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    When did women start working?

    Was it after WW2? Can't seem to find much articles on it...

    Please provide a source to back up your claim.


    #2
    Re: When did women start working?

    Women started entering the workforce during WW2 because all of the men who traditionally held factory and labor jobs went off to fight, so those positions had to be filled. And then gradually women in the workplace became a common thing, to such an extent that today many women are the supervisors and managers and even CEOs of major corporations, and even head-of-states of many nations.

    Comment


      #3
      Re: When did women start working?

      That was for the industrial sector, but poor women already worked in textile factories with their children since a long time already.
      Others were modistes, shopkeepers or nurses.

      This is strange you didn't find articles, are you searching for a specific period or country?
      My Blog http://historyeyesopened.tumblr.com/ Watch out sister Nousername
      Ummah forum mentality depiction by BBC (warning) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LS37SNYjg8w

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        #4
        Re: When did women start working?

        i don think it was ww 2 but ww1, its in the gcse history syllabus...

        obviously women worked before that mainly in domestic and service industries, such as cleaners, housekeepers, innkeepers, and spinning etc from home and other cottage industries, but during WW1, in the uk, women started taking on traditionally mal dominated roles, and were encouraged to do so by the government, this also led to women acting like men as they had disposable income.

        this also led to after the war some women being given the vote in the uk.

        if you want sources i suggest you look up the gcse history syllabus! lol

        Recipes for all the family :inlove:
        (and you thought I was a lazy feminazi which can't cook?)

        Comment


          #5
          Re: When did women start working?

          And They Called it Women's Liberation

          How Women Were Lured Out of the Home in the USA

          By Areeba bint Khalid

          From the 1800s to the present day, family life in the West has remarkably changed. While the West calls this change part of the women freedom movement, a look at history may show otherwise.

          America before the 1800s was a farming country and ninety percent of the population lived and worked on private farms. Households were mainly self-sufficient--nearly everything needed was produced in the house. The few things that could not be produced at home were bought from local craftsmen. Some other things, especially imports from Europe, were bought from stores. Males would take care of the fields and females would take care of the home. In addition, they would engage in spinning, knitting, weaving, and taking care of the farm animals.

          Industrial Revolution

          The Industrial Revolution, which began around the early 1800s, brought a major change to this way of life. In 1807, in the wake of the war between Great Britain and France, President Jefferson signed the Embargo Act, which stopped all trade between Europe and America. The Act meant that European goods would no longer be available in the US and Americans would have to produce them. One major European import to America was cloth, and so merchants used this opportunity to create a cloth industry in America.

          In 1814, Francis Cabot Lowell, a man from Boston opened the first modern factory. Work here was to be done way faster than before. Instead of manually making things in houses, things were to be made at higher speeds in a factory and all stages of the work were to be completed under the same roof. Now what Lowell needed were workers. He found out that women, especially unmarried daughters of the farmers, were more economical to use in labor than men. They were also more willing to work as hired people in factories.

          But Lowell had to make the working outside of home acceptable in a society which was not used to it. He assured parents that their daughters would be taken care of and kept under discipline. And he built a boarding community where the women workers lived and worked together.

          Soon after, more and more factories emerged across America. Factory owners followed Lowell's example of hiring unmarried women. By 1850 most of the country's goods were made in factories. As production of goods moved from the country to the city, people too moved from the country to the city.

          For money to be earned, people had to leave their homes. When women worked on the farm, it was always possible to combine work and family. When work for women moved outside the home, however, the only women who could follow it were those without family responsibilities or those who had no husband or no income. Likewise, the only women who could take care of their families were the ones that didn't have work.

          This working out of home became a part of life for unmarried women. They would work until their marriage. But as time passed, women found family life interfering with their work life and instead of viewing working out of home as optional, they viewed family life as such. Many women started delaying marriage even more and some decided to stay single.

          Married women however stayed home and dedicated their time to their children. Now that there wasn't any farm work to do, women had even more time to spend with the children. In 1900 less than about 5.6% of married women worked outside. If a married woman were to work, it would be considered that her husband was invalid or that she was poor.

          World War I

          The first major entry of married women to the workforce came during World War I in 1914. Men went to fight the war and the country needed workers to take over the jobs they left behind. Unmarried women were not sufficient for the labor needs, so employers started to invite married women too, to work. By 1919, 25% of the women in the workforce were married. But this was only the beginning.

          Another change World War I brought was the entry of women to the army. About 13,000 women enlisted in the US Navy, mostly doing clerical work--the first women in US history to be admitted to full military rank.

          Great Depression

          The Great Depression came in the 1930s. The unemployment rate climbed from 3.2% in 1929 to 23.6% in 1932. Jobs became scarce for skilled people and men. Fathers went to search for jobs. Some, under despair, deserted their families. The responsibility of earning fell on mothers in many families.

          Most women and children, however, found jobs more easily than men because of the segregation of work categories for men and women. Although 80% of men during the Great Depression opposed their wives entering the workforce under any circumstances, economic factors made it necessary for the women to work. Hours were long and pay was low. Twenty percent of white women were in the workforce.

          World War II

          World War II came in the early 1940s. Men were drafted to fight, and America needed workers and supplies. Again, the employers looked towards the women for labor. Unmarried and married women were invited to work, as had been done during World War I.

          But still, public opinion was generally against the working of married women. The media and the government started a fierce propaganda campaign to change this opinion. The federal government told the women that victory could not be achieved without their entry into the workforce. Working was considered part of being a good citizen, a working wife was a patriotic person.

          The government founded the Magazine Bureau in 1942. The Bureau published Magazine War Guide, a guide which told magazines which themes stories they should cover each month to aid war propaganda. For September 1943, the theme was "Women at Work". The slogan for this was "The More Women at Work the Sooner We Win." Magazines developed stories that glorified and promoted the placement of women into untraditional jobs where workers were needed. The idea was that if smaller, unexciting jobs were portrayed as attractive and noble more women would join the work force.

          The media created Rosie the Riveter, a mythical character to encourage women into the workforce. Rosie was portrayed as a patriotic woman, a hero for all American women. "All the day long, Whether rain or shine, She's a part of the assembly line. She's making history, Working for victory, Rosie the Riveter… There's something true about, Red, white, and blue about, Rosie the Riveter."

          The propaganda efforts worked. More than six million women joined the workforce during the war, the majority of them married women. In 1940, before the war, only 36% of women workers were married. By 1945, after the war, 50% of women workers were married. The middle class taboo against a working wife had been repealed.

          Post World War II

          The 1950s marked an era of prosperity in the lives of American families. Men returned from war and needed jobs. Once again, the government and media got together to steer the opinion of the public. This time, however, they encouraged women to return home, which shows that the women were brought out not for their freedom but because workers were needed.

          But this effort was not as successful and was abandoned quickly. First, women from lower economic ranks had to remain in the workforce because of economic necessity. And second, there came the rise of consumer culture.

          The baby boom took place during the 1950s as well. Women who returned home dedicated their lives once again to their children. But around the same time an important change had come in the American life. This was the spread of the television. By 1960, 90% of the population owned at least one set. Families would gather around the screen for entertainment. In the early days, everything including commercials was watched with great interest.

          Most middle-class families could not afford the goods the television declared necessary to maintain or enhance quality of life with one paycheck alone. Many women returned to work in order to live according to "the American standard of living," whatever that meant to them.

          The number of American women in the workforce from 1940 to 1950 increased by nine percent. From 1930 to 1940 there had only been a three percent increase.

          Effects

          As mothers returned to work, the television became the most important caretaker of a child. Children in the 1950s spent most of their non-sleeping hours in front of the television screen.

          In 1940, less than 8.6% of mothers with children under eighteen worked. By 1987, 60.2% of women with children under eighteen were working.

          As wives assumed larger roles in their family's financial support, they felt justified in demanding that husbands perform more childcare and housework. Across the years, divorce rates doubled reaching a level where at least 1 out of 2 marriages was expected to end in divorce. Marriage rates and birthrates declined. The number of single parent families rapidly increased. People grew unhappy with their lives, when compared to the lives of people on television.

          Women working affected the society in many different ways. The first and most important of these was that children with working mothers were left alone without the care of a mother. As the number of working women increased, the number of children growing up unsupervised increased, and with this increased crime among teens.

          Since most women placed their career ahead of family life, family life was greatly affected since unmarried women were generally able to make more money than married ones. For example, according to a study by a Harvard economist, women physicians who were unmarried and had no children earned thirteen percent more per year than those who were married and fifteen percent more than those with children.

          Today

          The majority of women still work at the lower levels of the economic pyramid. Most are employed in clerical positions, factory work, retail sales, or service jobs. Around 50% of the workforce is female. While about 78% of all cashiers and 99% of all secretaries today are female, only 31% of managers and administrators are female. Equality in the workplace has been a mirage but it has conned millions of women into leaving their homes and destroying the family structure.

          It was only when economic or political factors made it necessary to get more workers that women were called to work. The Industrial Revolution, the Great Depression, and the World Wars, all the major events which increased the proportion of women workers, were times when the capitalists required more workers in order to be successful in their plans and so they used women.

          The move of women from home to the public workforce has been gradual. First poor women went. Then unmarried women. Then married women without children. Then married women without young children And then, all women. The same thing can be seen to be happening in developing countries around the world, as the West spreads its propaganda of freedom for women to work. The results of this move will probably be the same too.

          Source

          Comment


            #6
            Re: When did women start working?

            I don't agree with everything in the above. Women always worked from day one especially in the fields and that's everywhere even in Muslim areas.
            The only women who were considered "not suitable" for work were those coming from aristocracy and bourgeoisie.
            They all had like 11 children you think with only the husband's earnings they could survive? 19th century married women went to work with their children in the same factory as soon as 5 or 6y-r if not earlier.
            There were no benefits at the time.

            And obviously this has absolutely nothing to do with stupid women liberation. I don't see any liberation in working inside of filthy factories.
            My Blog http://historyeyesopened.tumblr.com/ Watch out sister Nousername
            Ummah forum mentality depiction by BBC (warning) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LS37SNYjg8w

            Comment


              #7
              Re: When did women start working?

              Jazakallah for all your replies, especially the article, will come in use inshallah.

              Comment


                #8
                Re: When did women start working?

                Originally posted by Massilia View Post
                I don't agree with everything in the above. Women always worked from day one especially in the fields and that's everywhere even in Muslim areas.
                The only women who were considered "not suitable" for work were those coming from aristocracy and bourgeoisie.
                They all had like 11 children you think with only the husband's earnings they could survive? 19th century married women went to work with their children in the same factory as soon as 5 or 6y-r if not earlier.
                There were no benefits at the time.

                And obviously this has absolutely nothing to do with stupid women liberation. I don't see any liberation in working inside of filthy factories.
                So are you trying to say the women were not dependent on men for their livelihood? Or were they quite capable of providing for the family but it was more of a joint family contribution to make ends meet?

                Comment


                  #9
                  Re: When did women start working?

                  Women have always worked...in every class except the very wealthy, where they could afford not to.

                  Whether that was in factories with their children, or collecting firewood to light a fire, or making clothes, or cooking food, or teaching their children...

                  (Good post Massilia...)
                  ...sermons from this minbar come with tongue planted quite firmly in cheek.


                  "Let your boat of life be light, packed with only what you need -
                  a homely home and simple pleasures, one or two friends,
                  worth the name, someone to love and someone to love you,
                  a cat, a dog, and a pipe or two, enough to eat and enough to wear,
                  and a little more than enough to drink; for thirst is a dangerous thing."

                  -- Jerome K. Jerome
                  (Three Men in a Boat)

                  Comment


                    #10
                    Re: When did women start working?

                    Originally posted by Sunni Student View Post
                    So are you trying to say the women were not dependent on men for their livelihood? Or were they quite capable of providing for the family but it was more of a joint family contribution to make ends meet?
                    I just wanted to emphasize the importance of social classes because it is very important.
                    An aristocrat lady would not work because of her dependence to her husband because in any social class the husband has to prove before marriage that he can provide.
                    The aristocrat lady would never work because it is not befitting her station above any other reason.
                    Even "gentleman's daughters" sometimes became governess because they could not inherit or their dowry was ridiculous when considering their station they should not work.

                    As for Muslim caliphat (because it was still there), women in countrysides were working, women had shops in cities. So when feminists say that women were not working this is ridiculous a bit a reading will do no harm
                    Last edited by Massilia; 02-01-10, 05:43 PM.
                    My Blog http://historyeyesopened.tumblr.com/ Watch out sister Nousername
                    Ummah forum mentality depiction by BBC (warning) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LS37SNYjg8w

                    Comment


                      #11
                      Re: When did women start working?

                      its no women didnt work before ww1, as they did in domestic and serivce industries as cooks and cleaners, sculley maids, house maids etc, it is in the ww1 women did jobs that were traditionally attributed to men, such as in transport, farming, mechanical, carpentary etc,

                      Recipes for all the family :inlove:
                      (and you thought I was a lazy feminazi which can't cook?)

                      Comment


                        #12
                        Re: When did women start working?

                        Originally posted by Joha View Post
                        Women have always worked...in every class except the very wealthy, where they could afford not to.

                        Whether that was in factories with their children, or collecting firewood to light a fire, or making clothes, or cooking food, or teaching their children...

                        (Good post Massilia...)
                        yep, good post...

                        women have started workin right from day one and not only because prophet Adam (pbuh) wanted his dinner ready on time... basically, women slaved away in the fields, kept the sheep, fed the cattle, spun wool plus all the household chores

                        what the OP probably meant was this: when did women enter the labour market i.e. when did women start actually bein paid for their work ?
                        Last edited by zsamirah; 02-01-10, 06:02 PM.

                        Comment


                          #13
                          Re: When did women start working?

                          Originally posted by naila-k View Post
                          its no women didnt work before ww1, as they did in domestic and serivce industries as cooks and cleaners, sculley maids, house maids etc, it is in the ww1 women did jobs that were traditionally attributed to men, such as in transport, farming, mechanical, carpentary etc,
                          Exactly,

                          Women have always worked.

                          getting supplies
                          planting crops
                          tending crops
                          harvesting crops
                          preparing ingredients
                          cooking meals
                          keeping fires going
                          getting wood if they need to
                          getting water if they need to
                          cleaning after meals
                          cleaning the house
                          cleaning other peoples' houses
                          sweeping and mopping
                          arranging things neatly
                          washing clothes
                          drying clothes
                          folding and putting clothes up
                          ironing clothes
                          taking care of children
                          feeding children
                          washing children
                          getting children ready for the day
                          tucking them in bed at night
                          teaching children - about God, manners, how to do things
                          resolving fights between children
                          taking children places - school, sports, places of worship
                          nursing children and people who are sick
                          bandaging up people
                          comforting those who are hurting in any way
                          encouraging others
                          instructing others or being instructed or both
                          sewing
                          mending
                          weaving
                          making things for other people to buy
                          making a house a home
                          making things beautiful

                          These are just some of the things that women have done. It is work, even though the work is usually done with lots of love, a strong sense of commitment, and the only payment Mothers and Wives often want in return is love and being taken care of. Many times women have done some of these things in order to get payed by others, when they need payment, but others do this for their husband and their children and their payment is love and being taken care of financially... it is work, but work done with love for love and for God's glory.

                          Also, ever since sin entered the world, some women have had work in bad things, such as prostitution, though many times they enter it because they were raped and forced to when they were children :( and other times they are so poor that they think it's the only way they think they can make it, even though it's not. :(

                          Anyways, bfore World War II, women have been working as Naila said, maids, servants, nannies, laundry help, businesswomen, salespeople, cooks, beauticians (who do you think makes other women, such as the rich ladies beautiful and combs their hair and puts on their makeup for them and all that?) and on and on.



                          Peace and God bless.

                          Comment


                            #14
                            Re: When did women start working?

                            Ok thanks some good posts, so women have been long working, but was their working sufficient to provide for their families? Or were they still dependant on men to provide for food and shelter?

                            Were as in today's society in the West, women can independently provide for the family, they can even be the breadwinner whilst the husband becomes effectively a housewife.

                            Comment


                              #15
                              Re: When did women start working?

                              Originally posted by Sunni Student View Post
                              Ok thanks some good posts, so women have been long working, but was their working sufficient to provide for their families? Or were they still dependant on men to provide for food and shelter?

                              Were as in today's society in the West, women can independently provide for the family, they can even be the breadwinner whilst the husband becomes effectively a housewife.
                              I don't think God means for women working to be sufficient to provide for their families. I think God's ideal is for men to provide, and women to nurture and make the house a beautiful and pleasant home for her husband and children and all those both her husband and her are responsible for, including elderly parents of husband or wife, and those in need, and those who work for them if they have help.

                              In the West, it is sad but true that many women are trying to be men in some places, such as the workplace and the home. :( Sometimes some women have more of a talent of working in the workplace whereas some men have more of a talent of being a housewife, but I know of some women who work outside the home because they have to, not because they want to. in Western culture, nowadays owning a big house and fancy cars and material items make it so that both the husband and wife have to work, sad to say. Not everyone has to buy into this mentality, though. There are Western women who love being housewives and there are Western men who are the sole breadwinner of their house, with the exception of their wives maybe making things to sell or helping others in some capacity for money. I don't see any harm in that either.

                              Have you ever read Proverbs 31 about the virtuous woman? She is a hard worker!!! Wow. I boldened what impacted me.

                              Proverbs 31 (NIV)

                              "10 [c] A wife of noble character who can find?
                              She is worth far more than rubies.

                              11 Her husband has full confidence in her
                              and lacks nothing of value.

                              12 She brings him good, not harm,
                              all the days of her life.


                              13 She selects wool and flax
                              and works with eager hands.


                              14 She is like the merchant ships,
                              bringing her food from afar.

                              15 She gets up while it is still dark;
                              she provides food for her family
                              and portions for her servant girls.

                              16 She considers a field and buys it;
                              out of her earnings she plants a vineyard.

                              17 She sets about her work vigorously;
                              her arms are strong for her tasks.

                              18 She sees that her trading is profitable,
                              and her lamp does not go out at night.

                              19 In her hand she holds the distaff
                              and grasps the spindle with her fingers.

                              20 She opens her arms to the poor
                              and extends her hands to the needy.

                              21 When it snows, she has no fear for her household;
                              for all of them are clothed in scarlet.

                              22 She makes coverings for her bed;
                              she is clothed in fine linen and purple.


                              23 Her husband is respected at the city gate,
                              where he takes his seat among the elders of the land.

                              24 She makes linen garments and sells them,
                              and supplies the merchants with sashes.


                              25 She is clothed with strength and dignity;
                              she can laugh at the days to come.

                              26 She speaks with wisdom,
                              and faithful instruction is on her tongue.


                              27 She watches over the affairs of her household
                              and does not eat the bread of idleness.

                              28 Her children arise and call her blessed;
                              her husband also, and he praises her:


                              29 "Many women do noble things,
                              but you surpass them all."

                              30 Charm is deceptive, and beauty is fleeting;
                              but a woman who fears the LORD is to be praised.


                              31 Give her the reward she has earned,
                              and let her works bring her praise at the city gate."

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