seat in the upper storey of the palace where he lay propped up by pillows. From this seat he directed the war operations. He appointed Khalid b. Arfatah as his Deputy, who maintained liaison with the army, and carried out whatever instructions were issued by Saad from time to time.

                              In the center of the Muslim army the infantry was commanded by Hammal b. Malik. The other Commanders were: Left Center: Asim bin Amr; Right Center: Zuhra b. Al-Hawiyya; Left Wing: Shurahbeel b. As-Samt; Right Wing: Abdullah b. Al-Mut'im. The reserve was commanded by Salman bin Rabee'a.

                              When the Muslim forces were arrayed in the order of battle, poets and orators addressed them, and with their stirring declamations inspired the warriors to action.

                              One of the orators said;

                              "O warriors, turn your swords into an impenetrable wall of steel; rush upon your antagonists like so many roaring lions; don the panoply of dust and turn your eyes downwards. When you have done with swords then let the arrows fly, for the swords cannot reach where arrows find their way."

                              Readers of the Quran recited verses from the Holy Quran on the subject of 'Jihad' with forceful cadence which stirred the hearts of the warriors.

                              The battle began with personal duels. The first duel was between Ghalib b. Abdullah of the Bani Asad and the Persian General Hormuz. Hormuz was overpowered and brought to the Muslim camp where he was locked as a prisoner of war. From the Persian ranks a Persian officer stepped forward and gave a challenge. This was accepted from the Muslim ranks by Amr b. Mndi Karib. They wrestled for some time when Amr threw his adversary and cut off his head Amr then turned to his men and shouted: " When a Persian has dropped his javelin he is useless". Then another Persian stepped forward. Amr closed up and lifted the Persian off his horse, and then cut his throat. Then he shouted, "When a Persian has lost his bow, he is useless". The Arab champion returned to his ranks, and turning to his companions shouted, "I am Abu Thaur. Do as I do." To this his admiring companions replied: "O Father of the Bull, who can do as you do."

                              There was another combat between Asim b Amr and a Persian Officer. When the Persian got near Asim, he lost nerves, and galloped back to the Persian army. Asim followed him to the Persian line, but no Persian stepped forward to meet the challenge of Asim. Asim found a mule loaded with two saddle bags. Asim took the reins of the mule and led it to the Muslim camp. The saddle bags were found full of date cakes and honey. Saad gifted this trophy to the men belonging to the contingent of Asim.

                              After the duels were over, Rustam struck at the Muslims with his elephants and his wings. The Persians attack began with heavy showers of arrows. The Muslim archers shot their arrows in return, but these were light, and the Persians derisively said that the Muslim arrows were mere spindles.

                              After the Persian archers had gained the upper hand, Rustam ordered an attack on the Muslim right. The elephants led the attack and advanced upon the contingent led by Jareer b. Abdullah. As the elephants advanced, the Muslim horses broke out of control and fled from their position thereby leaving the infantry unsupported. As the elephants advanced the Muslim infantry was thrown into confusion, and began to fall back.

                              Saad seated upstairs in the Qadisiyya palace saw this confusion. He was writhing in an agony of pain, and was impatiently tossing from side to side. His wife Salma the widow of Muthanna was seated close to him. Seeing the confusion in the Muslim ranks Salma exclaimed, "What a pity, Muthanna is not here to-day." Cut to the quick, Saad slapped her on the face saying, 'What could have Muthanna done even if he were present?" Salma retorted "I wonder the cowards have also a sense of honor". Then she walked away inside the house.

                              Saad sent orders to Ath'ath b. Qais who commanded the Kinda in the right center, and to Hammal b. Malik who commanded the infantry of the center to attack the Persian corps which were pursuing the Bajeela contingent. Using javelin and sword the Muslims arrested the Persian advance. Then the advancing Persians were attacked from the front as well as the flank. That made the Persians withdraw.

                              Rustam now ordered his right wing under Jalinus to advance against the Muslims on their front. The elephants of the Persian right and right center moved forward. The Persian archers came into action and let loose a rain of arrows. The Muslim horses on the left and center became unmanageable and fled from their positions. Saad sent word to Asim b. Amr who commanded the Bani Tamim to do something about the elephants.

                              Asim ordered his men to pick off the Persians on the elephants backs with arrows, to get behind the elephants and then slip in and cut the girths of the howdahs. Bani Tamim rushed forward to their task, and soon the girths of all the howdahs had been cut. Many Persian elephant-riders were killed as they fell, and the rest beat a hasty retreat making the elephants retire to the position behind the front line.

                              By afternoon the Persian attacks on the Muslim wings were beaten back. Now Saad ordered a counter attack. The Muslim front at once moved forward. The Muslim cavalry charged with full force. That made the Persians reel back. The Muslim infantry then advanced. The javelin-men hurled their javelins, and the swordsmen rushed forward brandishing their swords. About sunset the Muslims were able to create several gaps in the Persian front. Through one of such gaps the Muslim warriors charged and got very near Rustam the Persian Commander-in-Chief. Rustam plunged into the foray personally and repulsed the Muslim attack though he received several wounds on his person.

                              The fighting ended at dusk. The battle was inconclusive. There was considerable confusion and loss on both the sides. In the Muslim chronicles the first day of the battle of Qadisiyya came to be known as "The Day of Disorder."

                              Battle Of Qadisiyya The Second Day

                              As soon as it was day, Saad had all the dead bodies of the Muslims evacuated from the battle-field, and carried on camels to Uzeib where these were buried in a small valley.

                              The Persians had suffered heavy casualties the previous day. All their elephants were wounded, and on the second day there were no elephants in the Persian fighting force.

                              The battle began with the usual duels. Jalinus the Persian General threw a challenge for single combat which was accepted by Taleaha from the Muslim side. The two champions grappled with one another. After some time Taleaha struck his sword on the head of the Persian General. The sword hardly cut the helmet of the Persian's General but did him no physical harm. Unnerved Jalinus beat a hasty retreat.

                              There was a duel between Ilba b Jahash and a Persian Officer. The Persian was killed. Ilba also received some fatal wounds, and his intestines came out of his belly. He put the intestines into his belly and began to crawl to the Persian front. With his last breath he said:

                              "I look for merit with our Lord I was of those who fought the best."

                              Thereafter he fell dead just in front of the Persian front.

                              There was another duel between A'war b. Qutba and the Persian noble Shahryar. In this duel both the Muslim and his Persian adversary were killed.

                              At noon a small cloud of dust rose in the horizon on the way leading to Syria. Out of the cloud emerged a contingent led by Qaqa b. Amr. Umar had written to Abu Ubaida the Commander of the Muslim forces in Syria that whatever forces he could spare from the Syrian front should be sent to Iraq. After the fall of Yermuk Abu Ubaida sent a force of 1,000 men to Iraq under the Command of Hashim b. Utba who was a nephew of Saad b Abi Waqas. When Hashim neared Qadisiyya he sent an advance guard under Qaqa. As Qaqa arrived at the battle-field he gave the cry of 'Allah-o-Akbar', and this cry was taken up by the other Muslims who were thrilled at his arrival. Qaqa was a brother of Asim b. Amr.

                              Qaqa rushed into the battle-field and gave the challenge for a duel. The challenge was accepted by the Persian General Rahman the man who had commanded the Persians at the battle of the Bridge. In a few rounds Qaqa killed Bahman. Qaqa threw another challenge. This was accepted by the Persian General Beerzan.

                              In the duel that followed Beerzan was killed by Qaqa. Thereafter Qaqa returned to the Muslim lines. Addressing his men he said:

                              "O Muslims greet the enemy with the sword. Only with sword do men kill. Do as I do."

                              Then Saad ordered a general attack. The Muslim forces swept forward, but the Persians stood firm and repulsed every attack. Ultimately the Muslims pulled back to their original position. Qaqa now resorted to an ingenious device. The camels were camouflaged to look like weird monsters. These monsters moved to the Persian front and seeing them the Persian horses turned and bolted. With the disorganization of the Persian cavalry, the Persians became vulnerable. Saad ordered the Muslims to intensify the attack. Some of the Persian units reeled under the Muslim attack and fell back to the river bank. Through the gaps in the Persian army, the Muslims penetrated deep towards the rear of the Persian army. Qaqa led a group of men through the Persian center towards Rustam's headquarters Rustam drew his sword and personally led a counter attack against the Muslims.

                              Fighting was hard and fierce. It continued till night had set in. Then the two armies pulled back to their camps. The battle of Qadisiyya was not over, but the Muslims had certainly established their supremacy over the Persian forces.
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                              • #30
                                Re: Khalifa Umar Bin Al-khattab

                                Exploits Of Abu Mihjan

                                Abu Mihjan belonged to the Saqeef clan. He was a cousin of Abu Ubaid who had commanded the Muslim forces in Iraq and was martyred at the battle of the Bridge.

                                The home town of Abu Mihjan was Taif. When the Muslims under the Holy Prophet besieged Taif after the fall of Mecca, Abu Mihjan fought against the Muslims. His arrow mortally wounded Abdullah son of Hazrat Abu Bakr.

                                Later when the Saqeef submitted to the Holy Prophet and accepted Islam, Abu Mihjan also became a Muslim. He was staunch in his faith in Islam, but he had weakness for liquor, and sometimes secretly drank wine.

                                At the battle of the Bridge, Abu Mihjan was the commander of the cavalry. He drove back the elephant which had crushed Abu Ubaid to death. After the disaster of the battle of the bridge, Abu Mihjan stayed on with Muthanna at Ulleis for some time. Then he returned to Madina.

                                At Madina, Umar caught him drinking and as a punishment he was exiled to Yemen. Later he was forgiven and was allowed to join the Muslim forces in Iraq under Saad. In camp, Abu Mihjan drank again, and on discovering his offence Saad had him whipped and thrown into a cellar in fetters. His cell was in the palace at Qadisiyya where Saad was lodged and from where he commanded the war operations.

                                From his cellar, Abu Mihjan saw the battle waging in great fury. Abu Mihjan was a born soldier, and when the other Muslims were locked up in life and death struggle, he pined to be free to wield the sword against the enemy. He approached Saad, and asked for permission to fight. Saad rebuked him and ordered him back to his cellar.

                                While returning to his cellar, Abu Mihjan met Salma the new wife of Saad. He wanted her to help him, but Salma was not inclined to interfere.

                                Back in his cellar, Abu Mihjan burst into pathetic verses:

                                "It is sufficient sorrow when you see a cavalier,
                                Deprived, abandoned and bound in shackles,
                                While I stand these fetters detain me,
                                While others are fighting.
                                I was once a man with wealth and kinsmen,
                                But I am now left entirely alone.
                                By Allah, I give the pledge,
                                If freed, I will never drink again."

                                Salma heard the song and was moved. She wanted to know what she could do for him. He said:

                                "Release me so that I may go and fight. I promise that if I am not killed I will return to the cellar at night. Lend me a horse so that I may ride to the battle-field."

                                Salma released him. She also got for him the horse of Saad. Fully armed Abu Mihjan rode to the battle-field. He rode through the Muslim ranks and then with the cry of "Allah-o-Akbar" hurled himself at the Persian front killing a man. He galloped back to the Muslim ranks and after a while again lashed at the Persian front killing another man. He thus went to and fro and killed about a dozen Persians.

                                The Muslims marveled at the sight of Abu Mihjan. "Who this warrior" they asked. Saad saw him from the top storey his palace. He thought that the man was Abu Mihjan but then he knew that Abu Mihjan was in the cellar. He felt that the horse that the unknown warrior rode appeared to be his own horse, but he dismissed the thought as he knew that his horse was in the stable.

                                At night after his triumph at the battle field, Abu Mihjan turned to his cellar and his fetters. Back in the cellar, Abu Mihjan burst into song:

                                "Have you ever known the Saqeef without honor?
                                I am the finest of them with the sword
                                And the most steadfast of them.
                                On the night of Qadisiyya they did pot know me
                                Or of my escape from the prison to the battle-field."

                                When the battle of Qadisiyya was over and Salma and Saad were reconciled Salma told Saad how she had released Abu Mihjan and how Abu Mihjan after performing daring exploits at the battle-field had in keeping with his promise returned to the cellar. Now Saad recalled that the unknown warrior whom he had seen performing wondrous exploits and riding Saad's horse was indeed Abu Mihjan.

                                Saad was in a mood of appreciation. He released Abu Mihjan and said, "By Allah, after seeing what you did at the battlefield I will not whip you again."

                                And Abu Mihjan said, "I shall never drink again."

                                Battle Of Qadisiyya The Third Day

                                On the third day of the battle of Qadisiyya, the elephants were once again in the front of the Persian army. That altered the situation to the advantage of the Persians, and Rustam pressed this advantage into service. He ordered an attack, and the Muslims had to remain on the defensive.

                                The Persians let loose a rain of arrows against the Muslims, and that led to considerable damage to the Muslims. The Muslim archers shot their arrows in reply, but these ere not very effective.

                                The Persian elephants moved forward supported by their infantry and cavalry. At the approach of the Persian elephants, the Muslim horse got panicky and that led to confusion in the ranks of the Muslim cavalry. The Persians pressed the attack, and the Muslims fell back.

                                Through the gaps that had appeared in the Muslim ranks as a result of the Persian advance, some Persian cavalry pressed forward to capture the old palace where Saad the Commander-in-Chief of the Muslim forces was stationed. The strategy of the Persians was that the Muslim Commander-in-Chief should be killed or taken captive with a view to demoralizing the Muslims.

                                The Muslims realized the danger that beset their Commander-in-Chief. A strong cavalry contingent of the Muslims rushed to the spot, and drove away the Persians.

                                Saad now directed that the elephants should be overpowered by blinding them and severing their trunks. Qaqa and his brother Asim took with them a strong group of the Bani Tameem, and moved towards the elephant which was causing the greatest havoc among the Muslim ranks. The Bani Tameem charged with cries of Allah-o-Akbar, struck at the Persians who surrounded the elephant, and moved forward through the gap created by their attack. Thereupon the Persians rushed to the flanks and rear of the elephant. There being no Persian in front of the elephant, Qaqa and Asim stole to the front and threw their javelins at the elephant. The javelins pierced the eyes of the elephant. The beast writhed with pain, and the Howdah that it carried came tumbling down. Qaqa and Asim fell on the Persians who had fallen with the Howdah and killed all of them. Then they severed the trunk of the elephant with strokes of their swords. In an agony of pain, the elephant turned and bolted away trampling the Persians under its feet.

                                Hammal b. Malik and Ribbel b. Amr of the Bani Asad led a similar attack against another elephant. That elephant also lost its eyes and trunk, and retired from the battle-field writhing with pain.

                                Amr b. Madi Karib with his men rushed at another elephant and the elephant blinded and mutilated galloped away from the battle-field. Other groups of Muslim warriors also rushed at the elephants adopting similar tactics and succeeded in mutilating the monsters. The mutilated beasts rushed through the Persian ranks and made for the river. The other elephants seeing their leaders leave the field, also turned tail and fled to the river. By noon no elephant was left on the battle-field. The flight of the elephants caused considerable confusion in the Persian ranks.

                                At this stage, Saad ordered an assault. The Muslims moved forward and the two armies clashed. In spite of the Muslim pressure, the Persians held the ground. After some fierce fighting the Muslims pulled back.

                                After a little break the battle was resumed in the afternoon. In the absence of Persian elephants, the Muslims once again brought camels camouflaged as monsters. The trick did not work and the Persian horse stood their ground.

                                The Muslims charged again, but though the Persians suffered heavy casualties, they held the ground and refused to yield. When the dusk set in both the armies were locked in life and death struggle.

                                The third day of the battle of Qadisiyya proved to be the hardest day of the war. There were heavy casualties on both sides, and the battle-field came to be strewn with dead bodies of fallen warriors, both Muslims and non-Muslims. When the battle began and the elephants were brought to the front all advantages lay with the Persians, and Rustam felt that the collapse of the Muslim army was imminent. At one stage the Muslim Commander-in-Chief ran the risk of being killed or captured alive.

                                Later the Muslims succeeded in driving away the elephants. The Muslims then launched the assault. In spite of the violence of the Muslim attack, the Persians held the ground and refused to yield. Thus at the end of the third day the battle of Qadisiyya was still inconclusive.

                                Battle Of Qadisiyya The Last Day

                                On the third day of the battle even at night there was no break in fighting. It was a moon-lit night, and in spite of fatigue after three days' strenuous battle, the armies continued to fight.

                                It was now a war of stamina. Both sides were on the verge of human endurance, and whosoever could be steadfast for some time more was likely to win. Both the sides hoped that they were likely to win.

                                In the matter of stamina the refined Persians could be no match for the hardy Arabs. The strategy of Sa'ad was to wear down the Persians, and snatch away the victory from them.

                                The battle waged all the night long. About midnight, Qaqa shouted: "We have strangled the enemy, The enemy is now on the verge of collapse."

                                There were heavy casualties among the Persians, but they stood firm.

                                At sunrise the fighting ceased, but still the result was inconclusive. That was now the fourth day of the battle, and it was felt that it might be the last day of the battle. Qaqa addressed his men:

                                "If we fight for an hour or so more, the enemy will be defeated. So, warriors of the Bani Tameem make one more attempt and victory will be yours."

                                Other Chiefs spoke in similar terms to their contingents. The Muslim warriors shouted "If you attack we are with you."

                                Qaqa hurled his contingent against the Persians with great violence. Seeing the Bani Tameem launch the attack, other Muslim contingents followed suit. The Persians too exhausted after continuous war for twenty-four hours were taken unawares at the resumption of battle. They stood up in battle formation to resist the Muslim charge, but now there were signs of weakness among the Persian ranks. The right wing of the Persians under Harmuzan was pushed back. After withdrawal they reformed and again stood their ground. By noon Qaqa and his men were able to pierce through the Persian center. They dashed towards the Persian Headquarters to get hold of Rustam, the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian forces.

                                At this time a strong dust storm lashed the battle-field. The storm blew in the faces of the Persians, and aided the onward advance of the Muslims. The canopy and the throne of Rustam were blown away by the dust storm and thrown in the Ateeq. Rustam was alone. He moved back and sought shelter behind a mule which carried in saddle boxes his personal belongings. A Muslim warrior Hilal b. Ullafa saw the mule and struck at the saddle boxes with his sword. Owing to poor visibility, Hilal could not notice Rustam, nor was Rustam able to see Hilal. The saddle box fell on Rustam. He cleared the box and ran towards the river. Hilal now saw Rustam, and ran after him. Rustam plunged in the river. Hilal jumped in the river after him. He dragged him to the bank, where drawing his sword he struck several blows at Rustam and killed him. Then he dragged the corpse of Rustam and threw it under the feet of the mule. Hilal exultant at having killed the Commander-in-Chief of the Persian forces shouted:

                                "By the Lord of the Kaaba, I have killed Rustam, I am Hilal bin Ullafa." The Persians were not aware of the death of Rustam, and they went on fighting doggedly.

                                When Sa'ad came to know that Rustam had been killed, he ordered the Muslims to make one more attack and drive away the Persians. In the afternoon the Muslims mounted another attack. By this time even the Persians knew that their Commander-in-Chief had been killed. That demoralized the Persians and after putting up a last heroic resistance, the Persian front collapsed. With the collapse, the Persian warriors fled in panic to the river.

                                The chained Persians arrived at the bank of the Ateeq anxious to fly to safety. The victorious Muslims followed at their heel. Some Persians were picked up by the Muslims with their long spears. Those who plunged in the river, because of the heavy weight of their amours and chains were unable to cross to the other bank and were drowned.

                                At this stage Jalinus took command of what was left of the Persian army. He got control of the bridge head, and succeeded in getting a section of the Persian army cross the bridge safely.

                                The battle of Qadisiyya was now over. Out of 60,000 Persians who had taken the field, only 20,000 survived to tell the story of the disaster that they had met at the battle-field of Qadisiyya. 40,000 Persians were killed or drowned. The Muslim casualties numbered 6,000 out of a total force of 30,000. In the case of the Persians, out of every three persons only one survived: in the case of Muslims out of every five Muslims four survived to rejoice at the victory.

                                Sad sent parties to pursue the fleeing Persians. The main Persian force commanded by Jalinus proceeded to Najaf. The pursuing Muslim party led by Zuhra caught up the Persians half way between Kharara and Seilahun. Brought to bay Jalinus choose to fight. He threw a challenge for a personal duel. The challenge was accepted by Zuhra. In the duel Jalinus was killed. Thereupon the Persians fled. They were pursued upto Najaf and the stragglers that the Muslims met in the way were put to sword. When it was night, Zuhra and his party returned to Qadisiyya.

                                Other parties sent in various directions also caught up flying Persians. Most of them were killed or taken captives.

                                The booty that the Muslims captured was vast. After setting aside the State share of one fifth, the rest was distributed among the men who had participated in the battle of Qadisiyya. Each infantry man received 7,000 dirhams, and each cavalryman 14,000 dirhams as his share.

                                News Of The Muslim Victory Carried To Umar

                                As soon as the battle of Qadisiyya was over, Sa'ad sent a report of the victory of the Muslims to Umar. In the report, Sa'ad observed:

                                "Allah the Mighty has given us victory over the enemy after prolonged and fierce battle. The enemy was in great number and strength, but Allah in His Mercy has granted victory to the Muslims. For this Allah and His l' Prophet be praised."

                                The report was accompanied by a list of casualties as well as the immediate spoils that had fallen in the hands of the Muslims.

                                The report was sent through a special messenger. The courier selected for the mission was Sa'ad b. Umeila of the Bani Fazara, a clan that lived to the north of Madina.

                                The courier was provided a fast camel. He was also given provisions for the journey. He was commissioned to ride post haste to Madina, and tell the Caliph and the Muslims the happy news of the victory of the Muslims at the historic battle of Qadisiyya.

                                From Qadisiyya, Madina was about a thousand miles. Riding day and night, with very short spells of rest, Saad b. Umeila covered the distance in a fortnight. The sun had just risen when the courier reached the outskirts of Madina.

                                When about two miles from Madina, the courier came upon a man sitting by the roadside who stood up at the approach of the camel rider and asked him from where did he come. Sa'ad b. Umeila said that he was coming from Iraq.

                                The man who accosted the camel driver was Umar. So keen was Umar about getting the news of the result of the battle of Qadisiyya that Umar would every day in the morning walk for a few miles from Madina on the way to Iraq hoping that some courier would come carrying the news. For the last one week this was the usual practice with Umar. When the sun rose high, and no traveler from Iraq appeared the Caliph would return to Madina. At Madina day and night the faithful prayed for the victory of the Muslims in the battle of Qadisiyya.

                                When Sa'ad b. Umeila said that he was coming from Iraq, Umar did not reveal his identity to him. Excitedly he asked, "What news do you carry about the battle of Qadisiyya." Sa'ad said exultantly, "God has given the Muslims victory. "

                                Umar's face lit up with joy as he heard the news of the victory of the Muslims. He did not tell the courier that he was the Caliph and that the report that he carried was meant for him.

                                The courier quickened the pace of the camel so that he might reach Madina as early as possible. Umar started running alongside the camel, and kept on asking the camel rider the details about the Muslim victory, Sa'ad furnished the necessary details. When Saad had related all that he could tell, Umar exclaimed "Glory be to Allah", and Sa'ad also said, "God be praised."

                                By this time they had reached Madina, and seeing Umar, the Madinites gathered round him and greeted him as "Amir-ul-Mominin." Thereupon the courier felt embarrassed and turning to Umar said, "O Commander of the Faithful, why did you not reveal your identity to me?"

                                Umar said, "Brother, be at rest. No blame rests on you."

                                Sa'ad then handed over the report of Sa'ad b. Abi Waqqas. As Umar read the report, tears of joy trickled from his eyes. All the Muslims of Madina gathered in the Prophet's Mosque. There Umar read the report of Saad b. Abi Waqqas to the congregation. Then the Muslims led by Umar offered a special prayer of thanksgiving to God for the victory of the Muslims at the battle of Qadisiyya.


                                Al-Khansa was the daughter of the great poet Zuheir. She was the distinguished poetess of Arabia during the early Islamic period. Even the Holy Prophet of Islam admired her verses. She accepted Islam along with the other members of her tribe.

                                The elegy that she wrote on the death of her brother is regarded as one of the best elegies in Arabic. She said:

                                "The herald of the dead announced the loss Of the most generous man, Sakhr; And he cried it so loud That far and wide he was heard. It wounded me so painfully That in my misery I looked like a drunken person. Every morning when I awaken, The first rays of the sun remind me of him And every evening when the sun sets I mourn for him."

                                She was not only a poetess; she was very brave and valiant as well. When the Muslims fought against the Persians in the battle of Qadisiyya she was present at the front with her four sons. On the eve of the battle by a fiery and inspiring speech she exhorted her sons to fight for the glory of Islam. She said:

                                "My sons, I have borne you with pain and brought you up with great care. I have brought no dishonor to your family and no slur to your tribe. I have wrought no indignity to your father's prestige, and there can be no doubt about the sanctity of the character of your mother. Now, therefore, listen to me. Remember the great merit of fighting for defending your faith; remember the Quranic injunction of adopting patience in the midst of distress. Tomorrow morning, rise from your bed hale and hearty and join the battle with fearless courage. Go into the midst of the thickest of the battle, encounter the boldest enemy and if necessary embrace martyrdom."

                                The four sons of al-Khansa joined the battle with fearless courage. The words of their mother kept ringing in their ears and they plunged themselves heroically ill. The thick of the battle, and encountered the boldest enemies. They put many Persians to sword and were rewarded with the crown of martyrdom.

                                The Muslims won the battle of Qadisiyya, but Khansa lost all her sons. When the news of the death of her sons was brought to her, she wanted to know what was the result of the battle. When she was told that the Muslims had won, she thanked God for the martyrdom of her sons, and said, "Who dies, if Islam lives."

                                When she saw the dead bodies of her sons, she did not weep. She burst into an elegy:

                                "My sons I bore you with pain
                                And brought you up for care;
                                You have fallen today in the cause of Islam,
                                Who says you are dead;
                                You are very much alive, and alive with honor.
                                I feel proud to be the mother of martyrs."

                                When Khansa returned to Madina, Umar went to her house to condole with her over the death of her sons. Khansa merely said:

                                "Congratulate me, Amirul Mominin, For verily I am the mother of martyrs."

                                Umar loaded her with gifts, and as long as she lived, she got the allowances due to her sons. The shares of her sons in the spoils of war arising out of the battle of Qadisiyya were also paid to her.

                                Battle Of Burs

                                With the victory at Qadisiyya, the road to Ctesiphon (called Al-Madain by the Muslims) the capital of Persia lay open to the Muslims. Ctesiphon was on the Tigris, a few miles downstream of the present day Baghdad.

                                The battle of Qadisiyya shook the Persian rule in Iraq to its foundations, but that was not the end of the Persian rule in Iraq. As long as the Persians held their capital Ctesiphon, there was always the danger that at some suitable moment they would make an attempt to recover what they had lost, and drive away the Arabs from Iraq.

                                Umar accordingly sent instructions to Sa'ad that as a sequel to the battle of Qadisiyya, the Muslims should push forward to Ctesiphon and wrest it from the Persians.

                                Some time towards the end of November 636, Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas issued orders to the Muslim forces under his command to march to Ctesiphon. Sa'ad reorganized his army into five corps, and each corps was placed under the command of a veteran General. The commanders were:

                                Zuhra bin Al-Hawiyya;
                                Abdullah bin Muta'm;
                                Shurahbeel bin Al-Samt;
                                Hashim b. Utba; and
                                Khalid bin Urfula.

                                The entire army consisted of cavalry.

                                From Qadisiyya, the main stages on the route to Ctesiphon were Najaf; Burs; Babylon; Sura; Deir Kab; Kusa; Sabat; and Ctesiphon.

                                The corps of Zuhra b. Al-Hawiyya set off as the advance guard. It occupied Najaf and stayed there till the other corps reached Najaf. Then Zuhra with his corps crossed the Euphrates and proceeded on the road to Ctesiphon. He reacted Burs on the western bank of the Hilla branch of the Euphrates.

                                At Burs the advance of Zuhra was resisted by a Persian force under the command of Busbuhra the Mayor of Burs. The troops on both sides were deployed for action. Busbuhra stepped forward and gave the challenge for a personal duel. Zuhra accepted the challenge. Zuhra inflicted heavy wounds on Busbuhra. Profusely bleeding he retired. There was some fighting but the Persians were no match for the Muslims. The Persian army withdrew and crossing the Hilla branch proceeded to join the main Persian army at Babylon. At Babylon, Busbuhra died of the wounds.

                                After the withdrawal of the Persian force, the people of Burs approached Zuhra with the offer of peace, which was accepted. Zuhra stayed at Burs for some time to attend to administrative matters. In the meantime other Muslim corps also arrived at Burs.

                                Battle Of Babylon

                                Babylon was across the other bank of the Euphrates. It was a place of historic importance having been at one time the capital of Iraq. It was also a place of strategic importance and was the gateway of the Suwad, the land between the Euphrates and the Tigris.

                                About two years earlier the Muslims had fought a battle at Babylon under Muthanna when they had occupied Babylon. Later on the eve of the battle of Qadisiyya when the Muslims withdrew from all advance posts in Iraq, they abandoned Babylon Having won the battle of Qadisiyya, the Muslims now advanced to re-conquer Babylon.

                                Some time in the middle of December 636, the Muslims crossed the Euphrates and camped outside Babylon. There was a big concentration of the Persian forces at Babylon commanded by the veteran Generals, Feerzan, Hormuzan, Mihran and Nakheerzan.

                                There was a battle at Babylon. The details of the battle have not been recorded in any history. It appears that there was disunity among the Persians, and they could not put up a stiff resistance against the Muslim charge. Hormuzan with his forces withdrew to his home province Ahwaz. On his withdrawal, the other Generals also pulled back their forces and withdrew northward.

                                After the Persian forces had left, the citizens of Babylon formally surrendered. They were afforded protection under the usual terms. They volunteered to cooperate with the Muslims in their fight against the Persians. They furnished a good deal of useful information about the disposition of the Persian forces. Some Babylonians were employed in the construction of roads and bridges.
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