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  1. #1
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    LESSON TEN : The Subject and Object of the sentence

    Firstly, it is important to understand in English what the "subject" and "object" of the sentence mean.

    When there is an active doing word (verb) in the sentence, there will always be a subject*. The subject is the thing or person that does the action. EG:

    Nasrullah bought the food.

    Here the subject is Nasrullah.

    The object is the thing that has the action done to it. EG:

    Nasrullah bought the food.

    Here the object is the food.

    How is this shown in Arabic

    In English, it is ok to know about the subject and object, but since we don't have any case endings, you could say that it doesn't really matter. However in Arabic grammar it does matter and you have to learn and understand how it works.

    The rule is very simple.



    • The subject and object of any sentence should be a noun (or a pronoun)
    • Words that are the subject of a sentence will have damma written on the end letter.
    • Words that are the object of the sentence will have fatha written on the end letter.
    • As we learned in lesson 3, if a noun is indefinate then the vowel symbol on the last letter is written twice (this is called tanween). If it is definate then only one is written
    *Note that when two fathas are written on the end of a word, they are carried on an alif (unless the letter is a ta marbuta)

    Examples from last lesson with explanation

    The following two sentences were given in last lesson's exercises for translation :لبس محمدٌ قميصاً جميلاً

    • (labasa Mohammedun qameesan jameelan)
    • Mohammed wore a nice shirt
    • The subject is Mohammed as he did the action, therefore he has dammas at the end of his name
    • The object is the shirt. It has fathas because of this. Note that it is indefinate and the 2 fathas are carried on an alif
    • The adjective describing the object also has fathas because adjectives always match the thing that they are describing.


    وجدَت نورةُ الكلبَ

    • wajadat Noura alkalba
    • Noura found the dog
    • The subject of the sentence is Noura because she did the action

    • The object of the sentence is the dog, so that word takes a fatha.

    More examples


    ضرب الرجلُ الولدَ


    • Daraba ar rajulu al walada
    • The man hit the boy
    • The verb is ضرب
    • It is in the "he" form because the subject is masculine. It means "hit".

    • The man (ar rajulu) is the subject as he did the action.
    • It takes one damma as it is a definite subject (ie it has AL on the beginning of the word)
    • The boy (al walada) is the object, as he was the one who had the action done to him
    • It takes one fatha as it is a definate object (ie it has AL on the beginning of the word)


    استعملَت المدرّسةُ الحاسوبَ


    • ista3malat almudarrisatu alhaasooba
    • The lady teacher used the computer
    • The verb is استعملَت it has the "at" ending because it was done by a female. It means "used"

    • The female teacher (almudarrisatu) is the subject as she did this action.
    • That word takes one damma as it is a definate subject
    • The object is the computer (al Haasooba) as it had the action done to it.

    • It takes one fatha as it is a definate object.


    أكلَ الطعامَ كلبٌ


    • akala aT-Ta3aama kalbun
    • A dog ate the food
    • Note that the normal order of subject and object has been reversed. This may happen due to emphasis, or style. (If the object is definate and subject is indefinate, this order may sound better)
    • the verb is أكلَ
    • it is in the "he" form as dog is a masculine noun.It means "ate".

    • dog is the subject as it did the action.
    • It is an indefinate subject because it is a dog, and not the dog. Because of this it has two dammas.
    • The object is the food (at-ta3aam) because it had the action done to it. It has an AL so it is a definate object and has only one fatha.


    شربتُ الماءَ


    • sharibtu almaa'a
    • I drank the water
    • Here the subject is "I" because I did the action, however we did not need to say "ana sharibtu almaa'a" because it is shown clearly in the verb who did the action. It is not wrong to include the pronoun aswell, but it is not a good style. You would usually see it written as in the example above.

      (See this thread for more about this rule.)
    • The object is the water because it had the action done to it. There fore it takes one fatha (it is a definate object)
    * The subject may not be explicitely written in the sentence, (see the last example) but in that case it is shown in the verb. Just because you cannot immediately see it, does not mean it is not there.

    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

  2. #2
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    Vocabulary
    the following were used in this lesson

    ضرب
    (daraba) he hit
    استعملَ
    (ista3mala) he used
    حاسوبَ
    (haasoob) computer
    طعام
    (ta3aam) food
    ماء
    (maa') water



    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

  3. #3
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    1.) To be sure that you understand the concept of subject, object and verb, pick out the subject, object and verb from each of these English sentences

    a) The cat ate the mouse.
    b) Did you put the cheese on the table?
    c) A big boy kicked his sister.
    d) Mummy cooked some tasty food.
    e) We all learn Arabic.

    2.) translate the following into Arabic, including the case endings (vowelling) on the end of the words

    a) Ramzi ate my food.
    b) Mohammed wrote that book.
    c) Alia drank Coca Cola.
    d) I wore a nice shirt and you wore a nice shirt.
    e) Yousef found the dog under the table.

    3.) answer the following (giving the word in Arabic with the case ending requested)
    a) if the subject of a sentence is "a boy" what will be it's case ending?
    b) if the object of a sentence is "the house" what will be it's case ending?
    c) if the object of a sentence is "a car" what will be it's case ending?
    d) if the subject of a sentence is "the girl" what will be it's case ending?

    4.) write 5 of your own sentences with a subject a verb and an object.
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

  4. #4
    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    vocab audio here
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.
    http://s61.photobucket.com/albums/h6...th_Silence.jpg
    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah

    Ramadan Activities for Children
    <button id="tw_schedule_btn" class="tw-schedule-btn" style="padding: 4px 6px;position: absolute;left: 141px;top: 840px;background-color: #F7F7F7; background: linear-gradient(#FFF, #F0F0F0); border: 1px solid #CCC; color: #5F5F5F; cursor: pointer; font-weight: bold; text-shadow: 0 1px #FFF; white-space: nowrap;border-radius: 3px;font-size: 11px; display: none; z-index: 8675309">Schedule</button>

 

 

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