Hello & Welcome to our community. Is this your first visit? Register
Ads by Muslim Ad Network


Results 1 to 2 of 2
  1. #1
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2003
    Gender
    Girl Female
    Posts
    81,959
    Mentioned
    373 Post(s)
    Quoted
    1 Post(s)
    Rep Power
    408

    LESSON EIGHTEEN : Relative clauses

    This topic has been requested by Hamema If anyone else wants to request an idea for a lesson, just PM me and I will see where I can fit u in

    "Relative clauses" are usually translated in English with the words "which", "who", "that". In Arabic they are called الإِسماءُ الموصُولة

    Relative sentences are made up of two parts : The antecedent and the relative clause.

    The Antecedent will be a noun. The relative clause gives extra information about this antecedent noun. An example of this in English is :

    This is the boy who studies Biology

    The boy is the antecedent. In this case he is also the subject of the sentence, although the object could also be an antecedent. The relative clause is "who studies Biology" because that is the extra info about this antecdent.

    In Arabic there are a group of words used in place of "who, which" etc and the correct one is chosen according to gender and number.

    These are only used when the antecedent is DEFINATE

    Here is the list :

    الّذي

    alladhee
    for masculine singular
    الّتي
    allatee
    for feminine singular (including non human plural)

    الّذينَ
    alladheena
    for masculine plural
    الواتي
    allawaatee
    for female plural

    The dual ones will be given later when we cover that topic

    Aswell as these special words, in arabic you also need to add a "returner" as a part of the relative clause. This is a pronoun which refers back to the antecedent. If the relative clause features a verb which is done by the antecedent, then the returner is considered to be shown by that verb and nothing else is necessary. However if the verb is done by anyone else the returner should be added in the form of a pronoun.

    Now to get an idea of relative clauses here are some examples :

    أين الكتابُ الّذي وجدته؟

    ayn al kitaab ulladhee wajadtuhu?
    where is the book which I found?

    The antecedent is al kitaab (the book)
    the relative clause is alladhee wajadtuhu
    the word alladhee was chosen as kitaab is singular masculine
    the returner is "hu" on the end of the verb, chosen because kitaab is singular masculine and hu is the singular masculine returner word

    هو الولدُ الّذي يدرس هنا
    huw al walad ulladhee yadrusu hunaa
    he is the boy who studies here

    the antecedent is al walad (the boy)
    the relative clause is alladhee yadrusu huna

    the word alladhee was chosen because it is singular masculine

    the returner is "inside" the verb. When the relative clause is an action done by the antecedent, then you do not need to write the returner separately as the verb conjugation shows it

    ضرب علي الكلبَ الّذي ذهب في المطبجِ

    Daraba 3ali ul kalb alladhee dhahaba fil matbakh

    ali hit the dog who went in the kitchen

    antecedent is al kalb (the dog)
    relative clause is alladhee dhahaba fil matbakh
    alladhee is chosen because it is singular masculine
    the returner is inside the verb.

    أختي البنت التي تساعدُ المدرّسةَ
    ukhtee al bint ullatee tusaa3id ul mudarrisa
    my sister is the girl who helps the teacher
    the antecedent is ukhtee (my sister)
    the relative clause is allatee tusaa3id ul mudarrisa
    allatee was chosen as antecedent is singular feminine
    the returner is in the verb tusaa3idu


    ذهب الأولادُ الّذين يلعبون كرة القدم
    dhahab al awlaad alladheena yal3aboona kurat al qadam
    the boys who play football went
    the antecedent is al awlaad (the boys)
    the relative clause is alladheen yal3aboona kurat al qadam
    alladheena was chosen because its masculine plural
    the returner is in the verb

    *****



    If the antecedent is not definite then you do not need to use the special words such as "alladhee" etc but you STILL NEED the returner.


    Here are some examples of indefinate relative sentences :

    هذا رجلٌ ذهب إلى المسجد
    hadha rajulun dhahaba ilal masjid
    this is a man who went to the mosque
    antecedent is rajulun which is indefinate
    so no need for "alladhee"
    the returner is in the verb

    هي قطّة وجدتها في حديقتي
    hiya qiTTatun wadajtuhaa fi Hadeeqatee
    she's a cat which I found in my garden
    the antecedent is qittatun (indefinate)
    so no need for allatee
    relative clause is wajadtuhaa fi hadeeqati
    the returner is haa, because the verb wajada was done by someone other than the antecedent.

    قرأتُ كتاباً كتبه رجلٌ جميلٌ
    qara'tu kitaaban katabahu rajulun jameelun
    I read a book which a handsome man wrote
    the antecedent is kitaaban (indefininte)
    the relative clause is katabahu rajulun jameelun
    the returner hu is written because someone other than the antecedent did this verb.

    It is also possible to write vague relative sentences, with none of the "alladhee" words or a returner. These simply use the words "maa" and "man"
    ما
    من
    we have come accross these words before.
    maa is used for objects, and translates as "what"
    man is used for people and translates as "who"

    Examples :

    قرأتُ ما كتب الولدُ
    qara'tu maa katab al walad
    I read what the boy wrote

    أكل ما طبخ أمّه
    akala maa Tabakha ummuhu
    he ate what his mum cooked

    ضربت نورة من أكل طعامها
    Darabat Noora man akala Ta3amahaa
    Noora hit the one who ate her food

    In these examples you can not say exactly what is the antecedent because the name of the object is not given. For example in number one, the antecendent could really be : the letter, the book, the story etc but we are not told it by reading the sentence. That is why it is vague.

    Sometimes you might want to write a relative sentence where the antecedent is a whole sentence, in that case you use the following special phrase :

    الأمرُ الّذي
    al amr ulladhee
    the matter which..

    كنتُ مريضا الأمرُ الّذي منعني من الذهاب إلى الحديقة
    kuntu mareeDan al amr ulladhee mana3anee min adh dhihaab ilal Hadeeqa
    I was ill which prevented me from going to the park

    (Ive colour coded this sentence as many of the words are not from the previous lessons vocabulary so it could have been confusing for new students)

    There is quite alot covered in this lesson, so if it seems confusing for you please read it over a few times and then attempt the exercises

    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

  2. #2
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2003
    Gender
    Girl Female
    Posts
    81,959
    Mentioned
    373 Post(s)
    Quoted
    1 Post(s)
    Rep Power
    408
    exercises :

    1. write your own very short summary of the topic relative clauses

    2. translate the following (definate antecedents):

    a) This is the boy who I hit
    b) Where is the food which I like?
    c) That is the nurse who studied in my university
    d) Are you wearing the shirt which I found?
    e) Arabic is the language which we learn in school

    3. translate the following (indefinate antecedents) :

    a) Its in a book I read last year
    b) There's a ball in the garden which Yusuf found
    c) That's a car which I used
    d) Thats a man who plays football

    4.) take the following sentences and convert them into vague sentences by replacing the antecedents with either maa or man

    5.) make 5 examples of your own relative sentences

    6.) read and translate the following :

    أحبّ الطعام الّذي تطبجه ليلى
    أقرأ ما قرأ يوسف السنة الماضية
    هو ولد ضربه المدرّس
    هذا هو الحاسوب الّذي استعملت أمّي
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

 

 

Similar Threads

  1. Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah
    By GenN in forum General Islamic Topics
    Replies: 41
    Last Post: 02-11-17, 09:28 PM
  2. Replies: 3
    Last Post: 10-06-05, 10:31 AM
  3. LESSON TWO : This and That
    By .: Anna :. in forum Beginners Course
    Replies: 3
    Last Post: 10-06-05, 10:29 AM
  4. important lessons for the Muslim Ummah
    By Amatullah in forum Islamic Lifestyle & Social Issues
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 21-09-04, 11:13 AM

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
All times are GMT. The time now is 06:41 PM.
Powered by vBulletin® Version 4.2.2
Copyright © 2017 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
User Alert System provided by Advanced User Tagging v3.2.7 (Pro) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2017 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.
vBulletin Skin By: PurevB.com

MPADC.com Islamic Web Hosting | Muslim Ad Network | Islamic Nasheeds | Islamic Mobile App Developement Android & iPhone | Islamic Web Hosting : Muslim Designers : Labbayk Nasheeds : silk route jilbab: Hijab: : Web Islamic Newsletter: Islamic Web Hosting

Students of Arabic Forum | Hijab Shop