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  1. #1
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    LESSON TWENTYTWO : Negatives

    In Arabic we have different words to negate sentences in the past, present and future. Negating simply means to change the meaning to include "not" eg:

    Ahmed likes dogs
    Ahmed does not like dogs - this is a negation of the above sentence

    Present tense - Laa


    the present tense negater is لا. it comes before the verb which you want to negate, which should be in imperfect indicitive (ie the "usual" present tense verb ending in a damma, "laa" had no effect on the verb apart from negating its meaning)

    examples


    لا يَكْتُبُ المدّرسُ
    the teacher is not writing
    يَكْتُبُ المدّرسُ
    the teacher is writing



    Past tense - Maa and Lam

    1.) the easiest past negator to use is ما which should be placed infront of the verb in the perfect (past) tense. This also has no effect on the verb apart from negating meaning.

    ما ذَهَبَ الولدُ
    the boy did not go

    ذَهَبَ الولدُ
    the boy went


    It is occasionally also used to negate a present tense sentence, but you should not do this yourself. eg

    ما يَشْرَبُ
    he is not drinking

    2.) the other way of negating past is with لم
    this comes infront of an imperfect jussive verb (مجزوم) which is formed by ending the verb with sukoon and if there is any long vowel in the verb it will be removed. if the verb had an "ending" eg in 2nd person feminine, the noon will be removed.

    examples
    لم يَكْتُبْ

    he didnt write

    لم تذْهَبي

    you (female) didnt go

    لم يَكُنْ

    he wasnt


    Future tense

    لن is used, this comes before a verb in the subjunctive. This is like the normal imperfect(present) only instead of ending with dhamma on the last letter, it will be fatha. also, when the verb has an "ending" like you female, the noon is removed like in the jussive.

    examples


    لن يَأْكُلَ
    he will not eat

    يَأْكُلُ
    he eats.

    To negate an equational sentence, we must use the verb "laysa" لَيْسَ
    although this looks like a past tense verb, we should translate it simply as "is not / are not" and do not give it a past tense meaning when translating.

    It should be conjugated as any normal past tense verb. Eg

    ليس الولدُ ذكيّاً
    lays alwaladu dhakiyyan
    the boy is not clever

    ليست البنتُ مجتهدةً
    laysat al bintu mujtahidatan
    the girl is not hard working

    Note that the predicate of the equational sentence became accusative case due to this verb. This is the same effect that we learned when using the verb Kaana, so we say that laysa is a sister of Kaana.

    Also note this difference in the conjugation :
    If there is a sukoon on the seen when conjugating the verb normally... then you must remove the ya.
    So we are left with...

    لَسْتُ كسلانً
    lastu kaslaanan
    i am not lazy

    لَسْتِ في البيتِ
    lasti fil bayt
    you are not in the house
    etc

    This is because of the rule that we are not allowed two sukoons next to each other, and there is already a sukoon on the ya so that letter is removed.
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

  2. #2
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    Exercises

    1. Translate these negative sentences (paying attention to the effect on the verb)

    a) Ahmed is not sitting here
    b) She didn't go to the market (please negate with maa)
    c) He was not clever (please negate with lam)
    d) you will not find her
    e) he will not be happy

    2. Translate these into English

    لم يَذهَبوا إلى السوق
    عليّ طويلٌ ولكنّ أُختَهُ عائشة ليست طويلةً
    لن أقرأ هذا الكتابَ
    النساء ما طبخن اليوم
    لماذا لا تُحِبُّني يا علي؟

    3. Explain what we use to negate the following and what effect, if any, there is on the verb
    a) present tense verbal sentence
    b) present tense equational sentence
    c) past tense verbal sentence
    d) future tense verbal sentence

    4. Write 10 of your own negative sentences covering all tenses

    5. Conjugate laysa for:
    a) he
    b) she
    c) we
    d) they (female)
    e) they (male)
    f) I
    g) You (female singular)
    h ) You (male plural)

    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

 

 

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