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Concerning the Dates for Eid-ul-Adha and Hajj
Concerning the Dates for Eid-ul-Adha and Hajj
M. Abdullah Saleem
Concerning the different rituals of worship of salah and fasting in Islam, one may not be made to depend on the other. Similarly, Eid-ul-Adha and Hajj are two separate rituals of worship, not dependent upon each other.
- Looking at the history of the prescription of the two rituals, Hajj was made fard in the sixth year of Hijrah (lam’at commentary on Mishkat), whereas, Eid-ul-Adha was instituted since the first year of the Hijrah.
Reported on the authority of Ibn Umar (RA): Rasulallah (SAW) lived in Medina for ten years and made sacrifice each year. (Tirmidhi)
- The salah of Eid-ul-Adha is wajib (incumbent) upon all those Muslims who live in such towns where the salahs of the two Eids and Jumma are correct according to the specifications of the towns given by fuqaha (jurists). Mina satisfies such specifications, yet, it is not wajib (incumbent) upon those hujjaj who are present in Mina on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah to offer the salah of Eid-ul-Adha even though Mina has been known to be a part of Makkah and within its city limits from the beginning. And now, a part of the Makkan population resides in Mina; nonetheless, the salah of Eid-ul-Adha is not wajib (incumbent) upon the hujjaj.
"Mina is a place where salatul-Eid is permitted except that the hujjaj are exempt from it [salah Eid-ul-Adha]. With our exhaustive search, we have found no such practice [hujjaj making salah Eid-ul-Adha]. Nor did we find a salah Eid-ul-Adha in Makkah, nor did we or the mashaykh [scholars] make salah Eid-ul-Adha in Makkah." (as cited by Shami from commentary of Al-Ashbah from the chapter on hunting)
- The sacrifice of Eid-ul-Adha is wajib (incumbent) upon all those who posses enough wealth to satisfy the least condition of nisab (those who are sahib-al-nisab). However, such a sacrifice is not required by the hujjaj in Mina according to most fuqaha (jurists). The sacrifice made by the hujjaj is not caused by them being sahib-al-nisab but rather by them combining umrah with Hajj in the Hajj of tamattu or qiran. If the umrah is not combined with Hajj, then even this sacrifice is not required. In Maliki school of thought, it is required that the one making the sacrifice for Eid-ul-Adha must not be a Hajji (pilgrim), even though, he may be Makkan. (Kitabul Fiqh, section on sacrifice)
- If an individual is not able, monetarily, to give the ritual sacrifice of tamattu and qiran, then he will fast for ten days in lieu of the sacrifice. As it has been stated in the Quran:
“ ...he must make an offering such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should fast three days during the Hajj and seven days on his return, making ten days in all....” (2:196)
Whereas, if a non-Hajji is unable to give the sacrifice, he is not obliged to fast for ten days or give any other expiation, making the ritual of sacrifice of Hajj given by the pilgrims separate from the sacrifice of Eid-ul-Adha.
- The sacrifice of Eid-ul-Adha may be performed anywhere, however, the sacrifices of tamattu and qiran can only be given within the limits of Haram.
- The sacrifice of Eid-ul-Adha becomes wajib with the advent of the dawn of the tenth of Dhil-Hijjah, provided that the individual has in his possession an amount at least equal to nisab. While the views held by jurists and scholars in regards to the sacrifice of tamattu and qiran are as follows:
- Shafei scholars forward that the time when the sacrifice of tamattu becomes wajib is when one dons the ihram for Hajj. It is permitted, however, to give sacrifice even before this time. In this case, one may give his sacrifice anytime after his completion of umrah. The preferable time for offering sacrifice is on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah. Furthermore, there is a time limit before which the sacrifice need be made. One may offer it anytime after the umrah as stated above.
- According to Maliki scholars, sacrifice may be given anytime after donning the ihram of umrah but before donning the ihram for Hajj.
- Hanbali scholars state that the sacrifice of tamattu and qiran can be offered only after the dawn of the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah.
- According to Hanafite scholars, the sacrifice of tamattu and qiran must be done on the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah but after the stoning at Jamarat-al-Aqabah (Kitabul Fiqh ala al-Madhahibal Arba’ah).
- According to Shafite scholars, one who made the sacrifice of tamattu and qiran is not allowed to eat of the sacrifice. The meat, in this case, needs to be distributed among the needy. However, the Hanafite and Malaki scholars state that the one who make the tamattu or qiran sacrifice may eat of its meat. Hanbalite scholars agree with this ruling only because it has been established by the Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him); otherwise, under normal circumstances, they do not regard the consumption of meat from a wajib sacrifice to be lawful for the one who sacrificed the animal. As the sacrifice of tamattu and qiran is wajib, the Hanbali scholars would normally regard the meat unlawful for the one who made the sacrifice, but since it has been established by the practice of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him), they have considered the consumption of the meat lawful. (Kitabul Fiqh ala al- Madhahibal Arba’ah).
The aforementioned make it abundantly clear that Hajj and Eid-ul-Adha and their respective sacrifices are two separate and independent forms of worship. One is neither contingent nor linked to the other. Yet, some still speak of these two independent forms of worship as if they were interrelated. There is no evidence to support this view other than the fact that Hajj falls on the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah and Eid-ul-Adha on the tenth. Based on this fact, it is advanced that Eid-ul-Adha must follow Hajj on the following day. By way of analogy, they claim that Eid-ul-Adha must be performed by people all over the world the very next day after the ninth of Dhul-Hijjah. In which authentic and book of jurisprudence can we find a ruling that supports this view? This is a question that remains to be answered. Even if we adopt the view that there is only one universal horizon for the entire world as a basis for the previous argument, the argument will not stand. Because in this case, it would mean that the crescent would always be sighted in the in the Hijaz before it can be sighted anywhere else in the world. The crescent always cannot be sighted in the Hijaz first. However, it is uncanny that for the last few decades, the crescent seems to be sighted first in Saudi Arabia than anywhere else in the world. Allamah Haskafee, author of ad-Dur al-Mukhtaar, states, in discussing the concept of a universal horizon, that the inhabitants of the eastern hemisphere will take the moon sighting of the inhabitants of the western hemisphere provided they are sure the moon has really been sighted in the west.
Allamah Shaami writes that as far as the view that there are multiple horizons for the world, this is a matter wherein there is no dispute; this is a matter that cannot be denied. Allamah Shaami further writes that the only case where there is room for dispute in regards to whether there are multiple horizons or a universal horizon is in the case of Eid-ul-Fitr and the initiation of Ramadan. Notice, that Eid-ul-Adha is not mentioned. Let us for the sake of future discussion look at the different points of views regarding the horizon and Ramadan/Eid-ul-Fitr.
Shafite scholars and the Hanafite scholars Zay’li’ and Saahibul Faidh, are in agreement that there is only one universal horizon for the world in the matter of Ramadan and Eid-ul-Fitr. However, the according to the more accepted Hanafite view, in addition to Malaki and Hanabalite scholars, this is not a valid conclusion i.e., there are multiple horizons in the matter of Ramadan and Eid-ul-Fitr. This is based on a broader interpretation of the hadith-- begin fast with the sighting of the moon and terminate the fast with the sighting of the moon-- than that of the Shafite scholars, Imam Zayli’, and Saahibul Faidh, all of whom take a more restrictive interpretation of the same hadith to support their view. Allamah Shaami then writes in regards to Hajj and Eid-ul-Adha the following: It is understood from the discussion in Kitab-ul-Hajj that the view of multiple horizons is correct in the matter of Hajj. If it is known that the crescent (of Dhul-Hijjah) was seen a day earlier in another town it will not make anything obligatory on them (the people of the town who saw the moon a day later) . Can this be said about the sacrifice of those not performing Hajj as well? The reasoning is clear. Multiple horizons is adopted in the rulings of fasting because of its being related to ‘sighting’; ‘sacrifice’ is contrary to it. Apparently, the sacrifice is like the timings of the prayers. Every two has to go by its own time. Therefore, it is valid for those who are sacrificing on the third day according to their sighting even though it may be the fourth day according to the sighting somewhere else.
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On January 14, the Supreme Judiciary Council of Saudi Arabia announced a change in its earlier statement, that the standing at Arafat will be on January 19 and Eid ul Adha on January 20.
Moon sighting on January 10 was astronomically ruled out in Saudi Arabia. The new moon was born at 12:03 Universal Time on January 10 and was only 3 hours old in Saudi Arabia. It set 3 minutes before the sunset. Therefore, sightability on January 10 was totally incredible.
ISNA stands by its earlier decision that Eid ul Adha in North America will, insha'Allah, be on Friday, January 21, as announced earlier. ICNA's Announcement: Alhamdulillah, Zul Hijjah moon has been sighted on Tuesday, January 11, 2005. Therefore, Eid ul Adha will be on Friday, January 21, 2005.
Moonsighting for Zul-Hijjah 1425
January 10, 2005 (Monday):
Impossible to see anywhere on earth, except Chilie, South America and Polynesian Islands!
No sighting reports have been received from anywhere.
Muhammad Hafiz (Moonsighting.com member) from Opa Locka, Florida reporetd: Not Seen
I tried to observe the Hilaal on Monday 10th January, 2005 in Opa-Locka, Florida USA after sunset. The horizon was completely clear and no Hilaal was observed.
Abdul Sattar Ridhan (Moonsighting.com member) from San Jose reported: Not Seen
No moon was sighted here in the San Francisco Bay Area today, weather was not that good cloudy and rain.
January 11, 2005 (Tuesday):
Gulam Qutbuddin Siddiqui from Sydney, Australia reported: Seen
Dr Shabbir Ahmed, Imam of Rooty Hill Mosque who is on Hajj this year has asked me to inform Moonsighting.com regarding moon sighting this year. Alhamdulillah the Hilal was physically sighted in Sydney on Tuesday 11/1/05. Thus month of Dhul Hajj 1425 Hijri starts on 12/1/05 and inshAllah Eid-ul-Adha will be celebrated here on Friday 21/1/05 (10 Dhul-Hajj 1425 Hijri)
Mohamad ibnu Maleki from Johore Bahru, Malaysia reported: Seen
My ustaz and his friends at Pontian beach,Pontian and my friend and I besides Masjid Sultan Abu Bakar,Johore Bahru have seen the cresent of Zulhijjah. So that, we'll celebrate 'Idul Adha on Friday, 21st January 2005.
Alee from Phuket (Moonsighting.com member) from Thailand reported: Seen
I saw newmoon for Zul-Hijjah on Tuesday 11 Jan 2005; alhamdulillah.
Amir Hayat reported: Seen
I just read in the Jang Newspaper of Pakistan that moon has been sighted in Pakistan on Tuesday, 01/11/05, so Wednesday is 1st of Zul Hajjah and Eid will be on the 21st January.
Dr, Sayyid Syeed reported that a Pakistan News Agency has the following: Seen
QUETTA, Jan 11: Zilhaj moon was sighted here on Tuesday evening and Eid-ul-Azha will fall on Friday, Jan 21. This was announced by Ruet-i-Hilal Committee. -APP
Hussain Khushaish (Moonsighting.com member) from Kuwait reported: Seen
In Kuwait, on Tuesday 11 Jan 2005 I could sight the the crescent. First my friend Shaikh Sadek Boabbas saw the crescent with 10*50 binocular at 17:06, then I saw it with my 20*60 binocular at 17:07, that's 1 minute before our local sunset which was at 17:08 .....( He saw it before me for his wide range bino & may be his keen sight). Then he saw it with naked eyes at 17:14 & I saw it at 17:15 until 18:05 with naked eyes & 18:06 with with bino where it disappeared behind the glare of flood light 7 minutes before our local moonset at 18:13. All the member of the group of 7 persons saw the crescent with naked eyes.
Samy Khadem-Al-Charieh (Moonsighting.com member) from Berlin, Germany reported: Not Seen
The weather is bad so there will be no sighting possible today. The sky is full of clouds and especially in the west direction.
Sharief Guman from Amsterdam, The Netherlands reported: Not Seen
Moon (for Zil-Hijj) NOT SEEN in Amsterdam, The Netherlands on 11 January 2005.
Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti (Moonsighting.com Member) from Oxford, UK reported: Not Seen
Negative sighting. On the 29th day of the preceding lunar month, at the usual site, I tried, alone, to sight the expected new crescent. Unfortunately, conditions were very poor in Oxford: it was raining and the horizon was too overcast. The difference between the moon and sunset [tafawut al-nayrayn] had already been determined to be approximately 64 minutes. I prayed Maghrib and waited until the moonset [ghurub al-hilal], hoping that the horizon might improve but did not. I received news after the attempted local sighting that the responsible body in Malaysia dealing with moon sighting (the Keeper of the Royal Seals for the Sultans), for example, has declared that the Dhu l-Hijja moon was sighted after Maghrib there. This news is sufficient to establish [thubut] the Dhul-Hijja moon for us in the UK so that tomorrow (the 12th of January), is the 1st of Dhu l-Hijja; by default, following the general rule in fiqh for this case: whenever the crescent is sighted during the night in question in the East, its sighting in the West follows, but not the other way round. Hence, 'Id al-Adha should fall here on Friday, the 21st of January.
Rashid Motala (Moonsighting.com member) from Signal Hills, South Africa reported: Seen
The Hilaal for Zul Hijjah was sighted this evening. Empangeni on the east coast north of Durban was the first to report.
Muhammad Afifi al-Akiti (Moonsighting.com Member) reported: Seen in Morocco
Moon sighting was made in Meknes (and in numerous other cities in Morocco). This has been conveyed to me by a a trusted Muwaqqit working there. He also confirmed that the Office of the Chief Qadi of Morocco has declared that 'Id al-Adha will be on Friday in the Morocco (Maghreb).
Sultan Hafiz (Moonsighting.com member) Imam of Rose Hall Town Masjid from Guyana reported: Seen
Hilaal was easily seen after sunset on Tuesday 11th January, 2005 at 6:05 PM (Guyana Time).
Imam Azher (Moonsighting.com member) from Fort Myers, Florida reporetd: Seen
I and two other brothers saw the moon tonight, Januuary 11, 2005.
Muhammad Hafiz (Moonsighting.com member) from Opa Locka, Florida reporetd: Seen
I tried to observe the Hilaal on Tuesday 11th January, 2005 in Opa-Locka, Florida USA after sunset. The horizon was completely clear and the Hilaal was observed at 6:10 PM. The entire lunar disc could be slightly seen with the Hilaal horns pointing in a direction of 1 o'clock to 8 o'clock.
Ruth Jeffery (Moonsighting.com member) from Houston TX reported: Seen
Despite slightly cloudy skies, the new moon was clearly sighted at 6:44 p.m. on Tuesday, January 11.
Gary Peterson (Moonsighting.com member) from Mesa Arizona reported: Seen
I was able to see the young with binoculars today at 4:40 PM MST from Mesa, Arizona which was about an hour before local sunset. I was able to keep it in view until clouds rolled in. You could tell it the moon because when I held it in view it stayed in view and I could also watch some of the clouds role by so I knew it was not a wisp of a cloud. The moon also had the same declination at the sun at 3:56 MST. That way I knew to look for the moon where the sun had been about an hour and a half earlier since it was a day and a half old.
Paul Burnham (Moonsighting.com member) from Chino Valley, Arizona reported: Seen
I am pleased to report that the new moon was observed visually on January 11from Chino Valley AZ at 1751 MST. The weather had amazingly changed from downpour to broken clouds to clear in the 90 minutes preceding the observation.
Mohamed Lotfy from Aurora, Colorado reported: Seen
Saw the moon (Hilal) of Zul-Hijja from Aurora Colorado on Januray 11th 2005. I also took 2 pictures of the new moon; the first one is at 5:13 pm and the second one at 5:35 pm.
Shagufta Ahmad Qadri and her husband Parwez Zia Qadri from San Jose, California reported: Seen
We saw the crescent very clearly in the western horizon at 5:50 PM PST. She also reported that Syeda Zilla Huma Qadri and her 5 year old son Abdullah Qadri from Hayward, California saw the crescent very clearly in the western horizon. Also Bushra Chaudhry Qadri sighted the crescent in the same city.
Sharaaz Khan Qadri from Sacramento, California reported: Seen
The moon was sighted between the clouds today at about 6:10 PM on Jan 11 despite the heavy cloud cover about 25-30 degrees above the horizon towards the left of the sunset (south west of the sunset). My wife (Fatima Sharaaz), son (Yaseen Khan -11 years), and daughter (Sahar Khan - 6 years) all sighted the moon with clarity. The top tip of the cresent was at 2 o'clock and the bottom tip was at 7 o'clock. Dr. Youssef Ismail (Moonsighting.com member) from San Francisco, CA reported: Seen
I am reporting that the new moon of Dhul-Hijjah has been positively sighted by myself and one other adult male this evening at 5:05 pm from Windy Hill Open Space Preserve, as usual. Initial sighting had the moon's limbs at about 2 O'clock (upper limb) and 6 O'clock (lower limb) and possibly about 8 to 10 fingers above the horizon or more. I waited to photograph it after Maghrib at 5:30 pm. Photo will be sent shortly.
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Are there any special features of the tenth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah?.
Praise be to Allaah.
When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came to Madeenah, he found that they had two days on which they used to play. He said, “Allaah has given you two days better than these, the day of al-Fitr and the day of al-Adha.” Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1134; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in al-Silsilah al-Saheehah, 2021.
Allaah has given this ummah two days for playing and leisure, two days for remembering Allaah and thanking Him, and asking Him for forgiveness.
In this world the believers have three festivals or Eids:
One Eid which is repeated each week, and two Eids which come once a year.
The Eid which is repeated every week is Friday (Jumu’ah).
The Eids which are not repeated, which come only once each year, are:
1 – Eid al-Fitr, the breaking of the Ramadaan fast. This comes upon the completion of the month of Ramadaan, which is the third pillar of Islam. When the Muslims have finished fasting the month that is enjoined upon them, Allaah has prescribed that they should follow the completion of their fast with a festival on which they gather to thank Allaah, remember Him and glorify Him for His guidance. On that Eid it is prescribed for them to pray and give charity.
2 – The second Eid is Eid al-Adha (the Feast of Sacrifice), which is the tenth day of the month of Dhu’l-Hijjah. This is the greater and better of the two feasts, which comes after the completion of the Hajj, for when the Muslims complete their Hajj they are forgiven.
Rather Hajj is completed on the Day of ‘Arafah [the 9th of Dhu’l-Hijjah] with the standing in ‘Arafah, which is the major pillar of Hajj, as the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Hajj is ‘Arafah.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (889) and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Irwa’ al-Ghaleel (1064).
The day of ‘Arafah is the day of ransom from the Fire, when Allaah ransoms from Hellfire those who stood at ‘Arafah and Muslims who did not stand at ‘Arafah. Hence the day that follows it is a festival for all Muslims in all regions, those who attended Hajj and those who did not.
It is prescribed for all of them to draw closer to Allaah by means of the ritual of shedding the sacrificial blood.
The virtues of this day may be summed up as follows:
1- It is the best of days before Allaah.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said in Zaad al-Ma’aad (1/54): The best of days before Allaah is the Day of Sacrifice, which is the greatest day of Hajj as it says in Sunan Abi Dawood (1765), where it is narrated that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The greatest of days before Allaah is the Day of Sacrifice.” Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood.
2- It is the greatest day of Hajj.
It was narrated that Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) stood between the Jamaraat on the Day of Sacrifice during his Hajj and said, “This is the greatest day of Hajj.” Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1742. That is because the greatest actions of Hajj take place on this day, when the pilgrims do the following:
(i) Stoning Jamrat al-‘Aqabah
(ii) Offering the sacrifice
(iii) Shaving the head or cutting the hair
(iv) Tawaaf (circumambulation of the Ka’bah)
(v) Saa’i (running between al-Safa and al-Marwah)
3- It is the Eid day of the Muslims
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The day of ‘Arafah, the day of Sacrifice, and the days of al-Tashreeq are our festival, us Muslims, and they are days of eating and drinking.” Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 773; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi. And Allaah knows best.
Rabbana atinaa fidDunya hasanatan wa fil Akhirati hasanatan wa qinaa adhaban Naar