Register

If this is your first visit, please click the Sign Up now button to begin the process of creating your account so you can begin posting on our forums! The Sign Up process will only take up about a minute of two of your time.

Tafseer Class, Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Saturday 6:30pm GMT (7:30pm BST/GMT+1) skype: ummahradio Show Details here

Listen Online:www.ummahradio.com
DOWNLOAD THE APP

 

Ads by Muslim Ad Network

Results 1 to 17 of 17
  1. #1
    Muwahhid Abdullah al-Muhajir's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2004
    Posts
    6,035
    Rep Power
    17

    Tamerlane- the Greatest Emperor of All Time

    Tamerlane (1336 - 1405) - the Greatest Emperor of All Time

    Tamerlane, the name was derived from the Persian Timur-i lang, "Temur the Lame" by Europeans during the 16th century. His Turkic name is Timur, which means 'iron'. In his life time, he has conquered more than anyone else except for Alexander. His armies crossed Eurasia from Delhi to Moscow, from the Tien Shan Mountains of Central Asia to the Taurus Mountains in Anatolia. From 1370 till his death 1405, Temur built a powerful empire and became the last of great nomadic leaders.

    Character and Personality
    There are abundant ancient sources written about Tamerlane. We have the primary source from Spanish Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, sent by King Henry III of Castile on a return embassy to Tamerlane. There is also a Persian biography of Tamerlane by Ali Sharaf ad-Din and the Arab biography by Ahmad ibn Arabshah; from Marlowe to Edgar Allan Poe, he continues to fascinate us as hero or viper.

    Timur claimed direct descent from Jenghiz Khan through the house of Chagatai. He was born at Kesh (the Green city), about fifty miles south of Sarmarkand in 1336, a son of a lesser chief of the Barlas tribe. Sharaf ad-Din explained that he received arrow wounds in battle while stealing sheep in his twenties and left him lame in the right leg and with a stiff right arm for the rest of his life. But Tamerlane made light of these disabilities; by 1369 he had possessed himself of all the lands which had formed the heritage of Chagatai and, after being proclaimed sovereign at Balkh, made Samarkand his capital.

    He was said to be tall strongly built and well proportioned, with a large head and broad forehead. His complexion was pale and ruddy, his beard long and his voice full and resonant. Arabshah describes him approaching seventy, a master politician and military strategist:

    Steadfast in mind and robust in body, brave and fearless, firm as rock. He did not care for jesting or lying; wit and trifling pleased him not; truth, even were it painful, delighted him.....He loved bold and valiant soldiers, by whose aid he opend the locks of terror, tore men to pieces like lions, and overturned mountains. He was fautless in strategy, constant in fortune, firm of purpose and truthful in business.

    In 1941, the body of Tamerlane was permitted to be exhumed by a Russian scientist, M. M. Gerasimov. The scientist found Timur, after examining his skeleton, a Mongoloid man about 5 feet 8 inches. He also confirmed Tamerlane's lameness. In his book The Face Finder, Gerasimov explains how he was able to reconstruct exact likenesses of Timur from a careful consideration of his skull.

    Different sources indicate that Timur is a man with extraordinary intelligence - not only intuitive, but intellectual. Even though he did not know how to read or write, he spoke two or three languages including Persian and Turkic and liked to be read history at mealtimes. He had aesthetic appreciation in buildings and garden. It has been said that he loved art so much that he could not help stealing it! The Byzantine palace gates of the Ottoman capital of Brusa were carried off to Samarkand, where they were much admired by Clavijo. Ibn Khaldun, who met him outside Damascus in 1401 wrote:

    "This king Timur is one of the greatest and mightiest kings...he is hightly intelligent and very perspicacious, addicted to debate and argument about what he knows and also about what he does not know!"

    Known to be a chess player, he had invented a more elaborate form of the game, now called Tamerlane Chess, with twice the number of pieces on a board of a hundred and ten squares.

    Religion

    The question of Timur's religion beliefs has been a matter of controversy ever since he began his great conquests. His great respect and admiration of the house of the Prophet, the spurious genealogy on his tombstone taking his descent back to Ali, and the presense of Shiites in his army led some observers and scholars to call him a Shiite. However his official religious counselor was the Hanafite scholar Abd al Jabbar Khwarazmi. Timur's religious practices with their admixture of Turco-Mongolian shamanistic elements belonged to the Sufi tradition. Timur avowed himself the disciple of Sayyid Baraka, the holy man of the commercial city of Tirmidh. He also constructed one of his finest buildings at the tomb of Ahmad Yaassawi, who was doing most to spread Folk Islam among the nomads.

    In religion as in other aspects of his life Timur was above all an opportunist; his religion served frequently to further his aims, but almost never to curcumscribe his actions. It was in the justification of his rule and his conquests that Timur found Islam most useful.

    Empire and War Machine

    The same as Jenghiz Khan, Timur rose from a nomad ruler; however unlike Jenghiz Khan, he was the first one based his strength on the exploitation of settled populations and inherited a system of rule which could encompass both settled and nomad populations. Those who saw Timur's army described it as a huge conglomeration of different peoples - nomad and settled, Muslims and Christians, Turks, Tajiks, Arabs, Georgians and Indians. Timur's conquests were extraordinary not only for their extent and their success, but also for their ferocity and massacres. The war machine was composed of 'tumen', military units of a 10,000 in the conquered territories. It consisted of his family, loyal tribes particularly the Barlas and Jalayir tribes, recruited soldiers from nomadic population from as far as the Moghuls, Golden Horde and Anatolia, and finally Persian- speaking sedentarists.

    Timur and his army were never at rest and neither age nor increasing infirmity could halt his growing ambitions. In 1391 Timur's army fought and won in the great battle of Kanduzcha on June 18. Following his campaign in India, he acquired an elephant corps and took them back to Samarkand for building mosques and tombs. He led the attack and victory on the Ottoman army in the battle of Ankara on July 28 1402.

    With great interest in trade, Timur had a grand plan to reactivate the Silk Road, the central land route, and make it the monopoly link between Europe and China. Monopolization was to be achieved by war: primarily, against the Golden Horde, the master of principal rival, the northern land route; secondarily, against the states of western Persia and the Moghuls to the east in order to place the Silk Road under unified control politically; and finally agaist India, Egypt and China.

    Early in his career, he took the title or epithet 'Sahib Qiran' symbolized by three circlets forming a triangle. (See coin on the right with three rings forming Timur's symbol) It was an astrological term which meants 'Lord of the Fortunate Conjuncture'. It expressed his sense not just of balancing or juggling ruler, nomads and sedentarists, as his predecessors had done, but of integrating them into a dynamic institutional system.

    China and Death

    The first Ming ruler, the Hung-wu emperor (1368-1398), sent embassies to former Yuan (a part of Mongol kingdom) tributaries asking that the Ming be recongnized as the new overlords. One of these reached Samarkand in 1395 and was promptly imprisoned by Tamerlane who was already planning his campaign to control the Silk Road, restore the Yuan, equal Jenghiz Khan and surpass Alexander. The second Ming ruler, Yung-lo emperor (1402-1424), anticipated an invasion from Tamerlane and sent another embassy to Samarkand. He too was imprisoned. In 1405, Yung-lo emperor launched the first of his great naval expeditions to the west under the eunuch Cheng Ho. The primary purpose of these missions was to end China's isolation in the face of an attack from Tamerlane.

    Without taking the advice of his generals to remain in Samarkand until the spring, Timur and his army planned to advance northwards without delays, encamp at various points near the river Jaxartes and wait for the first sign of spring to strike towards China. They left Samarkand early in January on a day chosen by the astrologers as auspicious. Thus Tamerlane led an enormous army and departed on his last and most fantastic campaign to conquer China when he was close to seventy years old. He was too weak to walk and had to be carried in a litter. Toward the end of January, they reached Utrar. There Timur's health had suffered from the severity of the journey and he was seriously ill, On 17 or 18 February 1405, Tamerlane died. His body was carried back and buried at the Gur-i-Mir, Samarkand (see attached picture)

    Even though Tamerlane never successfully invaded Ming China, but this threat to do so had a profound impact there.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  2. #2
    Muwahhid Abdullah al-Muhajir's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2004
    Posts
    6,035
    Rep Power
    17
    Attached is a picture of Tamerlane's beautiful tomb.
    Attached Images Attached Images
    Please Re-update your Signature

  3. #3
    Muwahhid Abdullah al-Muhajir's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2004
    Posts
    6,035
    Rep Power
    17
    Also attached is a wonderful sculpture of the great emperor's face ...

    He was an ardent admirer of the Prophet and strived to radiate the light of Islam to all spheres of his huge empire, succeeding magnificently as all the countries under his magnonomous rule have kept their Muslim identity; his influence shines ever bright even today.
    Attached Images Attached Images
    Please Re-update your Signature

  4. #4
    Renegade Ali_Khan's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2003
    Posts
    11,082
    Rep Power
    23
    hmmm reading what u have wrote about him he doesnt sound like someone to admire.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  5. #5
    Muwahhid Abdullah al-Muhajir's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2004
    Posts
    6,035
    Rep Power
    17
    The thing which matters is, that he was a MAGNIFICENT Emperor, who spread the light of Islam to all spheres.

    Steadfast in mind and robust in body, brave and fearless, firm as rock. He did not care for jesting or lying; wit and trifling pleased him not; truth, even were it painful, delighted him.....He loved bold and valiant soldiers, by whose aid he opend the locks of terror, tore men to pieces like lions, and overturned mountains. He was fautless in strategy, constant in fortune, firm of purpose and truthful in business.

    This king Timur is one of the greatest and mightiest kings...he is hightly intelligent and very perspicacious, addicted to debate and argument about what he knows and also about what he does not know!
    Please Re-update your Signature

  6. #6
    The Forgotten Shadow Kaiser's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2002
    Posts
    6,453
    Rep Power
    19
    What was so magnificent about him, he spent most of the time waging war on other muslims, massacring populations of entire citys and so on.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  7. #7
    Muwahhid Abdullah al-Muhajir's Avatar
    Join Date
    Mar 2004
    Posts
    6,035
    Rep Power
    17
    I doubt he "massacred" Muslims.

    He managed to build up an empire so huge that it was smaller than only that of Alexander the Great.

    His presence is still there, every country under his rule has kept the Muslim identity.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  8. #8
    The Forgotten Shadow Kaiser's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2002
    Posts
    6,453
    Rep Power
    19
    Some things about him:
    "Timur's rule is brutal. In Persia frequent uprisings are put down with a severity similar to that of Genghis Khan. Populations of entire cities are massacred, and Timur develops an effective new form of memento mori. The skulls of the dead form the masonry for towers, firmly cemented together to stand as cautionary tales."

    "He marches on to Delhi and devastates the city. He then spends several months collecting treasure, which he carries home on 120 elephants."

    "In 1401, in Syria, Timur defeats a Mameluke army from Egypt. He then takes and destroys Damascus"

    "Later in the same year Baghdad is stormed and sacked, and 20,000 of its population massacred."

    "In 1402 the aged warrior advances into Anatolia. He defeats an army of Ottoman Turks near Ankara, capturing their sultan, Bayazid I (who dies in Timur's care)."
    Please Re-update your Signature

  9. #9
    The byron of irony Makki's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2004
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    5,039
    Rep Power
    30
    Originally posted by Xaxerian
    He managed to build up an empire so huge that it was smaller than only that of Alexander the Great.
    IN that case then wouldnt Alexander the "GREAT" be the"greatest" Emporer of all time???
    Quote Originally Posted by hypocrite
    Bidah! Shirk! Murtard! Kufr! Man i hate the kuffar so much, i hate this country. I care much more about my brothers and sisters in Islam than you, because i say i do. Thats why i live here, claim benefits and moan when my dole payment is late.

  10. #10
    Odan Details's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2002
    Posts
    3,820
    Rep Power
    0
    depends .. alexander 'the great' of history, or dhul qarnain of folklore.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  11. #11
    The Forgotten Shadow Kaiser's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2002
    Posts
    6,453
    Rep Power
    19
    Originally posted by Makki
    IN that case then wouldnt Alexander the "GREAT" be the"greatest" Emporer of all time???
    Alexander wasnt never an emperor, not to mention he wasnt able to rule hes own land, since he died in the course of the the conquests at the age of 33, besides conquering lots of lands doesnt make one emperor.
    The greatness of a leader isnt determined by how much he conquers, but rather how well he rules over the land that is in hes possesion.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  12. #12
    Senior Member Zaman's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2004
    Posts
    631
    Rep Power
    0
    He managed to build up an empire so huge that it was smaller than only that of Alexander the Great.
    Im sorry but...THIS IS A LIE.

    It was NOT Alexander the "Great" but Ghengis the "Greater" ! who had the largest Empire in Human History!

    The SIZE of Jhengaiz Khans Empire was FOUR TIMES THAT OF ALEXANDERS!!! 4 Times BIGGER!!

    so i dont understand these historians who say Alexander had the biggest??

    Also i would say Tamurs Empire was slightly bigger then that of Alexander!

    Considering at its peak...it was ALL of Central Asia, All of the Middle East (excluding Egypt and Arabia) and it also including parts of Mongolia/China along with N.India/Pakistan and Persia/Iran.

    If not bigger then it is at least equal to that of Alexanders (considering Alexander WAS DEFEATED in modern-day Pakistan (n.india) lol he was hit by a poisoned arrow and he ran back to persia :P, his men started to abandon him and grumble ).

    You would never find Ghengis Khan or Tamurlane running (historians call it a "withdrawl") like Alexander did - and you wouldent find them not having complete and utter control over their armies.

    Alexander is way over-rated in my honest opinion (dont get me wrong.. he was one of the Greatest conquers/generals and rulers in the history of mankind but he is still overrated.

    Look at these maps and make your own mind up!

    Alexanders Empire: http://kokshetau.online.kz/maps/raspad.gif

    impressive, right? ... and now...

    The Empire of Ghengis Khan! .... http://www.afghan-network.net/maps/mongol-empire.jpg

    http://www.bartleby.com/67/images/mongol02.gif

    "Alexander The Great" -

  13. #13
    The Forgotten Shadow Kaiser's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2002
    Posts
    6,453
    Rep Power
    19
    Even tho one should also consider what is under the territory of the empire, since land alone doesnt make the empire big, heck do you thing having 2/3 of the empire consist of barren steppes and desert, meaning its empty land that isnt of any use to anyone, rather you should count the size of the empire based on the population and also its prosperity.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  14. #14
    Odan
    Join Date
    Feb 2003
    Gender
    Girl Unspecified
    Posts
    3,132
    Rep Power
    15
    I would say the greatest empire was China, and they had the greatest emperors. They created an Empire that lasted for generations, and through several invasions and civil wars right up to the communist revolution.

    The ability to capture and destroy land is relatively easy when compared to establishing a long term governing system that lasts beyond the lifetime of a particular leader.
    Last edited by dour; 05-05-04 at 06:57 PM.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  15. #15
    Senior Member Zaman's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2004
    Posts
    631
    Rep Power
    0
    Originally posted by Kohr-Ah
    Even tho one should also consider what is under the territory of the empire, since land alone doesnt make the empire big, heck do you thing having 2/3 of the empire consist of barren steppes and desert, meaning its empty land that isnt of any use to anyone, rather you should count the size of the empire based on the population and also its prosperity.
    Lets go back to the quote i was refering to "He managed to build up an empire so huge..." -

    We were talking about size and land.

    You cant judge a empire by its population - because then India would probably be the "greatest" throughout the ages

    but we know they were invaded left, right and center.

    Now if there were barren deserts and steppes in the Empire of the Great Khan then you shouldent be suprised.

    The prosperous cities of which you speak were all put to the sword by Ghengis Khan.

    Besides Barren Deserts and Steppes may not be as useless as you think - just think for a second if the Mongols had held onto what they conquered throughout the ages (impossible though it is) today they would have around 80% of the worlds Oil. not so useless after all heh?

  16. #16
    Senior Member
    Join Date
    Jul 2002
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    522
    Rep Power
    13
    with respect the greatest emeror of all time was the messenger of Allah muhammad (saws).
    Please Re-update your Signature

  17. #17
    Senior Member Zaman's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2004
    Posts
    631
    Rep Power
    0
    Originally posted by mr epistemology
    with respect the greatest emeror of all time was the messenger of Allah muhammad (saws).
    and with respect the Prophet of Allah (swt) was not a Emperor, nor was he a King.


Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
All times are GMT. The time now is 02:09 AM.
Powered by vBulletin® Version 4.2.2
Copyright © 2014 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
Super PM System provided by vBSuper_PM (Lite) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2014 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.
vBulletin Skin By: PurevB.com

MPADC.com Islamic Web Hosting | Muslim Ad Network | Islamic Nasheeds | Islamic Mobile App Developement Android & iPhone
Omar Esa Nasheed Artist
| Omar Esa Nasheeds | Islamic Web Hosting : Muslim Designers : Nasheeds : Labbayk Nasheeds : silk route jilbab: Hijab: : Web Islamic Newsletter: Islamic Web Hosting

Hijabs Online | Hijabs | Hijab Shop | Hijab Shop | AlJazeera Live, MBC Live, Makkah Live : Treasure of The Scholars