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  1. #1
    GenN
    Guests

    Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Imam al-Tahawi's beliefs of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a
    MS Document with references
    Imam Abu Ja`far al-Tahawi (239-321) can be said to represent the creed of both Ash`aris and Maturidis, especially the latter, as he was also following the Hanafi madhhab. We have therefore chosen to include the entire translated text of his Statement of Islamic Doctrine commonly known as the `aqida tahawiyya. This text, representative of the viewpoint of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, has long been the most widely acclaimed, and indeed indispensable, reference work on Muslim beliefs, of which the text below is a complete English translation.

    Imam Abu Ja`far Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Azdi, known as Imam Tahawi after his birthplace in Egypt, is among the most outstanding authorities of the Islamic world on hadith and jurisprudence (fiqh). He lived at a time when both the direct and indirect disciples of the Four Imams of law were teaching and practicing. This period was the greatest age of Hadith and fiqh studies, and Imam Tahawi studied with all the living authorities of the day. Al-Badr al-`Ayni said that when Ahmad died, Tahawi was 12; when Bukhari died, he was 27; when Muslim died, he was 32; when Ibn Majah died, he was 44; when Abu Dawud died, he was 46; when Tirmidhi died, he was fifty; when Nisa'i died, he was 74. Kawthari relates this and adds the consensus of scholars that Tahawi allied in himself completion in the two knowledges of hadith and fiqh, a consensus that included, among others, al-`Ayni and al-Dhahabi, with Ibn Taymiyya singling himself out in his opinion that Tahawi was not very knowledgeable in hadith. This is flatly contradicted by Ibn Kathir who says in his notice on Tahawi in al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya: "He is one of the trustworthy narrators of established reliability, and one of the massive memorizers of hadith." Kawthari calls Ibn Taymiyya's verdict "another one of his random speculations" and states: "No-one disregards Tahawi's knowledge of the defective hadith except someone whose own defects have no remedy, and may Allah protect us from such."

    Tahawi began his studies with his maternal uncle Isma`il ibn Yahya al-Muzani, a leading disciple of Imam Shafi`i. However, Tahawi felt instinctively drawn to the corpus of Imam Abu Hanifa's works. Indeed, he had seen his uncle and teacher turning to the works of Hanafi scholars to resolve thorny issues of fiqh, drawing heavily on the writings of Abu Hanifa's two leading companions, Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani and Abu Yusuf, who had codified Hanafi fiqh. This led him to devote his whole attention to studying the Hanafi works and he eventually joined the Hanafi school. He now stands out not only as a prominent follower of that Hanafi school but, in view of his vast erudition and remarkable powers of assimilation, as one of its leading scholars. His monumental scholarly works, such as Sharh ma`ani al-athar and Mushkil al-athar, are encyclopedic in scope and have long been regarded as indispensable for training students of fiqh. He was in fact a mujtahid across the board and was thoroughly familiar with the fiqh of all four schools, as stated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr and related by Kawthari, and as shown by Tahawi's own work on comparative law entitled Ikhtilaf al-fuqaha'.

    Tahawi's "Doctrine" (al-`Aqida), though small in size, is a basic text for all times, listing what a Muslim must know and believe and inwardly comprehend. There is consensus among the Companions, the Successors and all the leading Islamic authorities such as the four Imams and their authoritative followers on the doctrines enumerated in this work, which are entirely derived from the undisputed primary sources of Religion, the Holy Qur'an and the confirmed Hadith. Being a text on Islamic doctrine, this work sums up the arguments set forth in those two sources to define sound belief, and likewise, the arguments advanced in refuting the views of sects that have deviated from the Sunna.

    As regards the sects mentioned in this work, familiarity with Islamic history up to the time of Imam Tahawi would be quite helpful. More or less veiled references to sects such as the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Karramiyya, the Qadariyya, and the Jabariyya are found in the work. It also contains allusions to other views considered unorthodox and deviant from the way of Ahl al-Sunna. There is an explicit reference in the work to the controversy on the creation of the Qu'ran in the times of al-Ma'mun and others.

    While the permanent relevance of the statements of belief in the `Aqida are obvious, the historical weight and point of certain of these statements can be properly appreciated only if the work is used as a text for study under the guidance of some learned person able to elucidate its arguments fully, with reference to the intellectual and historical background of the sects refuted in the work. Since the present book is intended exactly as one such aid towards understanding the details of Islamic belief with clarity, it is hoped that the quotation of the entire text of Tahawi's "Doctrine," which we consider as the doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, will be of benefit to the reader. And may Allah grant us a true understanding of faith and count us among those described by the Prophet as the Saved Group.

    TAHAWI'S STATEMENT OF ISLAMIC DOCTRINE (AL-`AQIDA AL-TAHAWIYYA)
    In the Name of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate Praise be to Allah, Lord of all the worlds.

    The great scholar Hujjat al-lslam Abu Ja'far al-Warraq al-Tahawi al-Misri, may Allah have mercy on him, said: This is a presentation of the beliefs of Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a, according to the school of the jurists of this religion, Abu Hanifa al-Nu`man ibn Thabit al-Kufi, Abu Yusuf Ya`qub ibn Ibrahim al-Ansari and Abu `Abdullah Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Shaybani, may Allah be pleased with them all, and what they believe regarding the fundamentals of the religion and their faith in the Lord of the worlds.

    We say about Allah's unity, believing by Allah's help that:

    1. Allah is One, without any partners.

    2. There is nothing like Him.

    3. There is nothing that can overwhelm Him.

    4. There is no god other than Him.

    5. He is the Eternal without a beginning and enduring without end.

    6. He will never perish or come to an end.

    7. Nothing happens except what He wills.

    8. No imagination can conceive of Him and no understanding can comprehend Him.

    9. He is different from any created being.

    10. He is living and never dies and is eternally active and never sleeps.

    11. He creates without His being in need to do so and provides for His creation without any effort.

    12. He causes death with no fear and restores to life without difficulty.

    13. He has always existed together with His attributes since before creation. Bringing creation into existence did not add anything to His attributes that was not already there. As He was, together with His attributes, in pre-eternity, so He will remain throughout endless time.

    14. It was not only after the act of creation that He could be described as "the Creator" nor was it only by the act of origination that He could he described as "the Originator."

    15. He was always the Lord even when there was nothing to be Lord of, and always the Creator even when there was no creation.

    16. In the same way that He is the "Bringer to life of the dead," after He has brought them to life a first time, and deserves this name before bringing them to life, so too He deserves the name of "Creator" before He has created them.

    17. This is because He has the power to do everything, everything is dependent on Him, everything is easy for Him, and He does not need anything. "There is nothing like Him and He is the Hearer, the Seer." (al-Shura 42:11)

    18. He created creation with His knowledge.

    19. He appointed destinies for those He created.

    20. He allotted to them fixed life spans.

    21. Nothing about them was hidden from Him before He created them, and He knew everything that they would do before He created them.

    22. He ordered them to obey Him and forbade them to disobey Him.

    23. Everything happens according to His degree and will, and His will is accomplished. The only will that people have is what He wills for them. What He wills for them occurs and what He does not will, does not occur.

    24. He gives guidance to whomever He wills, and protects them, and keeps them safe from harm, out of His generosity; and He leads astray whomever He wills, and abases them, and afflicts them, out of His justice.

    25. All of them are subject to His will either through His generosity or His justice.

    26. He is Exalted beyond having opposites or equals.

    27. No one can ward off His decree or delay His command or overpower His affairs.

    28. We believe in all of this and are certain that everything comes from Him.

    29. And we are certain that Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) is His chosen Servant and elect Prophet and His Messenger with whom He is well pleased,

    30. And that he is the Seal of the Prophets and the Imam of the godfearing and the most honored of all the messengers and the Beloved of the Lord of all the worlds.

    31. Every claim to prophethood after Him is falsehood and deceit.

    32. He is the one who has been sent to all the jinn and all mankind with truth and guidance and with light and illumination.

    33. The Qur'an is the word of Allah. It came from Him as speech without it being possible to say how. He sent it down on His Messenger as revelation. The believers accept it, as absolute truth. They are certain that it is, in truth, the word of Allah. It is not created as is the speech of human beings, and anyone who hears it and claims that it is human speech has become an unbeliever. Allah warns him and censures him and threatens him with Fire when He says, Exalted is He: "I will burn him in the Fire." (al-Muddaththir 74:26) When Allah threatens with the Fire those who say "This is just human speech" (74:25) we know for certain that it is the speech of the Creator of mankind and that it is totally unlike the speech of mankind.

    34. Anyone who describes Allah as being in any way the same as a human being has become an unbeliever. All those who grasp this will take heed and refrain from saying things such as the unbelievers say, and they will know that He, in His attributes, is not like human beings.

    35. The Seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is true, without their vision being all-encompassing and without the manner of their vision being known. As the Book of our Lord has expressed it: "Faces on that Day radiant, looking at their Lord." (al-Qiyama 75:22-3) The explanation of this is as Allah knows and wills. Everything that has come down to us about this from the Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, in authentic traditions, is as he said and means what he intended. We do not delve into that, trying to interpret it according to our own opinions or letting our imaginations have free rein.

    No one is safe in his religion unless he surrenders himself completely to Allah, the Exalted and Glorified and to His Messenger, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and leaves the knowledge of things that are ambiguous to the one who knows them.

    36. A man's Islam is not secure unless it is based on submission and surrender. Anyone who desires to know things which it is beyond his capacity to know, and whose intellect is not content with surrender, will find that his desire veils him from a pure understanding of Allah's true unity, clear knowledge and correct belief, and that he veers between disbelief and belief, confirmation and denial and acceptance and rejection. He will he subject to whisperings and find himself confused and full of doubt, being neither an accepting believer nor a denying rejector.

    37. Belief of a man in the seeing of Allah by the People of the Garden is not correct if he imagines what it is like or interprets it according to his own understanding, since the interpretation of this seeing or indeed, the meaning of any of the subtle phenomena which are in the realm of Lordship, is by avoiding its interpretation and strictly adhering to the submission.

    This is the religion of Muslims. Anyone who does not guard himself against negating the attributes of Allah, or likening Allah to something else, has gone astray and has failed to understand Allah's glory, because our Lord, the Glorified and the Exalted, can only possibly be described in terms of oneness and absolute singularity and no creation is in any way like Him.

    38. He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created things are.

    39. Al-Mi`raj (the Ascent through the heavens) is true. The Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, was taken by night and ascended in his bodily form, while awake, through the heavens, to whatever heights Allah willed for him.

    Allah ennobled him in the way that He ennobled him and revealed to him what He revealed to him, "and his heart was not mistaken about what it saw" (al-Najm 53:11). Allah blessed him and granted him peace in this world and the next.

    40. Al-Hawd, the Pool which Allah has granted the Prophet as an honour to quench the thirst of his Community on the Day of Judgement, is true.

    41. Al-Shafa`a, the intercession which is stored up for Muslims, is true, as related in the hadiths.

    42. The covenant which Allah made with Adam and his offspring is true.

    43. Allah knew, before the existence of time, the exact number of those who would enter the Garden and the exact number of those who would enter the Fire. This number will neither be increased nor decreased.

    44. The same applies to all actions done by people, which are done exactly as Allah knew they would be done. Everyone is eased towards what he was created for and it is the action with which a man's life is sealed which dictates his fate. Those who are fortunate are fortunate by the decree of Allah, and those who are wretched are wretched by the decree of Allah.

    45. The exact nature of the decree is Allah's secret in His creation, and no angel near the Throne, nor Prophet sent with a message, has been given knowledge of it. Delving into it and reflecting too much about it only leads to destruction and loss, and results in rebelliousness. So be extremely careful about thinking and reflecting on this matter or letting doubts about it assail you, because Allah has kept knowledge of the decree away from human beings, and forbidden them to enquire about it, saying in His Book, "He is not asked about what He does, but they are asked" (al-Anbiya' 21: 23).

    Therefore, anyone who asks: "Why did Allah do that?" has gone against a judgement of the Book, and anyone who goes against a judgement of the Book is an unbeliever.

    46. This in sum is what those of Allah's Friends with enlightened hearts need to know and constitutes the degree of those firmly endowed with knowledge. For there are two kinds of knowledge: knowledge which is accessible to created beings, and knowledge which is not accessible to created beings. Denying the knowledge which is accessible is disbelief, and claiming the knowledge which is inaccessible is disbelief. Belief can only be firm when accessible knowledge is accepted and the inaccessible is not sought after.

    47. We believe in al-Lawh (the Tablet) and al-Qalam (the Pen) and in everything written on the former. Even if all created beings were to gather together to make something fail to exist, whose existence Allah had written on the Tablet, they would not be able to do so. And if all created beings were to gather together to make something exist which Allah had not written on it, they would not be able to do so. The Pen has dried having written down all that will be in existence until the Day of Judgement.Whatever a person has missed he would have never got, and whatever he gets he would have never missed.

    48. It is necessary for the servant to know that Allah already knows everything that is going to happen in His creation and has decreed it in a detailed and decisive way. There is nothing that He has created in either the heavens or the earth that can contradict it, or add to it, or erase it, or change it, or decrease it, or increase it in any way. This is a fundamental aspect of belief and a necessary element of all knowledge and recognition of Allah's oneness and Lordship. As Allah says in His Book: "He created everything and decreed it in a detailed way." (al-Furqan 25: 2) And He also says: "Allah's command is always a decided decree." (al-Ahzab 33: 38) So woe to anyone who argues with Allah concerning the decree and who, with a sick heart, starts delving into this matter. In his deluded attempt to investigate the Unseen, he is seeking a secret that can never be uncovered, and he ends up an evil-doer, telling nothing but lies.

    49. Al-`Arsh (the Throne) and al-Kursi (the Chair) are true.

    50. He is independent of the Throne and that which is beneath it.

    51. He encompasses all things and that which is above it, and what He has created is incapable of encompassing Him.

    52. We say with belief, acceptance and submission that Allah took Ibrahim as an intimate friend and that He spoke directly to Musa.

    53. We believe in the angels, and the Prophets, and the books which were revealed to the messengers, and we bear witness that they were all following the manifest Truth.

    54. We call the people of our qibla Muslims and believers as long as they acknowledge what the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, brought, and accept as true everything that he said and told us about.

    55. We do not enter into vain talk about Allah nor do we allow any dispute about the religion of Allah.

    56. We do not argue about the Qur'an and we bear witness that it is the speech of the Lord of all the Worlds which the Trustworthy Spirit came down with and taught the most honoured of all the Messengers, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. It is the speech of Allah and no speech of any created being is comparable to it. We do not say that it was created and we do not go against the Congregation (jama`a) of the Muslims regarding it.

    57. We do not consider any of the people of our qibla to be unbelievers because of any wrong action they have done, as long as they do not consider that action to have been lawful.

    58. Nor do we say that the wrong action of a man who has belief does not have a harmful effect on him.

    59. We hope that Allah will pardon the people of right action among the believers and grant them entrance into the Garden through His mercy, but we cannot be certain of this, and we cannot bear witness that it will definitely happen and that they will be in the Garden. We ask forgiveness for the people of wrong action among the believers and, although we are afraid for them, we are not in despair about them.

    60. Certainty and despair both remove one from the religion, but the path of truth for the People of the Qibla lies between the two.

    61. A person does not step out or belief except by disavowing what brought him into it.

    62. Belief consists of affirmation by the tongue and acceptance by the heart.

    63. And the whole of what is proven from the Prophet, upon him be peace, regarding the Shari`a and the explanation (of the Qur'an and of Islam) is true.

    64. Belief is, at base, the same for everyone, but the superiority of some over others in it is due to their fear and awareness of Allah, their opposition to their desires, and their choosing what is more pleasing to Allah.

    65. All the believers are Friends of Allah and the noblest of them in the sight of Allah are those who are the most obedient and who most closely follow the Qur'an.

    66. Belief consists of belief in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, the Last Day, and belief that the Decree -- both the good of it and the evil of it, the sweet of it and the bitter or it -- is all from Allah.

    67. We believe in all these things. We do not make any distinction between any of the messengers, we accept as true what all of them brought.

    68. Those of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who have committed grave sins will be in the Fire, but not forever, provided they die and meet Allah as believers affirming His unity even if they have not repented. They are subject to His will and judgement.

    If He wants, He will forgive them and pardon them out of His generosity, as is mentioned in the Qur'an when He says: "And He forgives anything less than that (shirk) to whomever He wills" (al-Nisa' 4: 116); if He wants, He will punish them in the Fire out of His justice, and then bring them out of the Fire through His mercy, and for the intercession of those who were obedient to Him, and send them to the Garden.

    This is because Allah is the Protector of those who recognize Him and will not treat them in the hereafter in the same way as He treats those who deny Him, who are bereft of His guidance and have failed to obtain His protection. O Allah, You are the Protector of Islam and its people; make us firm in Islam until the day we meet You.

    69. We agree with doing the prayer behind any of the People of the Qibla whether rightful or wrongful, and doing the funeral prayer over any of them when they die.

    70. We do not say that any of them will categorically go to either the Garden or the Fire, and we do not accuse any of them of kufr (disbelief), shirk (associating partners with Allah), or nifaq (hypocrisy), as long as they have not openly demonstrated any of those things. We leave their secrets to Allah.

    71. We do not agree with killing any of the Community of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, unless it is obligatory by Shari`a to do so.

    72. We do not accept rebellion against our Imam or those in charge of our affairs even if they are unjust, nor do we wish evil on them, nor do we withdraw from following them. We hold that obedience to them is part of obedience to Allah, the Glorified, and therefore obligatory as long as they do not order to commit sins. We pray for their right guidance and ask for pardon for their wrongs.

    73. We follow the Sunna of the Prophet and the Congregation of the Muslims, and avoid deviation, differences and divisions.

    74. We love the people of justice and trustworthiness, and hate the people of injustice and treachery.

    75. When our knowledge about something is unclear, we say: "Allah knows best."

    76. We agree with wiping over leather socks (in ablution) whether on a journey or otherwise, just as has come in the hadiths.

    77. Hajj and jihad under the leadership of those in charge of the Muslims, whether they are right or wrong-acting, are continuing obligations until the Last Hour comes. Nothing can annul or controvert them.

    78. We believe in the the noble angels who write down our actions, for Allah has appointed them over us as two guardians.

    79. We believe in the Angel of Death who is in charge of taking the spirits of all the worlds.

    80. We believe in the punishment in the grave for those who deserve it, and in the questioning in the grave by Munkar and Nakir about one's Lord, one's religion and one's prophet, as has come down in the hadiths from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and in reports from the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them all.

    81. The grave is either one of the meadows of the Garden or one of the pits of the Fire.

    82. We believe in being brought back to life after death and in being recompensed for our actions on the Day of Judgement, and the exhibition of works, and the reckoning, and the reading of the book, and the reward or punishments, and the Bridge, and the Balance.

    83. The Garden and the Fire are created things that never come to an end and we believe that Allah created them before the rest of creation and then created people to inhabit each of them. Whoever He wills goes to the Garden out of His bounty and whoever He wills goes to the Fire through His justice. Everybody acts in accordance with what is destined for him and goes towards what he has been created for.

    84. Good and evil have both been decreed for people.

    85. The capability in terms of divine grace and favor which makes an action certain to occur cannot be ascribed to a created being. This capability is integral with action, whereas the capability of an action in terms of having the necessary health and ability, being in a position to act, and having the necessary means, exists in a person before the action. It is this type of capability which is the object of the dictates of the Shari`a. Allah the Exalted says: "Allah does not charge a person except according to his ability." (al-Baqara 2: 286)

    86. People's actions are created by Allah but earned by people .

    87. Allah, the Exalted, has only charged people with what they are able to do and people are only capable of doing what Allah has granted them to do. This is the explanation of the phrase: "There is no power and no strength except by Allah." We add to this that there is no stratagem or way by which anyone can avoid or escape disobedience to Allah except with Allah's help; nor does anyone have the strength to put obedience to Allah into practice and remain firm in it, except if Allah makes it possible for him to do so.

    88. Everything happens according to Allah's will, knowledge, predestination and decree. His will overpowers all other wills and His decree overpowers all stratagems. He does whatever He wills and He is never unjust. He is exalted in His purity above any evil or perdition and He is perfect far beyond any fault or flaw. "He will not be asked about what He does, but they will be asked." (al-Anbiya' 21: 23)

    89. There is benefit for dead people in the supplication and alms-giving of the living.

    90. Allah responds to people's supplications and gives them what they ask for.

    91. Allah has absolute control over everything and nothing has any control over Him. Nothing can be independent of Allah even for the blinking of an eye, and whoever considers himself independent of Allah for the blinking of an eye is guilty of unbelief and becomes one of the people of perdition.

    92. Allah is angered and He is pleased but not in the same way as any creature.

    93. We love the Companions of the Messenger of Allah but we do not go to excess in our love for any one individual among them; nor do we disown any one of them. We hate anyone who hates them or does not speak well of them and we only speak well of them. Love of them is a part of Islam, part of belief and part of excellent behavior, while hatred of them is unbelief, hypocrisy and rebellion.

    94. We confirm that, after the death of Allah's Messenger, peace be upon him, the caliphate went first to Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, thus proving his excellence and superiority over the rest of the Muslims; then to `Umar ibn al-Khattab; then to `Uthman; and then to `Ali ibn Abi Talib; may Allah be well pleased with all of them. These are the Rightly-Guided Caliphs and upright leaders.

    95. We bear witness that the ten who were named by the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and who were promised the Garden by him, will be in the Garden, as the Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, whose word is truth, bore witness that they would be. The ten are: Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Uthman, `Ali, Talha, Zubayr, Sa`d, Sa`id, `Abd al-Rahman ibn `Awf, and Abu `Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah whose title was the Trustee of this Community, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

    96. Anyone who speaks well of the Companions of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and his wives and offspring, who are all pure and untainted by any impurity, is free from the accusation of hypocrisy.

    97. The learned men of the Predecessors, both the first community and those who immediately followed: the people of virtue, the narrators of hadith, the jurists, and the analysts-- they must only be spoken of in the best way, and anyone who says anything bad about them is not on the right path.

    98. We do not prefer any of the saintly men among the Community over any of the Prophets but rather we say that any one of the Prophets is better than all the awliya' put together.

    99. We believe in what we know of the karamat or marvels of the awliya' and in the authentic stories about them from trustworthy sources.

    100. We believe in the signs of the Hour such as the appearance of the Antichrist (dajjal) and the descent of `Isa ibn Maryam, peace be upon him, from heaven, and we believe in the rising of the sun from where it sets and in the emergence of the Beast from the earth.

    101. We do not accept as true what soothsayers and fortune-tellers say, nor do we accept the claims of those who affirm anything which goes against the Book, the Sunna, and the consensus of the Muslim Community (umma).

    102. We agree that holding together is the true and right path and that separation is deviation and torment.

    103. There is only one religion of Allah in the heavens and the earth and that is the religion of Islam ("submission"). Allah says: "Surely religion in the sight of Allah is Islam." (Al `Imran 3: 19) And He also says: "I am pleased with Islam as a religion for you." (al-Ma'ida 5: 3)

    104. Islam lies between going to excess and falling short, between the likening of Allah's attributes to creation (tashbih) and divesting Allah of attributes (ta`til), between determinism and freewill, and between sureness and despair.

    105. This is our religion and it is what we believe in, both inwardly and outwardly, and we renounce any connection, before Allah, with anyone who goes against what we have said and made clear.

    We ask Allah to make us firm in our belief and seal our lives with it and to protect us from variant ideas, scattering opinions and evil schools of view such as those of the Mushabbiha, the Mu`tazila, the Jahmiyya, the Jabriyya, the Qadariyya, and others like them who go against the Sunna and Jama`a and have allied themselves with error. We renounce any connection with them and in our opinion they are in error and on the path of destruction. We ask Allah to protect us from all falsehood and we ask His Grace and Favour to do all good.

  2. #2
    GenN
    Guests
    For a bit more in depth explanation of most of them points goto

    http://webpages.marshall.edu/~laher1/

    These are the lesson contents

    Lesson 1 - Introduction, Motivations
    Lesson 2 - Existence of Allah
    Lesson 3 - Attributes of Allah (I) - Introduction
    Lesson 4 - Attributes of Allah (II)
    Lesson 5 - Attributes of Allah (III)
    Lesson 6 - Angels
    Lesson 7 - Jinn
    Lesson 8 - The Books
    Lesson 9 - The Vision, The Allegorical Texts (I)
    Lesson 10 - The Allegorical Texts (II)
    Lesson 11 - The Messengers (I)
    Lesson 12 - The Messengers (II)
    Lesson 13 - Miracles
    Lesson 14 - The Awliya'
    Lesson 15 - Death and the Grave
    Lesson 16 - Signs of Judgement Day
    Lesson 17 - The Last Day (I) - The Resurrection and Gathering
    Lesson 18 - The Last Day (II) - The Questioning and Reckoning
    Lesson 19 - The Last Day (III) - The Balance, the Path, Intercession, Heaven and Hell
    Lesson 20 - Destiny
    Lesson 21 - Islam and Iman (I)
    Lesson 22 - Islam and Iman (II)
    Lesson 23 - Islam and Iman (III)
    Lesson 24 - Kufr
    Lesson 25 - Jihad
    Lesson 26 - Islamic Politics
    Lesson 27 - Scholars and Knowledge
    Lesson 28 - The Sahabah
    Lesson 29 - Sects (I) - Classical
    Lesson 30 - Sects (II) - Modern
    Lesson 31 - Sects (III) - Modern; plus Groups/Movements

  3. #3
    GenN
    Guests
    Here is an example, lesson 25

    The Islamic Doctrine - Tahawi's Aqidah

    Lesson 25

    Jihad

    "Hajj and jihad continue, with the authorities of the Muslims, the pious of them as well as the sinners, until the establishment of the Hour [of Judgement]. Nothing invalidates them or abolishes them." [77]

    "Good is tied to the forelocks of horses until the Day of Resurrection - the reward and the booty" [Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi(hs), Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Darimi]

    Definition of Jihad

    Lexically: Jihad is the exertion of one's utmost effort in order to attain a goal or to repel something detestable.

    "The mujahid is the one who strives against his self." [Ibn Hibban]

    In the shari`ah: Jihad comprises exertion of one's utmost effort to fight in order to raise the word of Allah, and aiding in this fighting.

    "Perform jihad against the pagans with your wealth, your selves and your tongues." [Abu Dawud]

    Jihad is generally performed by : adult, male, sane, free Muslim men who are capable.

    It is performed against : disbelievers, rebels, brigands.

    Motivations for Jihad

    1. Removing the barriers from the spread of truth

    "And fight them until there is no more fitnah, and religion is all for Allah." Q[8:39]

    2. Fear of the Fire

    "Unless you go forth, He will punish you with a severe punishment, and will replace you with another people, and you will not harm Him at all, and Allah has power over all things." Q[10:39]

    Severe punishment : occupation of the enemy in the world , fire of Hell in the Hereafter.

    3. Shielding the ummah from disgrace

    "When you trade in `inah, take hold of the tails of cows, become contented with agriculture, and abandon jihad, Allah will establish over you a disgrace which He will not remove until you return to your religion." [Abu Dawud, Ahmad]

    "A time will come when the nations (of the world) will surround you from every side, just as diners gather around the main dish. Somebody asked: 'Oh Messenger of Allah, will we be because we are few at that time?' He said: 'No, you will be many at that time, but you will be scum, like the scum of flood water, which will remove [your] dignity from the hearts of your enemy, and will place feebleness in your hearts . . . . love for life, and abhorrence of death." [Ahmad, Abu Dawud]

    4. Responding to the Call of Allah

    "Go forth, light and heavy, and strive with your wealth and selves in the Path of Allah; that is better for you, if only you knew." Q[10:41]

    5. Removing oppression and injustice

    "What is the matter with you, that you do not fight in the Path of Allah, and (in the path of) the weak and oppressed from among the men, women and children who are saying, 'Oh our Lord! Take us out of this locality, whose people are oppressors, and give us from You a supporter, and give us from You a helper!" Q[4: 75]

    6. Establishing justice, well-being and prosperity

    "Had it not been for Allah's countering some people by means of others, the earth would surely have become decadent." Q[2:251]

    Establishing a solid base for the khilafah.

    7. Hoping for Martyrdom

    "The martyr has 7 special favors from Allah:

    He is forgiven with the first spurt of his blood, He sees his place in Heaven, He is clothed with the garment of Faith, He is wed with 72 wives from the beautiful houris of Heaven, He is saved from the punishment of the grave, He is protected from the Great Fear, On his head is placed a crown of dignity, the sapphire of which is better than the world and all it contains, and He is granted intercession for seventy people of his household." [Ahmad]

    The reward of martyrdom is higher than that of victory.



    When Jihad is Performed

    Combat of Quest : communally obligatory, at least once a year. The caliph invites rulers of neighboring nations to accept Islam, or to enter into the Islamic social order. If they resist, (and prevent their people from receiving the message of Islam), jihad is performed to remove this corrupt authority, but forcible conversion of the population is not undertaken.

    Counteractive Combat : becomes immediately obligatory when the enemy attacks, or advances towards the Muslims.

    Qurtubi says, and there is Ijma` (consensus) regarding this, that:

    "When jihad becomes individually obligatory because of the domination of the enemy over a piece of land, or by their occupation of a part of the Islamic frontier, then it at that stage it is obligatory on all the inhabitants of that land to go forth, to go out light and heavy, young and old, each according to his/her capability, those with fathers without their fathers' permission, and also those without fathers. None should linger behind from going out either to fight or to increase numbers, even if the inhabitants of that area are weak, until they know that they have amongst them the capability to stand against the enemy and repel them. In the same way, it is also compulsory for everybody who knows of their weakness against their enemy, and knows that he could join them and help, to go out, for the Muslims are all a single hand against the enemy. This is the status of jihad until the inhabitants of the area have managed to repel the enemy that descended upon the land and occupied it, at which point the obligation is waived from the others."

    Some Rules of Jihad

    Intention :

    "Whoever fights in order that the word of Allah should be highest, he is in the Path of Allah." [Muslim, Abu Dawud, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, Ahmad]

    - People must be invited to Islam before they can be fought.

    Obedience to the Imam

    Avoiding misappropriation (ghulul) of booty

    Respecting pledges of protection

    Endurance under attack :

    "O people! Do not wish for an encounter with the enemy, and ask Allah for well-being, but when you encounter them be steadfast." [Bukhari, Muslim]

    Avoidance of corruption

    - It is not permissible to kill non-combatants (including women, children, old men and monks) unless they are conspirators.

    "And fight, in the path of Allah, those who fight you, and do not transgress limits." Q[2:190]

    - It is not permissible to destroy property, kill animals, cut down trees or burn dwellings, except in cases of necessity, in which case these things may be done to the extent necessary to remove the barriers to da`wah.

    "And when he is in power, he strives to cause wholesale corruption in the land, and to destroy crops and annihilate generations. And Allah does not love corruption." Q[2:205]

    - It is not permissible to plunder, nor to mutilate those killed.

    "The Messenger of Allah forbade plundering and mutilation." [Bukhari]

    - It is not permissible to continue fighting after the opposition has surrendered.

    "And if they incline towards peace then incline (you also) towards it." Q[8:61]

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    Ooooops, nm.

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    al-Maliki al-Madani muawiyah's Avatar
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    Mashallah Jazakmullahu Alfaa khaira, this is the aqeedah of Ahlus sunnah wal Jamah, the Aqeedatul Tahawiyyah, is the one the doctrines the bearers of whomconstitute those who are on board the ship of salvation. May Allah bless and reward you dear brother GenN and all the maturidis who adopt this tahawi aqeeda
    Please Re-update your Signature

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    question:

    if this is the same as that found in authentic ahadith, Quran, etc. then why change its name to that of the compiler?

    is there any amount of ego worship involved in this?

    does this still cause divisions anyway, even though we might all agree on the message?

    if we can find these words in the Quran, ahadith, etc. then what would be more beneficial for us to turn to, this man, or the sources?

    regards,

    abu najm

  14. #14
    GenN
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    Abu Najm

    is there any amount of ego worship involved in this?
    Akhi, firstly theirs NO ego worship involved at all.

    if this is the same as that found in authentic ahadith, Quran, etc. then why change its name to that of the compiler?
    just like the followers of the madhab of imam Shafi, Mailik, and Ibn Hanbal and Abu Hanifa are called Shafi's, malikis, hanbalis, and hanafis, becasue they were the founders of their schools and Usuls so it is attributed to them, in the same way Imam Tahawiy took all that was clear in the quran and sunnah and put it together to form his Aqeedah which was in line with the aqeedah of the thesalaf. Hence this works that has been put together was attributed to Imam Tahawiy by saying the Aqeedah of tahawiy but just like the madhabs it is accepted by All the ahle sunnah.

    There were a few scholars that differd on a few points from this aqeedah but that was very few and in the minor details as far as i'm aware.

    if we can find these words in the Quran, ahadith, etc. then what would be more beneficial for us to turn to, this man, or the sources?
    As for turning towards the Quran and sunnah, then yes turn towards them. But have you since you converted Akhi been through the whole quran? Have you managed to get to that level of arabic so that you can tell the clear verses from the unclear? Thats just a coupla of conditions i mentioned. In the mean time it's nice to know that we already have our fundamentals spelled out for us like abc. It's also nice to know that we are part of the majority of the Ummah by agreeing to everything that is in this aqeedah, as this is what was adopted by the majority of the ummah and there are many hadith talking about sticking with the majority of the ummah. Also if anyone is to ask you what is your Aqeedah instead of having to mention through every point or find a copy written down simply mention my aqeedah is the same as Imam at tahwiy which is in line with the aqeedah of the salaf which is established upon the clear verses of quran and sunnah and for knowledge of all of these points in my aqeedah simply refer to aqeedah at-tawiyah.

    These are just some of the benefits. A bit of thought applied here i'm sure you can find more.

    To find the actual quote of quran and sunnah simply refer to the lessons link i have given above. The lessons are brief but very good and you will get the direct source evidence also.

    does this still cause divisions anyway, even though we might all agree on the message?
    And as for the case of causing mass difference then not really. Name me someone who rejects Aqeedah at tahwiyah (beside shia, qadinai and the likes) and so what even if there are a few? We need to stick to the majority and the majority always agreed to this aqeedah.

    As for differences in the branches and the minor points then this is a different issue.

    Akhi refer to works of any classical scholars from the time of Imam Tahawi up until today and you will find the majority of the schoalrs to have agreed with this Aqeedah. Consenuse of the ummah is enough.

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    GenN,

    of course their isnt literal ego worship- dont be such a wahhabi! LOL.

    no, seriously, madhabism is something that has been accepted by the ijma, but it seems that you and others want to add to this Maturdi, or Tahwiy, and far as I know, thats just not possible.

    if it is inline already with what is proclaimed by the 4 madhabs, whats the use in making it separate in terminology?

    before i might have rejected aqeedah at tahwiy only because it is not referred to in terms of the madhabs in popular Muslim literature, so my rejection of it would have been only in so far as my ignorance of it. but that doesnt make me a shia, etc.

    it seems the more that the fields, madhabs, variously labeled aqeedahs, are expanded the harder it makes it for one to fall within a single group. is Islam only for those who can swim through the various scholarships of the past and present? do we only comprehend Islam when we know of the various terminolgoies and sheikhs? of course not.

    yes, i reverted, and it took me a while to get through the whole of the Quran in Arabic, and to understand the clear and unclear texts, but i didnt do so with the guiding hand of an Imam, or the well defined vision of one of the madhabs. given those who tend to agree with my posts, and who they are, and the various people i have met, born muslim, who also have benefitted from my views and what little i do understand of Quran and sunnah, i have grown to suspect that my very personal search for the truth, in the sources of Quran and sunnah, has led me to where i needed to be, where it was willed for me to be. i have a lot to learn no doubt, but i didnt get to where i am at from being spoon fed from a particular persons' sense of aqeedah, or madhab, or opinion.

    maybe thats not the route for everyone to go, i dont know, i only know that we are admonished by the Quran and sunnah, to look to the sources, and to turn to them in our disputes and questions, and that this is belief. it seems that the necessity for the various aqeedahs, madhabs, etc. only arose out of confusion and refutation, and a need to separate the believers from the innovators and hypocrites, but today these various aqeedahs, madhabs, etc. are serving as a division between believers themselves and this is something that i am sure that was not an intention of the founders.

    i prefer only to look at classical scholars from Tahawis time til now only when i find it necessary to refute a person following another scholar. however, when i am professing my faith, giving dawah, discussing issues with my brothers and sisters, i prefer to reach into the Quran and sunnah directly for topics, and this is what i look to ummah.com for, not an expose of this or that scholar, but what everyone is out there doing, practicing, and thinking about. this more accurately reflects who we are, and where we are going, and that is what brings me here.

    the exposes of scholars etc. are just distractions to me, and ways for us to avoid saying something that might be contrary to our 'stated' beliefs. however, far more telling than our 'stated' beliefs, is how we are acting according to them, and what difference it makes in our lives.

    regards,

    abu najm

  16. #16
    GenN
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    Akhi i think you misunderstand what the aqeedah at tahawiyah has come about for and the same with the asharis' maturidis, and atharis.

    I'm sure you know that there were a lot of misguided sects that sprung up at the times of people like imam tahawiy etc. Well the common people could easily be led astray, b the jahmiyah, kwarij, mutazila, murijh etc.

    So what the scholars of the Ahle sunnah to help the common people and the misguided was to come up with things like Aqeedah at tahawiyah, the ashairs and maturidis and atahirs sprang up to help the people back onto the path of the salaf.

    That's all it was. Now are you gonna say that that is bad?

    As for you going through the quran and arriving at the conclusions which you have, yourself without a guiding hand then alhamdullillah you are one in a million. but bear in mind your in a minority. Not every one is capable of doing this, people need imams to help them through.

    Also in todays time when there is much confusion and sects are you gonna be so sure that your on the right path? the only way is if you comapre your aqeedah to that of the salaf and aqeedah at-tahwiyah is more or less unanimously agreed upon to be this aqeedah. The aqeedah of the asharis, maturidis (and most likely also atahris) is what this aqeedah at tahwiyah is based upon. The fact that it is these three Asahris, maturidis, and atahris that have survived throughout the ages from them coming imams unanimously agreed upon to be righetous imams, whilst practiacally all other sects have died out or changed, is another proof that the truth lies with these 3 schools of thought whose aqeedah can be summed up in At -tahwiyah.

    So you see i don't get what your trying to say. Even I believe that there is NO taqleed in aqeedah issues but what is wrong with a guiding hand? IS it wrong to know that the aqeedah you have firm belief in is also the same as the great scholars of islam from the kahalf not to metnion that this is the aqeedah of the salaf?

    you have to stop thinking everyone is as intelligent as you. If they were and like you arrived at an aqeedah which agrees with the aqeedah of the salaf then there would be no sects. There would be no religions even as then the truth of islam would be very clear.

    Jut like the prophets (peae be upon them all) came to guide mankind onto the right religion, these scholars are a guiding light within Islam to guide onto the right path and keep you from all the astary sects. Are you trying to criticise this?

    What are you trying to say that this is a bidah and evreyone should just read quran and sunnah and take from it what they can? This would cause cahos and more disunity. Ahel sunnah is united upon the asharis, amturidis, and atahris. Alhamdullillah for this otherwise without these 3 how much more disunity would there be with every joe bloggs coming up with his on version of islam.

    your not making sense akhi. I think i'm missing the point.

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    "Jut like the prophets (peae be upon them all) came to guide mankind onto the right religion, these scholars are a guiding light within Islam to guide onto the right path and keep you from all the astary sects. Are you trying to criticise this?"

    yes, i criticize this to the nth degree and i abhor it. it has nothing to do with intelligence, rather blessing and mercy from Allah AWJ.

    i am not the one saying to take only the Quran and sunnah, but rather that is a command from Allah AWJ as well, and a command that is ignored if we rely upon and depend upon other than the Quran, sunnah, and salaf, and tabi'un, in matters pertaining to actions and beliefs. its not a matter of bidah, what if, and circumstances leading to spelling out this deen. it is a matter of not mixing truth with opinion.

    i gave the example, i myself have never heard of asharis, atharis, or maturdis, before learning about particular schools in different countries that espouse said systems of understanding aqeedah. i do not believe that i am alone in this, but rather there are many muslims who are not aware of these difference in aqeedah, nor do they have to be in order to be knowledgable.

    my main problem is with describing any thing having to do with belief to other than Rasulullah, SAWS, or Allah AWJ. aqeedah at tahwiy is like giving it another owner, another source. right as he was, i do not feel the need to ascribe the ideas to him, since the only thing that was original in his system was, well, making it into a theoretical system, the beliefs, the statements of truth, the substance all belongs to the words, actions, or explanations of the salaf, or Rasulullah, SAWS.

    so you see its kind of a logic conundrum, i only accept the 4 madhabs because it too has been professed and accepted by all of the scholars and people of sunnah. but now you are telling me about this guy at tahwiy and comparing him to 'a guiding light similar to prophets', and ' a system of aqeedah or madhab like Shafi, Malik, Hanifa, or Hanbal'- and this i will never accept until you bring me proofs that state that at tahwiy has his own madhab, or that what he says is any different from what the madhabs we already have say.

    athari is not a madhab, ashari is not a madhab, marturdi is not a madhab, it never was and never will be.

    question:

    i am the imam for the Muslims here, since i dont know about these groups, would you say that i am less fit to serve them and teach them the deen?

    your answer to this question if more for you than for me...

    regards,

    abu najm

  18. #18
    GenN
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    yes, i criticize this to the nth degree and i abhor it. it has nothing to do with intelligence, rather blessing and mercy from Allah AWJ.

    i am not the one saying to take only the Quran and sunnah, but rather that is a command from Allah AWJ as well, and a command that is ignored if we rely upon and depend upon other than the Quran, sunnah, and salaf, and tabi'un, in matters pertaining to actions and beliefs. its not a matter of bidah, what if, and circumstances leading to spelling out this deen. it is a matter of not mixing truth with opinion.
    "Ask the people of understanding if you know not" (can't temeber the exact ayah, im sure you have also come across it.)

    i gave the example, i myself have never heard of asharis, atharis, or maturdis, before learning about particular schools in different countries that espouse said systems of understanding aqeedah. i do not believe that i am alone in this, but rather there are many muslims who are not aware of these difference in aqeedah, nor do they have to be in order to be knowledgable.
    You do not have to have heard of them for you to have the same belif as them. Who ever taught you, taught you the aqeedah of the salaf so you whether you like it or not have been taught that aqeedah which has been summarised by these 3 schools of thought. You don't have to ascribe yourself to any of them but don't criticise them for summing up the aqeedah of the salaf to counter the astray sects. Respect them for their works, becasue had it not been for them you may never know the true aqeedahof the salaf.

    my main problem is with describing any thing having to do with belief to other than Rasulullah, SAWS, or Allah AWJ. aqeedah at tahwiy is like giving it another owner, another source. right as he was, i do not feel the need to ascribe the ideas to him, since the only thing that was original in his system was, well, making it into a theoretical system, the beliefs, the statements of truth, the substance all belongs to the words, actions, or explanations of the salaf, or Rasulullah, SAWS.
    Akhi use a simple bit of common sense here. Imam Tahawi summarised the aqeddah from Rasulullah, SAWS, and Allah AWJ. Just cos he summarised it and laid it out infornt of us oes not mean that we are following him. We just agree with him cos it is the aqeedah of the salaf and we are grateful to him for laying it out infront of us and showing us the lies of the astray sects. It is the same with the 4 madhabs. we don't follow them, we follow quran and sunnah, but we refer to the 4 madhabs to explain the quran and the sunnah.


    Wallaahi brother, the way i see it, if you refuse to take from the scholars thinking that you can arrive at everything yourself then the hadith "they read the quran and sunnah but it does not go beyond thier throats" applies to you.


    so you see its kind of a logic conundrum, i only accept the 4 madhabs because it too has been professed and accepted by all of the scholars and people of sunnah. but now you are telling me about this guy at tahwiy and comparing him to 'a guiding light similar to prophets', and ' a system of aqeedah or madhab like Shafi, Malik, Hanifa, or Hanbal'- and this i will never accept until you bring me proofs that state that at tahwiy has his own madhab, or that what he says is any different from what the madhabs we already have say.


    you have not heard of asharis, maturidis and atharis before not aqeedha at-tahwiyah which is why you are probably so reluctant to accept them. With a bit more research you'll inshall find that this is the ahle sunnah Unanimously accepted by all great scholars.

    i am the imam for the Muslims here, since i dont know about these groups, would you say that i am less fit to serve them and teach them the deen?
    You have not heard of them does not mean that whoever taught you was not teaching you from them. I only recently heard of the atahri school of thought recently. I agreed with athari thought however long before i heard of atharis, and had it not been for Ahmed bin hanbel (athari school) maybe i would have had the wrong aqeedah today cos i was taught and expalined the way of the salaf from the works that Ahmed bin Hanbal left behind. God knows what corrupt ideas of the jahmiy or mutazilah or whoever i may have eneded up had it not been for the atahris, maturids and asharis.

    Know abu najm that had it not been for the works that these iamams left behind for us there would be so much more fitnah and disunity and everyone would have come up with god knows what. You yourself alhamdullillah have been taught the aqeedah of these imams which is the aqeedah from Allah and Muhammed (sallahualyhiwasalm) whether you like, or not or whetehr you accept it or not.

    The actaul name asharis and maturids and atahris is just a descriptive word. For example if you differed in a certain poin on something then those that would agree with you would come to be known as Najmis, cos it's only descriptive. Is that to hard to understand?

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    "Wallaahi brother, the way i see it, if you refuse to take from the scholars thinking that you can arrive at everything yourself then the hadith "they read the quran and sunnah but it does not go beyond thier throats" applies to you."

    by the way, i believe that the hadith does not state sunnah, only quran- and this is one of their qualities as described in other ahadith, that they only take from the Quran, and are incomplete because they do not take its Hikmah, or sunnah.

    GenN, you are my brother, and i respect your thoughts and i have thanked you for taking the time to present the views of these scholars, there is no need for such implications.

    Al Hamdu Lillah, there may have been more fitnah if..... this is a kind of inobvious shirk, and it applies even if we make this kind of statement about insignificant things in our persoanl lives, audhu billah for making such statements about the course of the lives of Muslims in general. there is no more fitnah than has been ordained by Allah AWJ, and there would be no less were it not the will of Allah AWJ- it has nothing to do with the actions of scholars or other human beings.

    this is the problem that i have, not necessarily with at tahwiy, but ascribing this deen to other than Allah AWJ and Rasulullah, SAWS. ascribing its survival and safety from distortion to other than Allah AWJ, and looking at the scholars as god-sends. they are human beings, some with and some without knowledge- since we also do not control the popularity of scholars.

    i have read the ayah you referred to, and indeed it is at the center of my point- ask those who remember if you do not know. and indeed, if at any point in my study i did not understand something- which has more to do with honesty with ones self than intelligence- i would refer to explanations of scholars.

    however, the opposite is occurring today. people are first turning to scholars and considering this required, or good, and not even coming to a personal understanding of the sources, not even trying. this is the state of things that i abhor, that i hate, and that i will never be accustomed to, nor encourage others under my authority to do.

    perhaps this is where we might just have to agree to disagree,

    regards,

    abu najm

  20. #20
    GenN
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    Akhi, sorry about that statement but seriously that is the way i was beginning to see it when you complelty seem to be rejecting the works of the scholars, as our understanding of Quran and sunnah is limited without having the ability to carry out all the necassary research. But now you have explained that you are not completly rejecting their works.

    I have explained as best i can to you that by naming something so and so does not mean that we are ascribing our deen to them. Even the most ignorant person can tel you that our deen comes from Quran and sunnah.

    By ascribing to so and so we are taking an exaplanaiton of so and so as they are much more capable of understanding than this. You have to get over thinking that by having descriptive names we are breaking away into sects etc. The 4 imams have descriptive names but people followig any of the 4 madhab and are are ok with all other madhabs and still united with them. same with the aqeedah schools.

    Walaahi brother I know my deen now alhamdullillah and i understand who is ahle sunnah and who is not and who have become a sect. I have explained in the sunni wahabi thread in a nutshell who are ahle sunnah. I cannot explain anymore any better than i have already done. Maybe someone else can, but for me alhamdullillha there is no confusion any more. If you are still confused then continue searching and May allah guide you, guide us all and keep us on the straight path, make us frim and of those whom he has favoured, not of those who have earned his anger.

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    Ya Allah AWJ, please forgive me if I have wrongly accused, offended, or put off others in this deen.

    Brother GenN,

    you made an assertion in this thread about the Maturdis, i have posted in what i thought was a more appropriate thread about this 'madhab' and what the current scholars say about one particular school that propagates that aqeedah. i have provided a source that most can agree with some of the time. so please refer to the Social Issues section for the fatwa on the Maturidi, or Matreedi madhab, and perhaps we can go from there.

    regards,

    abu najm

  22. #22
    GenN
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    and what the current scholars say about one particular school that propagates that aqeedah
    Just refrase that to what a FEW if not a clearcut MINORITY of the current scholars.

  23. #23
    أنا مسلم AbuMubarak's Avatar
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    The 4 Principles Of Tawheed
    Author: Shaykh-ul-Islaam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhaab [1]





    I ask Allaah, the Most Generous, The Lord of the Throne to protect you in this world and the hereafter; and to bless you wherever you are, and to make you from those who are grateful when they are given, patient when they are tested, and those who seek forgiveness when they sin. For verily those are the three signs of happiness.


    Know, May Allaah guide you to obeying Him, that Haneefiyyah is the religion of Ibraaheem, it is that you worship Allaah, making the religion purely for Him as He said:



    “And I (Allaah) have not created the jinn and mankind except to worship Me (alone).” [51:56]


    When you acknowledge that Allaah has created you for His worship, then know that worship is not regarded as such unless it is accompanied by Tawheed (Singling out Allaah alone for all Worship). Just as prayer is not regarded as prayer unless it is accompanied by purification. So when Shirk enters into worship it corrupts it just like an impurity invalidates purification.


    So when you recognise that if Shirk enters into worship, it corrupts it, negates all the actions and the one who does it is eternally in the Hell Fire, then you will realize the most important matter obligatory upon you: recognition of this fact, in order that Allaah May save you from the abyss of committing Shirk with Him, about which He, the Most High said:



    “Verily, Allaah forgives not (the sin of) setting up partners in worship with Him, but He forgives whom he pleases sins other than that.” [4:116]


    And this knowledge comprises of four principles, which Allaah, the Most High, has mentioned in His Book.



    The First Principle is that you know, the kuffaar (disbelievers) whom the Messenger (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) fought, used to affirm that Allaah, the Most High is the Creator and Disposer of all the affairs, but that did not enter them into Islaam, and the proof is His, the Most High’s, saying:



    “Say (O Muhammad sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam): ‘Who provides for you from the sky and from the earth? Or who owns hearing and sight? And who brings out the living from the dead and brings out the dead from the living? And who disposes the affairs?’ They will say: ‘Allaah.’ Say: ‘Will you not then be afraid of Allaah’s Punishment (for setting up rivals in worship with Allaah)?’ ” [10:31]



    The Second Principle: That they (the Mushrikeen) say: “We do not call and turn towards them except to seek nearness and intercession (with Allaah).” So the proof against seeking nearness (through awliyaa) is His saying:



    “And those who take Awliyaa (protectors and helpers) besides Him (say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allaah.’ Verily, Allaah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allaah guides not him who is a liar, and a disbeliever.” [39:3]


    And the proof against intercession (through awliyaa) is His, the Most High’s, saying:



    “And they worship besides Allaah things that hurt them not, nor profit them, and they say: ‘These are our intercessors with Allaah.’ ” [10:18]


    And intercession is of two types, the prohibited intercession and the affirmed intercession. The prohibited intercession is that which is sought from other than Allaah concerning that which only Allaah is able to do. And the proof is His, the Most High’s, saying:



    “O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Dhaalimoon (wrong-doers, etc.).” [2:254]


    And the affirmed intercession is that which is sought from Allaah while the intercessor is honoured with the intercession and the one interceded for is someone whose deeds and speech are pleasing to Allaah, after He gives permissions as He, the Most High, said:



    “Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission?” [2:255]




    The Third Principle is that the Prophet (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) encountered people differing in their worship. Amongst them were people who worshipped the angels, some who worshipped the prophets and the righteous men and others who worshipped stones, trees, the sun and the moon. The Messenger of Allaah (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) fought them and did not differentiate between them. The proof is the saying of Allaah, the Most High:



    “And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allaah) and (all) the deen is for Allaah (Alone).” [2:193]


    And the proof that the sun and moon (are worshipped) is the saying of the Most High:



    “And from among His Signs are the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. Prostrate not to the sun nor to the moon.” [41:37]


    And the proof that the angels (are worshipped) is the saying of the Most High:



    “Nor would he order you to take angels and Prophets for lords.” [3:80]


    And the proof that the Prophets (are worshipped) is the saying of the Most High:



    “And when Allaah will say (on the Day of Resurrection): O Eesaa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: ‘Worship me and my mother as two gods besides Allaah?’ He will say: ‘Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner_self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly You are the All_Knower of all that is hidden.’ ” [5:116]


    And the proof that the righteous (are worshipped) is the saying of the Most High:



    “Those whom they call upon desire (for themselves) means of access to their Lord (Allaah), as to which of them should be the nearest and they hope for His Mercy and fear His Torment.” [17:57]


    And the proof that stones and trees (are worshipped) is His, the Most High’s, saying:



    “Have you then considered Al-Laat, and Al-Uzza (two idols of the pagan Arabs). And Manaat (another idol of the pagan Arabs), the other third?” [53:19-20]


    And the hadeeth of Abu Waaqid al-Laythee (radi-Allaahu 'anhu) who said:



    “We departed with the Prophet (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam) to Hunain and we had recently left kufr. The Mushrikeen used to have a tree, which they used to devote themselves to and hang their weapons upon, they used to call it ‘Dhaat Anwaat.’ [2] We passed by a tree and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah appoint for us a Dhaat Anwaat like they have a Dhaat Anwaat.’ He said,



    ‘Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar, Allaahu Akbar! By the One in Who’s Hand is my soul these are the ways. [3] The like of what you said is what Bani Israaeel (Children of Israeel) said to Moosaa: ‘Make for us a god as they have gods.’ He said: ‘Verily, you are an ignorant people.’ [7:138] ” [4]



    The Fourth Principle is that the Mushrikeen (those who worship others besides Allaah) of our time are worse in their shirk than the Mushrikeen who came before. This is because those who came before committed shirk in times of ease and made their worship purely for Allaah during times of difficulty. However, the shirk of the Mushrikeen of our time is continuous, during times of ease and difficulty. The proof is His, the Most High’s, saying:



    “And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allaah, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He brings them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others.” [29:65]


    So based upon this, the caller (one who supplicates) then he is actually a worshipper (by this supplication) and the evidence is His, the Most High’s, saying:



    “And who is more astray than one who calls (invokes) besides Allaah, such as will not answer him till the Day of Resurrection, and who are (even) unaware of their calls (invocations) to them?” [46:5]


    And Allaah the Sublime knows best. Salaat and Salaam be upon Muhammad, his family and companions.




    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------




    Footnotes


    [1] He is Shaykh-ul-Islaam Muhammad Ibn Abdul Wahhaab Bin Sulaymaan, born in the year 1115 A.H. corresponding to 1703 CE, in the city of Uyainah, 70-km north-west of Riyadh. He was a great scholar and a caller to pure Tawheed and following of the Messenger (sal-Allaahu ‘alayhe wa sallam). He wrote many books, one of the most famous of which is his excellent work called ‘Kitaab at-Tawheed’ which contains excellent chapters on various issues of Tawheed. The Shaykh (?) died in the year 1206 A.H. corresponding to 1792 CE.


    [2] Anwaat is the plural of ‘nawt’ which means clinging or hanging i.e something upon which things are hung. They used to hang their weapons on it to seek blessing from it. So some of the companions uttered this statement as they had recently accepted Islaam and they were still not fully aware of Tawheed. [Taken from ‘Explanation of the Four Principles’ by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan]


    [3] Means the paths which the people travel along, some of them following others. So the reason which led you to this is following the ways of those who came before you and imitation of the Mushrikeen. [Taken from ‘Explanation of the Four Principles’ by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan]


    [4] Reported by at-Tirmidhee (2180) who said the hadeeth is Hasan Saheeh, Ahmad (5/218), Ibn Abi Aasim in As-Sunnah (76), Ibn Hibbaan in his Saheeh (6702) and it was authenticated by Ibn Hajr al Asqalaanee in al-Isaabah (4/216).





    "So give glad tidings to the few, those who purify, correct what the people have corrupted of my Sunnah." [Al-Silsilah of Shaikh al-Albaani - Sahih].
    .لا نريد زعيما يخاف البيت الإبيض
    نريد زعيما يخاف الواحد الأحد
    دولة الإسلامية باقية






  24. #24
    Odan AbuZayd Al-Britaani's Avatar
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    Please Re-update your Signature

  25. #25
    أنا مسلم AbuMubarak's Avatar
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    "There
    were Imaam Abul Hasan al-Ashaari and Imaam Abu Mansoor Maturidi.
    In brief, as far as these complext and intricate debates on Kalaam is
    concerned, the view of the Ahlus Sunnah is confined to the schools of these
    two scholars. All other schools of thought are on Baatil"

    yes, very interesting
    .لا نريد زعيما يخاف البيت الإبيض
    نريد زعيما يخاف الواحد الأحد
    دولة الإسلامية باقية






  26. #26
    GenN
    Guests
    Originally posted by AbuMubarak
    "There
    were Imaam Abul Hasan al-Ashaari and Imaam Abu Mansoor Maturidi.
    In brief, as far as these complext and intricate debates on Kalaam is
    concerned, the view of the Ahlus Sunnah is confined to the schools of these
    two scholars. All other schools of thought are on Baatil"

    yes, very interesting
    Assalmalikum

    giving the whole statement, gives a differnt picture of what is being said.

    "2. From the time the Ulama delved into the finer details of Kalaam, and
    split hairs of issues of Aqaaid, many groups arose
    . From the Ahlus sunnah
    wal Jama`, two scholars presented the view of Haqq in these issues. There
    were Imaam Abul Hasan al-Ashaari and Imaam Abu Mansoor Maturidi.
    In brief, as far as these complext and intricate debates on Kalaam is
    concerned, the view of the Ahlus Sunnah is confined to the schools of these
    two scholars. All other schools of thought are on Baatil. It does not mean
    that all those that preceded these two schools were not Muslim, for in the
    first place, these intricate issues were never raised in the former times.
    Furthermore, a person can be a complete and perfect Mu'min without getting
    involved in these complex matters. Such was the position of the Sahaaba and
    most of the Taabi'een. However, should one wish to enter the arena of these
    philosophical issues, then one has to confine oneself to one of these two
    schools, for all the other schools who have taken up a standpoint as far as
    these issues are concerned are on Baatil. The Haqq in this arena is confined
    to the two schools. "

  27. #27
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    salam alayk,u said imam attahawi is an ashari&maturidis,who are these.Also i thought u cant be ahlu sunah and somtin else,isnt Ashari a sect or somtin?pls explain BRIEFLY.

  28. #28
    Member crndvr's Avatar
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    Shaykh Fakhrud-Din Ibn ^Asakir, may Allah have mercy upon him, said:

    Know, may Allah guide us and you, that it is obligatory upon every accountable person to know that Allah is the only God in His Dominion.

    He created the entire world, the upper and lower, the ^Arsh and Kursiyy, the heavens and earth, and what is in them and in between them.

    All the creation is subjugated by His Power. No speck moves except by His will.

    He has no manager for the creation with Him, and has no partner in Dominion.

    He is attributed with Life and is Qayyum. He is not seized by somnolence or sleep.

    He is the One Who knows about the unforeseen and what is evidenced by His creation. Nothing on earth or in heaven is hidden from Him. He knows what is on land and in sea. Not a leaf does fall but He knows about it. There is no grain in the darkness of earth, nor anything which is moist or dry but is inscribed in a clear Book. His Knowledge encompasses everything. He knows the count of all things.

    He does whatever He wills. He has the power to do whatever He wills.

    To Him is the Dominion and He needs none; To Him belong the Glory and Everlastingness. To Him are the Ruling and al-Qada' (the Creating). He has the Names of Perfection. No one hinders what He decreed. No one prevents what He gives. He does in His dominion whatever He wills. He rules His creation with whatever He wills.
    He does not hope for reward and does not fear punishment.

    There is no right on Him that is binding, and no one exercises rule over Him.

    Every endowment from Him is due to His Generosity and every punishment from Him is just. He is not questioned about what He does, but they are questioned.

    He existed before the creation. He does not have a before or an after. He does not have an above or a below, a right or a left, an in front of or a behind, a whole or a part.

    It must not be said: When was He? Or where was He? Or how is He? He existed without a place. He created the universe and willed for the existence of time. He is not bound to time and is not designated with place.

    His management of one matter does not distract Him from another. Delusions do not apply to Him, and He is not encompassed by the mind. He is not conceivable in the mind. He is not imagined in the self nor pictured in delusions. He is not grasped with delusions or thoughts.


    This Ayah means: [Nothing is like Him and He is attributed with Hearing and Sight.]

  29. #29
    Member crndvr's Avatar
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    < < Bismillahir-Rahmanir Rahim> >

    • Explanation: Bismillahir-Rahmanir Rahim means I start with the name of Allah, or my beginning is with the name of Allah. Ar-Rahman means the One Who is extremely merciful to the believers and the blasphemers in this world and to the believers exclusively in the next world. Ar-Rahim means the One Who is extremely merciful to the believers.
    Shaykh Fakhrud-Din Ibn ^Asakir, may Allah have mercy upon him, said:

    • Explanation: The author is Fakhrud-Din Abu Mansur ^Abdur-Rahman Ibn Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Hibatullah Ibn ^Abdullah Ibn al-Husayn ad-Dimashqiyy, known as Ibn ^Asakir, the famous Shafi^iyy faqih (great scholar).

      The known faqih and historian, Abu Shamah, said: None of his paternal grandfathers was named ^Asakir even though they were well-known by this name at home. ^Asakir, possibly, is a name of some of his maternal grandfathers." He is the nephew of Abul-Qasim ^Aliyy Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Hibatullah Ibn ^Asakir, the Damascene scholar and memorizer of hadith. He was born in the year 550 AH (as he wrote with his own hand), in an honorable and grand house. He, may Allah have mercy on him, paid close attention to obtaining knowledge at a young age. He learned the knowledge of the Religion from Qutbud-Din, Mas^ud An-Naysaburiyy, whose daughter Ibn ^Asakir later married. He also learned from his uncle, al-Hafidh Abul-Qasim, Sharafud-Din ^Abdullah Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abu ^Asrun, Asma' Bint Muhammad Ibn al-Hasan Ibn Tahir and her sister, Aminah, among others.

      He taught fiqh (knowledge of the rules of the Religion) and narrated hadith in Makkah, Damascus, and Jerusalem, as well as in other places. In his book, As-Siyar, adh-Dhahabiyy related that a number of the known scholars praised him. Ibn as-Subkiyy (Ibn as-Subkiyy is Tajud-din ^Abdul-Wahhab Ibn ^Aliyy as-Subkiyy.) said in his book, Tabaqat ash-Shafi^iyyah: "He is the last that combined knowledge and performance. The people of his era agreed on regarding him greatly for his mind and religiousness."

      Abu Shamah, in his book, Dhayl-ur-Rawdatayn, said: "One night King al-Mu^adhdham sent for Ibn ^Asakir to assign him as the judge. He sat Ibn ^Asakir next to him and offered him food, but Ibn ^Asakir abstained. To al-Mu^adhdham's insisting that he be assigned with the judiciary, Ibn ^Asakir replied that he would make 'istikharah (to pray to Allah to guide him to the correct decision). Ibn ^Asakir returned to his room that was by the mihrab of the Companions (in the Umayyad Mosque) and went inside. He prayed at night in the mosque to Allah and cried until Fajr. When the morning came, the king's assistants came to him, but he was adamant in refusing the position and instead recommended Ibn al-Harastaniyy. Ibn ^Asakir had feared that he would be forced to accept this position and had prepared his family to leave the city. His students had gone before him to Allepo. Al-^Adil, the ruler of Allepo and the brother of al-Mu^adhdham, feeling pity for Ibn ^Asakir, sent them back. His heart had softened for Ibn ^Asakir and he told him to name someone else for that position. So Ibn ^Asakir named Ibn al-Harastaniyy."

      Among Ibn ^Asakir's poetry is:

      "Be fearful at night when you are hopeful (of Allah),
      and be hopeful (of Allah) if you wake up fearful.
      So often time has brought hardships,
      and with them, mercies (from Allah)."

      Ibn ^Asakir compiled many works in fiqh and hadith. He died on the 10th of Rajab in the year 620 AH. Very few people did not attend his funeral. He was buried in the Cemetery of the Sufis in Damascus.

      Abu Shamah said: "I was told by one who witnessed his death that he prayed adh-Dhuhr, and asked about ^Asr. He performed Wudu', uttered ash-Shahadatayn, and while sitting, said: 'I have accepted Allah as my Lord, Islam as my Religion, and Muhammad as my Prophet. May Allah enable me to utter it, forgive me, and have mercy upon me in my grave where I will be alone.' Then he said: 'wa ^alaykumus-salam' in salutation, from which we knew that the angels came, then he turned and died." He was ill with diarrhea. May Allah bestow mercy on him.
    Know, may Allah guide us and you, that it is obligatory upon every accountable person to know that Allah is the only God in His Dominion.

    • Explanation: The universe is subject to the Godhood, management, and ownership of Allah. It is obligatory on every accountable person (mukallaf) to believe with certainty and beyond doubt, that Allah ta^ala, has no partner with Him in His Dominion. That is, this universe has no owner other than Allah, no manager other than Allah, and no God other than Allah. The One (al-Wahid) when attributed to Allah, means the One Who has no partner with Him in His Godhood and there is none similar to Him. The mukallaf is the one who is pubescent, sane, and has heard the creedal statement of Islam.
    He created the entire world: the upper and lower, the ^Arsh and Kursiyy, the heavens and earth, and what is in them and in between them.

    • Explanation: The upper world is what is in the heavens, and the lower world is what is on earth. Everything in this universe, whether it is in the heavens or on the earth, above the heavens or underneath the earth, or between the heavens and the earth, is a creation of Allah, the Exalted. He is the One Who brought it into existence from a state of non-existence. This includes the deeds of the slaves and their intentions since they are part of this universe. Allah Ta^ala said in Surat al-Furqan, 2:



    which means: [And He created everything.] What is in the heavens, for example, are the angels. What is above the heavens, for example, is Paradise. The moon and the stars are examples of what is between the heavens and the earth. What is on the earth, for example, are the humans. Under the earth is Hell, which is under the seventh earth. The universe includes all these and is a creation of Allah.

    All the creation is subjugated by His Power. No speck moves except by His Will. He has no manager for the creation with Him, and has no partner in Dominion.

    • Explanation: The ^Arsh, which is the greatest of the creations of Allah in size, is subjugated to Allah, ta^ala. Allah is the One Who created it and placed it in this very high place. He is the One Who keeps it in that place and prevents it from falling on the heavens and earth, thereby destroying them. Necessarily, what is less in size than the ^Arsh is also subjugated to Allah. Allah, ta^ala, said in Surat at-Tawbah, 129:

    which means : [And He is the Lord of the Grand ^Arsh.]
    He, subhanahu wa ta^ala, is the Manager for everything. He is the One Who makes things run according to His eternal Will and Knowledge. Hence, nothing happens in the entire universe, whether it is motion or rest, except by His management. He, ta^ala, is the One Who makes hearts and things run as He willed. If He willed, He would stray the heart of the slave, and if He willed, He would guide it. As Allah, ta^ala, said in Surat al-An^am, 110:


    This ayah means : [And We turn their hearts and sights.]

    Al-Bayhaqiyy related that the Prophet, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: "O You Who makes the hearts run, make our hearts run in obedience to You." If running the hearts is by the power of Allah, then, necessarily, the external deeds are creations of Allah. It is not like what the Mu^tazilah say that the slave creates his own actions and Allah is not the Creator of everything; May Allah denounce them. Allah, ta^ala, said in Surat Az-Zumar, 62:


    which means: [Allah is the Creator of everything.]

    The word "everything" includes the bodies, members, and actions. The slave only acquires the deed and Allah creates it. The meaning of "acquires" is to direct one's will and power (which are both created) to perform the deed, and Allah creates that deed. Allah makes it happen out of non-existence and hence renders it existing. It does not happen except by Allah creating it.
    The slave who is guided to the acceptable deeds by the Mercy and Generosity of Allah, would look at the true meanings of motions and rest. If I move my hand, I will feel the motion, and know that I have directed my intention toward it. However, the mind and the Religion rule that I am not the creator, but rather Allah is the One Who created the motion that occurred in me.

    He is attributed with Life and is Qayyum. He is not seized by somnolence or sleep.

    • Explanation: The Alive (al-Hayy), when attributed to Allah, means He Who has the eternal Life which is not a soul, flesh, or blood. Al-Qayyum means the One Who manages the entire creation. It does not mean that He dwells inside His slaves and possesses them. Some scholars explained al-Qayyum by the Everlasting, Whose Existence does not end. Somnolence means sleepiness. However, sleep is defined as the state when the mind faints and one does not hear those around him. Allah, ta^ala, is clear of all of that, as He said in Ayatul-Kursiyy, Surat al-Baqarah, 255:



    which means: [Allah is the only God, the Alive and Qayyum. He is not subject to somnolence or sleep.]

    He is the One Who knows about the unforeseen and what is evidenced by His creation. Nothing on earth or in the heaven is hidden from Him. He knows what is on land and in sea. Not a leaf does fall but He knows about it. There is no grain in the darkness of earth, nor anything which is moist or dry but is inscribed in a clear book. His Knowledge encompasses everything. The count of the numbers of things is known to Him.

    • Explanation: Allah, ta^ala, knows about things in totality and in details. He knows what was (what has existed) and what shall be (what will exist). He knows, with His eternal Knowledge, the enjoyments of Paradise that are continual and uninterrupted. He knows as necessary that whose existence is an intellectual necessity; and as permissible that whose existence is an intellectual permissibility; and as impossible that whose existence is an intellectual impossibility. Allah, ta^ala, is knowledgeable of His Self, His Attributes, and His creatures by one eternal and everlasting Knowledge that does not change.

    • Some of the exaggerating Mu^tazilah, and among them Abul-Husayn al-Basriyy, said: "Allah does not know what the slave will do except after he does it." Hisham Ibn al-Hakam agreed with them. This is an obvious blasphemy. May Allah protect us from it.

      Allah, ta^ala, revealed the Qur'an with different facets to differentiate between the slaves, in which people are of two groups. One group would interpret and apply those verses (ayahs) correctly and thereby win, and the other group would interpret and apply them incorrectly and thereby lose. An example of that is the saying of Allah in Surat al-'Anfal, 66:

    which means: [Now, Allah made it (rule of jihad) lesser for you, for He knew (eternally) that you will encounter a weakness.]

    He who interprets the ayah by linking the knowledge of Allah to 'now', to mean that Allah knew 'now' what He did not know before, has severely strayed. He who understands the correct meaning of the ayah is rightful and is guided to the correct path. The correct meaning of the ayah is that Allah now has lessened for you what had been obligatory before (i.e., lessening the obligation of one Muslim to fight ten blasphemers to the obligation of one Muslim to fight two blasphemers), for Allah knew eternally that you will encounter a weakness.

    Everything that happens in this world--in the heavens and on the earth, on the land and in the sea, and what is under the ground is inscribed in a clear book which is the Guarded Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfudh). It is as at-Tirmidhiyy related about the Messenger of Allah that Allah ordered the Pen to write in this Guarded Tablet what was and what shall be until the Day of Judgment.

    The meaning of 'His knowledge encompasses everything' is that He, Subhanahu, knows what has existed and what shall exist by His eternal Knowledge. The meaning of 'the count of the numbers of things are known to Him' is that Allah knew by His eternal Knowledge the numbers of all things. He knew it before the existence of any creature as He, ta^ala, said in Surat al-Jinn, 28:


    which means: [He knows the count of all things.]

    He does whatever He wills.

    • Explanation: He, subhanahu wa ta^ala, does what He willed. Whatever He willed to happen by His eternal Will, He does with His eternal Doing. His Will is eternal and the willed things are creations. His Doing is eternal and the done things are creations. The Will of Allah does not change because change occurs in creatures, and change is the most significant sign of being a creation. Allah, ta^ala, said in Surat Qaf, 29:

    which means: [That which I have decreed does not change.]

    Imam Muslim related that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: <<Allah said: O you Muhammad, if I decree a matter it will not be stopped.>> Allah changes the creatures in accordance with His Will that does not change. Whatever He willed to happen shall occur at the time that He willed for it to exist, and that which He did not will for to happen shall never exist. Abu Dawud related that the Messenger of Allah said: <<Whatever Allah willed to be shall be and whatever Allah did not will to be shall not be.>> Good and evil, obedience and sinning, and blasphemy and belief are alike in that all of them occur by the Will of Allah, His Knowledge, Decree, and Creating. However, the good is by the love, acceptance, and order of Allah and evil is not by His love, acceptance, or order.

    He who is God-fearing is so by the guidance of Allah, and he who strays and is sinful is so because Allah did not guide him to the acceptable deeds. This is the meaning of la hawla wa la quwwata illa billah. No one evades sinning except by the protection of Allah, and no one has the power to be obedient to Allah except by His help. However, the slave is not without a will. His will is under the will of Allah, ta^ala, as He said in His Glorified Book in Surat at-Takwir, 29:


    which means: [You do not will anything unless Allah, the Lord of the worlds, wills.]

    He has the power to do whatever He wills.

    • Explanation: Allah, ta^ala, has an inclusive power with which He creates things. Nothing renders Him weak, and He does not need to seek the help of others, as He said in the Glorified Revelation in Surat al-Ma'idah, 120:

    which means: [He has power over everything.]

    His power is not subject to weakness, inability, or shortage. Rather, His power is complete, as He said in the Qur'an in Surat Adh-Dhariyat, 58:


    which means: [Allah is the One Who Provides sustenance and is attributed with the Perfect Power.]

    To Him is the Dominion

    • Explanation: Allah has the complete ruling over the universe with no one to contend for it with Him. His Dominion is unlike the created dominion that He gives to whomever He willed among His slaves. The latter comes to an end. The Dominion of Allah is His Attribute, and it does not end.
    and He needs none;

    • Explanation: It means He does not need others. He attributed the name al-Ghaniyy to Himself in the Qur'an. Al-Ghaniyy was also mentioned in the hadith related by Ibn Hibban, At-Tirmidhiyy, al-Bayhaqiyy, and others which reports ninety-nine of the perfect names of Allah. (Perhaps the mentioning of al-ghana' in the Arabic text is a result of the perversion of some of those who copied.)

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    To Him belong the Glory

    • Explanation: He, Subhanahu wa ta^ala, is ^Aziz, as He said in Surat 'Al ^Imran, 4:

    which means: [Allah is the One Who is ^Aziz.]
    Al-Halimiyy said that ^Aziz means the One Who cannot be reached, and harm cannot be inflicted upon Him. Al-Khattabiyy said al-^Aziz means the One Who is not defeated, as reported by al-Bayhaqiyy.

    and Everlastingness.

    • Explanation: It means that Allah, ta^ala, is attributed with Everlastingness which is to remain existing without annihilation. His Everlastingness is an intellectual necessity, that is, intellectually it is not permissible to be otherwise. No one is everlasting with this meaning except Him. It is intellectually permissible for Paradise and Hellfire to be annihilated as far as their selves are concerned. However, their existence shall remain because Allah willed for them to remain. The Everlastingness of Allah pertains to His Self and, by necessity, it means that all His attributes are also everlasting, whether His Power, Knowledge, Hearing, Sight, Will, or any other of His attributes. It is not permissible to attribute to Allah any of the attributes of creatures.
    To Him are the Ruling

    • Explanation: To Him are the Ruling means that Allah, subhanahu wa ta^ala, rules with what He willed.
    and al-Qada' (the Creating).

    • Explanation: Al-Qada' means creating. Allah said in Surat Fussilat, 12:

    which means: [Allah created seven heavens.]

    That is, He, the Exalted, creates what He willed; He brings it into existence from a state of non-existence. Also, al-Qada' bears the meaning of ordering. Allah said in Surat al-'Isra', 23:


    which means: [Allah ordered that you do not worship but Him.] Similarly, the saying of Allah in Surat adh-Dhariyat, 56:


    which means: [I have created the jinns and the humans to order them to worship Me.]

    This does not mean that Allah willed that everyone of them would worship Him. Had He willed that, all of them would have worshipped Him and no other, and there would have been no blasphemers. Allah said in Surat Yunus, 99:


    which means: [The hearts are not under your control (O Muhammad--rather they are under Allah's control.) Had Allah willed the guidance for all the people, they all would have been among the believers.] However, Allah did not will that to happen. Henceforth, some are believers and some are blasphemers.

    He has the Names of Perfection

    • Explanation: It means that Allah has the Perfect Names, that is, the names which pertain to perfection. All the Names of Allah are that of perfection. All of His Names signify perfection and none of them denote non-befitting attributes. The name al-Qadir pertains to His attribute of Power. Al-^Alim pertains to His attribute of Knowledge. Ar-Rahman and ar-Rahim pertain to His attribute of Mercy. Al-^Aziz pertains to His attribute of being non-defeatable. As-Sami^ pertains to His attribute of Hearing. Al-Wahid pertains to His attribute of being without a partner. Al-Khaliq pertains to His attribute of Creating. Al-Basir pertains to His attribute of Sight, and so on. All of His names pertain to perfection. It is impossible that there will be among His names what denotes non-befitting attributes. Therefore, it is not permissible to call Him by 'ah as some people think. Many of the Shadhiliyy people believe and mention in their books that 'ah is among the names of Allah, even though this term is an expression of pain and complaint. By the agreement of the Arab linguists and the statements of the scholars of the four schools, moaning invalidates the prayers. Of the twenty names linguists mentioned that express moaning, the most famous is 'ah. Those who said 'ah is one of the names of Allah depend on a fabricated hadith which says: 'Let him moan, for moaning is one of the names of Allah.' There is no mentioning in any hadith, neither Sahih nor fabricated, that 'ah is one of the names of Allah. It is astonishing how those people have selected this particular term of moaning from among the twenty and disregarded all the others, among which are 'awuh, and 'awtah. If one takes by their reliance on the aforementioned fabricated hadith, then 'awuh, and 'awtah would be among the Names of Allah as would be the rest of the terms of moaning, a choice which the sound mind does not accept.

      Similarly, it is not permissible to call Him by al-muqim, which means 'the residing', as some utter when they say subhan al-muqim. Also, it is not permissible to call Allah 'a soul' or 'a mind,' as Sayyid Qutb did when he called Allah, ta^ala, 'the managing mind.' Both the soul and the mind are creations. How does this man leave out the Names of Perfection and on his own invent names for Allah?

      At-Tirmidhiyy and others narrated that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: <<Allah has ninety-nine names, one hundred less one. He who memorizes them is admitted to Paradise.>> Many narrations listing the Names were related. Among them is what al-Bayhaqiyy related from the route of Abu Hurayrah: <<He is Allah the One Who alone is God, Ar-Rahman, Ar-Rahim, Al-Malik, Al-Quddus, As-Salam, Al-Mu'min, Al-Muhaymin, Al-^Aziz, Al-Jabbar, Al-Mutakabbir, Al-Khaliq, Al-Bari', Al-Musawwir, Al-Ghaffar, Al-Qahhar, Al-Wahhab, Ar-Razzaq, Al-Fattah, Al-^Alim, Al-Qabid, Al-Basit, Al-Khafid, Ar-Rafi^, Al-Mu^izz, Al-Mudhill, As-Sami^, Al-Basir, Al-Hakam, Al-^Adl, Al-Latif, Al-Khabir, Al-Halim, Al-^Adhim, Al-Ghafur, Ash-Shakur, Al-^Aliyy, Al-Kabir, Al-Hafidh, Al-Muqit, Al-Hasib, Al-Jalil, Al-Karim, Ar-Raqib, Al-Mujib, Al-Wasi^, Al-Hakim, Al-Wadud, Al-Majid, Al-Ba^ith, Ash-Shahid, Al-Haqq, Al-Wakil, Al-Qawiyy, Al-Matin, Al-Waliyy, Al-Hamid, Al-Muhsi, Al-Mubdi', Al-Mu^id, Al-Muhyi, Al-Mumit, Al-Hayy, Al-Qayyum, Al-Wajid, Al-Majid, Al-Wahid, As-Samad, Al-Qadir, Al-Muqtadir, Al-Muqaddim, Al-Mu'akhkhir, Al-'Awwal, Al-'Akhir, Adh-Dhahir, Al-Batin, Al-Wali Al-Muta^ali, Al-Barr, At-Tawwab, Al-Muntaqim, Al-^Afuww, Ar-Ra'uf, Malikul-Mulk, Dhul-Jalal Wal-'Ikram, Al-Muqsit, Al-Jami^, Al-Ghaniyy, Al-Mughni, Al-Mani^, Ad-Darr, An-Nafi^, An-Nur, Al-Hadi, Al-Badi^, Al-Baqi, Al-Warith, Ar-Rashid, As-Sabur.>>
    No one hinders what He decreed.

    • Explanation: This is understood from the hadith of Thawban related by Muslim in which he said: <<The Messenger of Allah said Allah said: 'If I decree a matter it cannot be hindered'.>>

      This Qudsiyy hadith clearly states that no one stops the fulfillment of the will of Allah. This is a proof to the invalidity of what some people say that Allah wanted to create a certain being as a male but instead He created him as a female. Also it is a proof to the invalidity of the conviction that Allah changes His will if a person makes a supplication to Him or pays a charity from a halal source. These sayings and/or convictions are untrue and non-befitting to Allah, ta^ala.
    No one prevents what He gives.

    • Explanation: The meaning of this statement appeared in the hadith of the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam. Al-Bukhariyy and Muslim related that the Prophet used to say after each prayer: "No one is God except Allah, alone without a partner. To Him belong the Dominion and the praising, and He has the Power over everything. O Allah, no one prevents that which You gave, and no one gives that which You have prevented. To You, the richness of the rich does not benefit him but rather his obedience to You shall benefit him." If Allah, ta^ala, willed for a slave to be endowed with something, Allah enables him to acquire it. No one can stop that endowment from reaching him. At-Tirmidhiyy, among others, related this saying of the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, from the route of ^Abdullah Ibn ^Abbas: <<If the creation gathered to benefit you with something that Allah did not decree for you, they would not be able to do so. And if they wanted to harm you with something that Allah did not decree for you, they would not be able to. The pens were lifted and the journals did dry out.>>
    He does in His dominion whatever He wills.

    • Explanation: Whatever Allah willed eternally to exist must exist. Allah willed for it to happen by His eternal Will and He creates it with His eternal Creating, without Him being obligated to do anything. As Allah, ta^ala, said in Surat al-Qasas, 68:

    which means: [and Your Lord creates what He willed at no obligation.]

    He rules His creation with whatever He wills.

    • Explanation: Allah renders whatever He willed as forbidden and whatever He willed as obligatory.
    He does not hope for reward and does not fear punishment.

    • Explanation: Allah, subhanahu wa ta^ala, does not hope for reward nor benefit from His slaves. Allah, ta^ala, said in Surat adh-Dhariyat, 57:

    which means: [I do not want from them any sustenance nor to feed Me.]

    Allah did not make it incumbent upon His slaves to worship Him because it benefits Him. Nor did He forbid them from things because He fears harm or punishment from any of them. How would He hope for benefit or fear punishment from His worshipers when He is their Creator and the Creator of their doings?

    There is no right on Him that is binding and no one exercises rule over Him.

    • Explanation: There is no obligation on Allah, ta^ala, that He is bound with, and no one is entitled to or can exercise a rule over Him. No one orders Him with anything and no one stops Him from anything.
    Every endowment from Him is due to His Generosity

    • Explanation: The endowment is a generosity from Allah. It is not obligatory on Allah to give His worshipers any endowments. Rather, He gives them out of His generosity and would not be unjust if He did not give them any. As Allah, subhanahu, said in Surat an-Nur, 21:

    which means: [If it had not been for the Generosity and Mercy of Allah on you, none of you would have been guided.]

    and every punishment from Him is just.

    • Explanation: An-Niqmah in the original text means punishment. Allah rewards the slave out of His Generosity and punishes the slave out of His Justice. Allah does not do anyone or anything injustice. One should not object to Allah by questioning why He creates pain in children and animals and inflicts them with diseases when they are not sinful. He who says that has blasphemed for objecting to Allah, unless his questioning is for the purpose of knowing the wisdom in His doing. The author proved this case by stating the saying of Allah (Al-Anbiya', 23):

    which means:

    He is not questioned about what He does, but they are questioned.

    • Explanation: One should not object to the Will of Allah, nor question His doings. Rather, the slaves are to be questioned because Allah is the true Owner of all things without any partners to Him. He owns the slaves and He owns that which He gave them to own. He does whatever He wills with that which He owns. Injustice is not conceived from Him because He is Wise and does not place things in other than where they belong. Injustice can only be attributed to he who is ordered and forbidden with things--as in the case with the slaves. Injustice, then, is to violate the orders and prohibitions of He Who is entitled to order and prohibit. This is why the slave is questioned about his doings as was mentioned in the hadith reported by at-Tirmidhiyy: <<After the people assemble on the Day of Judgment, one does not move to another post until he is questioned about four things: How did he spend the years of his life? With what did he wear his body out? From where did he earn his money and on what did he spend it? and What did he do with his knowledge?>>
      There is no one to order Allah, ta^ala, nor to prohibit Him. Therefore He is not questioned, and injustice and negligence are not attributed to Him. Allah said in Surat al-'Anbiya', 23:

    which means: [He is not questioned about what He does, but they are questioned.]

    He existed before the creation.

    • Explanation: The existence of Allah, ta^ala, is eternal. He was existing in eternity, prior to the creation. It was mentioned in the hadith of ^Imran Ibn al-Husayn which was related by al-Bukhariyy, al-Bayhaqiyy, and others: <<Allah existed and there was nothing other than Him.>> There is no one else eternal except Him. Allah, ta^ala, said:

    which means: [He is The First.]

    The Arab linguists said: "If both the subject of a nominal sentence and its predicate are definite nouns, then this entails ultimate exclusivity for that subject." In this verse, both the subject of the nominal sentence (Huwa, which means He) and the predicate (al-'Awwal, which means the First, i.e., the One Whose Existence has no beginning) are definite nouns. Hence this entails that only Allah's existence is without a beginning. He who believes that the existence of this world, whether by its kind or elements, has no beginning, has, by the consensus of the Muslim scholars, belied this ayah, departed from Islam, and joined the philosophers and ad-Dahriyyah. Ibn Taymiyah reported in five of his books that the kind of the world, like Allah, is eternal with no beginning to its existence. This is clear blasphemy.

    He does not have a before or an after.

    • Explanation: This is to negate that Allah's existence was preceded by non-existence or that it would be followed by annihilation. All that which negates the attributes of Eternity and Everlastingness of Allah is invalid, since the state of Godhood would be invalid for he who is not attributed with them. Among the attributes of Allah is that His existence is a necessity. Hence it is not permissible intellectually that His existence would be preceded or followed by non-existence.
    He does not have an above or a below, a right or a left, an in front of or a behind,

    • Explanation: This is one of the fundamentals of the creed, which is clearing Allah, ta^ala, of being in any or all directions. It is not the case, as some ignorant people believe, that Allah exists in the above direction. Some believe that Allah is in the in front of direction, bound between the slave and the Ka^bah. Others believe He is like air that is spread and occupies all places. Some, like the so-called Nasiruddin al-'Albaniyy, believe that Allah is surrounding the world from all directions just as the hand surrounds that which it has in its grip. All of that is invalid and negates the correct creed of tawhid. Imam Abu Ja^far at-Tahawiyy authored a book called An Elucidation of the Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jama^ah. In it he said: "Allah is clear of limits, ends, parts, limbs, and instruments; and the six directions do not contain Him."
      His words are of pure tawhid and are jewels that pertain to the creed. He who is attributed with limits, ends, parts, limbs, organs, or directions would have a size and a format--all attributes of bodies. Allah, ta^ala, is not a body as He, subhanahu, said in Surat ash-Shura, 11:

    which means: [Nothing is like Him.] Attributing to Allah the direction of above is not perfection, contrary to what some ignorant people think. The importance of one's status is not measured by places and limits. The physical place of the angels around the ^Arsh is much higher than that of the Prophets of Allah. However, the status of the Prophets is better and much higher to Allah, the Creator.

    a whole or a part.

    • Explanation: Allah, ta^ala, is not a body composed of parts and therefore is not attributed with wholeness or partness. Al-Bayhaqiyy reported in his book Al-'Asma' was-Sifat that al-Halimiyy, in explaining the name of Allah, Al-Muta^ali, said: "It means the One Who is above being attributed with the attributes of the creatures like marriage, children, limbs, organs, sitting on the sarir (i.e., the ^Arsh), being hidden behind veils so that the eyes would not see Him, moving from one place to another, and the like. Some of these attributes dictate ending, some dictate need, and some dictate change. All of that is non-befitting and not permissible to attribute to He Whose Existence is without a beginning."
    It must not be said: When was He? Or where was He? Or how is He?

    • Explanation: It is not permissible to say, 'When was Allah?' because it attributes to Him a beginning, (an existence after a state of non-existence), and a lapsing of time on His existence. It is not permissible also to say, 'Where was Allah?' i.e., asking about a place. Nor is it permissible to say, 'How was He?' because it attributes to Him the attributes of the creation.

      After he mentioned the prohibition from all that, Ibn ^Asakir, may Allah have mercy on him, established the correct creed, and said:
    He existed without a place. He created the universe and willed for the existence of time. He is not bound to time and is not designated with place.

    • Explanation: When the author said 'He is not designated,' he does not mean that Allah is in all directions, because this is invalid as we have mentioned earlier. Directions are other than Allah. He existed and there was nothing other than Him existing. The meaning is that Allah exists without a place. This is the creed of Ahlus-Sunnah and all the Muslims, their Salaf and Khalaf. Al-Bukhariyy, al-Bayhaqiyy and Ibn al-Jarud related that the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam, said: <<Allah existed and there was nothing else existing.>> Allah existed eternally and there was no place or any other creature. After creating the place, Allah, subhanahu, did not change from what He was. From this hadith and what is similar among the texts, Ahlus-Sunnah took their saying that Allah exists without a place.

      Al-Bayhaqiyy, may Allah have mercy on him, related the hadith of the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu ^alayhi wa sallam: "You are adh-Dhahir (the One Whose existence is obvious by proofs). Hence there is nothing above You, and You are al-Batin (the One Who is clear of the delusions of bodily attributes). Hence there is nothing underneath You." Then he said: "Some of our companions took that hadith as a proof to clear Allah of places. If there is nothing above Him and nothing underneath Him, then He is not in a place."

      Ar-Ramliyy and others narrated the saying of ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, may Allah honor him: "Allah existed eternally without a place, and now He is as He was." Az-Zabidiyy narrated in the explanation of al-'Ihya' by the continuous chain to ^Aliyy, Zayn al-^Abidin: "O Allah, the One Who is clear of non-befitting attributes, You are not contained in a place." ^Aliyy, Zayn al-^Abidin was the best of the family members of the Prophet at his time. Moreover, this statement was established by many other Muslim scholars like Abu Hanifah, Ibn Jarir at-Tabariyy, al-Maturidiyy, al-'Ash^ariyy, and others. Moreover, at-Tamimiyy related the consensus of Ahlus-Sunnah that Allah exists without a place. He mentioned it in his book, Al-Farqu Bayn al-Firaq.

      After that, no consideration is due to anyone who likens Allah to the creation and objects to the author and other pioneers among the people of knowledge for stating that truthful statement. He who negates that and confirms a place to Allah has likened Allah to the creation and made Him equal to them. Also, he has negated the explicit verses of the Qur'an, the sahih hadith, and the mind. Allah is the Creator of place. Allah is the Manager of time and the One Who runs it. Allah is the Creator of the universe, that is, the Creator of the creatures, the One Who brings things into existence from non-existence. He does not need them and is not attributed with their attributes, as Imam Abu Hanifah, may Allah have mercy on him, mentioned: "The Creator does not resemble His creation." This is why it is not permissible to attribute to Him the occupation of a place or all places, or the designation of time or all times. He is clear of the meanings and attributes of the creatures.
    His Managing one matter does not distract Him from another.

    • Explanation: Allah, ta^ala, brings things into existence from non-existence by His eternal Will and Power and by His eternal Creating without a need for a limb or using an instrument. Simply by His Will and Power, that are related to the happenings, the things occur at the time and place He willed for them to exist. Nothing delays or stops them. As Allah said in Surat Yasin, 82

    which means: [If He willed something to be, He would order it to be and it would be.]

    The One Who is attributed with such attributes is not distracted from one matter by another. Distraction happens to he who works with limbs and uses instruments. If the limbs or instruments were occupied with one matter it is hard to make them engage in another. Allah, the Exalted, is clear of this.

    Delusions do not apply to Him, and He is not encompassed by the mind. He is not conceivable in the mind. He is not imagined in the self nor pictured in delusions. He is not grasped with delusions or thoughts.

    • Explanation: This is summarized by the saying of Dhunun al-Misriyy Ibrahim Ibn Tawbah, may Allah have mercy on him as related by al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad: "Whatever you imagine in your mind, Allah is different from it." This is so because whatever you imagine is a creation, and the Creator does not resemble the creation.

      Imam ash-Shafi^iyy said: "Whoever seeks to know his Creator, and concludes that his Creator is something that exists which his mind can imagine, then he is a person who likens Allah to the creation. If he settles on pure non-existence, then he is an atheist. If he concludes that He exists, and admits that his mind cannot conceive Him, then he is practicing tawhid." Since no one knows the Reality of Allah except Allah, the Salaf prohibited thinking about the Self of Allah in an attempt to seek the Reality of Allah.

      Our knowledge of Allah is by knowing what is obligatory to be of His attributes, what is impossible to be of His attributes, and what is permissible to be of His attributes. As related by al-Bayhaqiyy, Ibn ^Abbas said: "Think of the creation of Allah and do not think of the Self of Allah."

      He who thinks about the Self of Allah and imagines a picture or has a delusion and believes that this is Allah, is not a Muslim practicing tawhid. There is no difference between him and the idol worshipper. The idol worshipper worships a picture that he sculptured, and this one worships a picture that he imagined. The true believer worships the One to Whom there is none similar. As Imam ar-Rifa^iyy, may Allah have mercy on him, said: "The ultimate knowledge about Allah is to be certain that He exists without a how and without a place." All of that is taken from the saying of Allah, ta^ala, in Surat ash-Shura, 11:

    which means: [Nothing is like Him]

    This is why Ibn ^Asakir, may Allah have mercy on him, ended his beneficial creed with producing this ayah, so he said:


    which means: [Nothing is like Him and He is attributed with Hearing and Sight.]

    • Explanation: Allah mentioned the part of clearing Himself of resembling the creation before the part on the attributes of Hearing and Sight so that it would be known that His Hearing and Sight are not like the hearing and sight of others. Allah's hearing is not with an ear or any other instrument and His Sight is not with a pupil or any other instrument, because He, subhanah, is unlike anything.

      It is suitable here to end this short explanation of the terms of this text by producing what Abu Nu^aym reported in his book, Al-Hilyah. In the biography of ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib, he said that Nawf Ibn ^Abdullah entered the quarters of the Emirate in Kufah, that is, the house of ^Aliyy Ibn Abi Talib and said: "O Amir of the Believers, there are forty Jews at the door." To this, ^Aliyy replied: "Let them in." When they entered, they said to ^Aliyy: "Describe your Lord for us, the One Who is in the sky. How is He? How was He? When was He? On what is He?" ^Aliyy sat up and said: "You Jews, hear me out and you would not have to ask anyone else. My Lord, the Exalted, is al-'Awwal (i.e., the One Whose Existence is without a beginning). He is not from anything, nor mixed with anything, nor deluded about, nor a person that would be sought, nor is veiled, thus contained, nor did He exist after He had not been existing." And he said: "Allah spoke to Moses without limbs or instruments or lips nor uvulas.............. He who claims that our God is limited, then he is ignorant about the Creator Who is worshipped."
    Praise be to Allah. We clear Allah of all non-befitting attributes, and Allah knows best.

    By the generosity of Allah, the translation of this creed of Shaykh Fakhrud-Din Ibn ^Asakir was accomplished this night of 24 Jumadal 'Akhirah 1414 AH in the city of Philadelphia in the United States of America. To Allah belong the generosities and the commendations.

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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    interesting...
    "Allah's choicest people are those whom His fear has driven to absolute silence although they are neither helpless nor dumb. Rather they are possessors of eloquence and have power to speak and sense to understand. But constant glorification of Allah's name has so overpossessed their wits that their hearts are overawed and their lips sealed. When they get established in this stage they hasten towards righteoussness."

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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Quote Originally Posted by crndvr View Post
    He does not have an above or a below, a right or a left, an in front of or a behind,
    • Explanation: This is one of the fundamentals of the creed, which is clearing Allah, ta^ala, of being in any or all directions. It is not the case, as some ignorant people believe, that Allah exists in the above direction. Some believe that Allah is in the in front of direction, bound between the slave and the Ka^bah. Others believe He is like air that is spread and occupies all places. Some, like the so-called Nasiruddin al-'Albaniyy, believe that Allah is surrounding the world from all directions just as the hand surrounds that which it has in its grip. All of that is invalid and negates the correct creed of tawhid. Imam Abu Ja^far at-Tahawiyy authored a book called An Elucidation of the Creed of Ahlus-Sunnah wal Jama^ah. In it he said: "Allah is clear of limits, ends, parts, limbs, and instruments; and the six directions do not contain Him."
      His words are of pure tawhid and are jewels that pertain to the creed. He who is attributed with limits, ends, parts, limbs, organs, or directions would have a size and a format--all attributes of bodies. Allah, ta^ala, is not a body as He, subhanahu, said in Surat ash-Shura, 11:
    Well get me an explicit text Nasiruddin al-Albani believes Allah(swt) is sorrounding the universe.

    As far as I am aware he affirms the Quranic text that Allah(swt) is above the seven heaven above his arsh as mentioned explicitly.

    If you can't bring any evidence than you are just good as talking out of you arse. Copy and pasting article is only good if you can assure the accuracy of the information.



    which means: [Nothing is like Him.] Attributing to Allah the direction of above is not perfection, contrary to what some ignorant people think. The importance of one's status is not measured by places and limits. The physical place of the angels around the ^Arsh is much higher than that of the Prophets of Allah. However, the status of the Prophets is better and much higher to Allah, the Creator.

    This is false reasoning. Allah(Swt) is above because he said so. We attribute highness because he said so. Not because of aristotelian bastardised thoughts that are stuck in the 6th century.





    a whole or a part.
    • Explanation: Allah, ta^ala, is not a body composed of parts and therefore is not attributed with wholeness or partness. Al-Bayhaqiyy reported in his book Al-'Asma' was-Sifat that al-Halimiyy, in explaining the name of Allah, Al-Muta^ali, said: "It means the One Who is above being attributed with the attributes of the creatures like marriage, children, limbs, organs, sitting on the sarir (i.e., the ^Arsh), being hidden behind veils so that the eyes would not see Him, moving from one place to another, and the like. Some of these attributes dictate ending, some dictate need, and some dictate change. All of that is non-befitting and not permissible to attribute to He Whose Existence is without a beginning."
    Lets analyse this text.

    The greek influenced psuedo-Ashari school of thought cannot even attribute movement because to them movement dictate change.
    For some reason this movement must be negated.


    Honestly I find their thoughts disturbing and far away from textual proof.
    As a graduate in science I never understood their miss-construed logic.

    Here is the choice for all muslim to accept. A bastardised line of thoughs of a sect or the Word of Allah(swt). (Mind my language).

    Imam Bukhari recorded from Abul-Aaliyah (d. 94AH) that istiwaa means He rose over it.There are 7 ayaat in the Quran that specifically mention istiwaa:
    1. Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in Six Days, and then He Istawa (rose over) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty). He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed be Allah, the Lord of the ‘Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists)! (7:54)
    2. Who created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Istawâ (rose over) the Throne. The Most Beneficent (Allâh)! Ask Him (O Prophet Muhammad ??? ???? ???? ????), as He is Al-Khabîr (The All-Knower of everything). (25:59)
    3. Allâh is He Who raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see. Then, He Istawâ (rose above) the Throne. He has subjected the sun and the moon (to continue going round)! Each running (its course) for a term appointed. He regulates all affairs, explaining the Ayât (proofs, signs) in detail, (so) that you may believe with certainty in the meeting with your Lord. (13:2)
    4. Surely, your Lord is Allâh Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then Istawâ (rose over) the Throne, disposing the affair of all things. No intercessor (can plead with Him) except after His Leave. That is Allâh, your Lord; so worship Him (Alone). Then, will you not remember? (10:3)
    5. The Most Beneficent (Allâh) Istawâ (rose over) the (Mighty) Throne. (20:5)
    6. Allâh it is He Who has created the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them in six Days. Then He Istawâ (rose over) the Throne. You (mankind) have none, besides Him, as a Walî (protector or helper etc.) or an intercessor. Will you not then remember (or be admonished)? (32:4)
    7. He it is Who created the heavens and the earth in six Days and then Istawa (rose over) the Throne (in a manner that suits His Majesty). He knows what goes into the earth and what comes forth from it, what descends from the heaven and what ascends thereto. And He is with you (by His Knowledge) wheresoever you may be. And Allah is the All-Seer of what you do. (57:4)
    The rest of it is really mute point, garbage that needs to be taken out which I have not the time.
    I apologise for my brief and abrupt reply, but people should be warned against people like them.
    Last edited by Skilly; 16-12-07 at 08:06 PM.
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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Quote Originally Posted by aaishah View Post
    salam alayk,u said imam attahawi is an ashari&maturidis,who are these.Also i thought u cant be ahlu sunah and somtin else,isnt Ashari a sect or somtin?pls explain BRIEFLY.
    Yes they are sect. It is a sect. Their leader being theologian Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari. It is a sub category of the Mutazilite.

    Al-ashari was a Mutazilite until forty years of age where after being discontented with it he tried to come back to the orthodoxy. He tried to closen the gap between Ilm-Al Kalam (Speculative theology) and orthodoxy and came up with few strange view that where antagonist of orthodox view.

    It is accepted that before he died he repented from those strande view and affirmed that he use to oppose, but this is not much accepted by asharis. Whatever the case his followers did not follow sought and carried on with those sectarian views.
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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    "There
    were Imaam Abul Hasan al-Ashaari and Imaam Abu Mansoor Maturidi.
    In brief, as far as these complext and intricate debates on Kalaam is
    concerned, the view of the Ahlus Sunnah is confined to the schools of these
    two scholars. All other schools of thought are on Baatil"

    yes, very interesting
    not at all Sidi the Athari school is valid and it is very much in agreement with the Ashari's and the Muturidi's except for the factor of making ta`wil.

    We need to be aware that on Day of Judgement Allah will not ask us about his attributes.. rather he will ask us about our deeds, it is important for us Muslims to move past the debates on Aqeedah and to more better things which are affecting us today.

    May Allah Forgive us All and Guide us to what Please Him.
    The spiritual warrior is he who breaks an idol;
    and the idol of each person is his Ego.

    - Imam Abul Qasim al-Qushayri

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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Quote Originally Posted by al-ghazalli View Post
    not at all Sidi the Athari school is valid and it is very much in agreement with the Ashari's and the Muturidi's except for the factor of making ta`wil.

    We need to be aware that on Day of Judgement Allah will not ask us about his attributes.. rather he will ask us about our deeds, it is important for us Muslims to move past the debates on Aqeedah and to more better things which are affecting us today.

    May Allah Forgive us All and Guide us to what Please Him.
    Yes you would be asked about of defaming his attribute. You would be asked about of leading others astray you would be asked about splitting this ummah into sects like those that went before.

    You would take account for everything, every words of his you deny by way of tawil or not.

    What do you think people are so harsh against ashari's and maturidis and those extreme sufis?
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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Sidi you may follow your manhaj and I don't blame you nor do I consider you misguided its a pity students who follow Salafi minhaj do not show hikmah which your very Ulema show to others.

    the Late Shaykh Ghumari (May Allah Grant Him Jannatul Fardous) went to Saudi Arabia and Shaykh Bin Baz (May Allah Grant Him Jannatul Fardous) found out and insisted not only the Shaykh eat dinner with him and his students but also stay at his house as His guest. Shaykh Ghumari was a well known Ashari and critic of the Salafi's...when one of Shaykh Bin Baz's students tried to debate with the Shaykh...Shaykh Bin Baz was angered and told this student to keep quiet.

    Subhanallah these two were polar opposities yet they considered each others differences in Aqeedah mistaken tawil.

    Let's also be realistic the majority of the Scholars from the madhab followed one of these two schools (Ashari or Muturidi).

    Here is a scan from Shaykh Abul Hasan showing that Shaykhul Islam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani was very much an Ashari


    Please find enclosed a scan from the Thabat (list of the established full chains of transmission in various works) of probably the last of the great Huffaz in hadith from the Hanafi Madhhab: Imam Muhammad Abid al-Sindi al-Ayyubi al-Madani. The Thabat was entitled Hasr al-Sharid min Asanid Muhammad Abid . The Shaykh was originally from Sind, present day being around the Karachi side of Pakistan. He died in 1257 AH.



    The Thabat has reached me via Muttasil asanid back to the Hafiz of the Hijaz – Muhammad Abid al-Sindi (ra). The printed edition, vol. 2/p. 670, no. 1315 has a unique sanad listed where most of those in the sanad were known Ash'arites.



    The sanad in the scan reached the Hafiz al-Sindi via the unique Musalsal style, and onwards to us. In it I have highlighted how precisely the sanad going back to Imam Abul Hasan al-Ash'ari consists of well known Shafi'ite Doctors of Hadith with the appellation "Ash'ari" straight after their names. This appellation to the Ash'arite school was directly voiced in to the continuous sanad by the very Imams like:



    Al-Qadi Zakariyya al-Ansari – who was a very well known student of al-Hafiz Ibn Hajar in Hadith, living to around 100 years of age (see the Reliance of the Traveller for his biography)



    The Amir al-Mu'minin in Hadith in his age, al-Hafiz Ahmed ibn Hajar al-Asqalani al-Shafi'i al-Ash'ari



    The Hafiz of Sham – Abul Qasim ibn Asakir al-Dimashqi



    and others
    A big thanks to Sunniforums for the Scan.
    Attached Images Attached Images
    The spiritual warrior is he who breaks an idol;
    and the idol of each person is his Ego.

    - Imam Abul Qasim al-Qushayri

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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Quote Originally Posted by Skilly View Post
    What do you think people are so harsh against ashari's and maturidis and those extreme sufis?
    Cause they jealous of people of knowledge due to their lack of knowledge.

    So they hate philisophy cause they don't know it.

    Hate sufism cause they don't know it.

    And love position with community, so they wanna be the "scholars" and people of knowledge but know they aren't deep down, so hate knowledge they don't have and hate it's people and are jealous people.

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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Quote Originally Posted by al-ghazalli View Post
    Sidi you may follow your manhaj and I don't blame you nor do I consider you misguided its a pity students who follow Salafi minhaj do not show hikmah which your very Ulema show to others.

    the Late Shaykh Ghumari (May Allah Grant Him Jannatul Fardous) went to Saudi Arabia and Shaykh Bin Baz (May Allah Grant Him Jannatul Fardous) found out and insisted not only the Shaykh eat dinner with him and his students but also stay at his house as His guest. Shaykh Ghumari was a well known Ashari and critic of the Salafi's...when one of Shaykh Bin Baz's students tried to debate with the Shaykh...Shaykh Bin Baz was angered and told this student to keep quiet.

    Subhanallah these two were polar opposities yet they considered each others differences in Aqeedah mistaken tawil.

    Let's also be realistic the majority of the Scholars from the madhab followed one of these two schools (Ashari or Muturidi).

    Here is a scan from Shaykh Abul Hasan showing that Shaykhul Islam Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani was very much an Ashari


    A big thanks to Sunniforums for the Scan.
    I am not here entertaining guest, this is a forum. We debate.
    Secondly that sufi forum is hardly an example of entertaining guest.

    Yes I been to that incoherent devious forum that when backed on to the corner they moved their thread to their safe heaven (where no one can post except them) or banning and thus effectively neutralising any response or refutation.
    The people at that forum are sick. I know it because I frequented that forum.

    If you claim the Majority than your claim can only be from after the inception of AShari & Maturidi sects.

    Prior to that majority where not asharis or maturidis a bit, nor they held those peculiar doctrines, and even after that it was never accepted by the sunnis, this is demonstrated by history.

    The reality of the Ash’ari school and its spread.

    Taqi al-Din Ahmad b. ‘Ali al-Maqrizi (d. 845)
    An excerpt from al-Khitat al-Maqriziyya 4/184-5
    The reality of the school of al-Ash’ari – may Allah be merciful with him – is that he followed a way between the negation of attributes, that being the Mu’tazili school, and the affirmation thereof, that being the school of anthropomorphists, and further debated his beliefs and supported his school with proofs. Thereafter, a group of theologians inclined towards and relied upon his school; from them, al-Qadhi Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Tayyib al-Baqillani al-Maliki, Abu Bakr Muhammad b. al-Hasan b. Furak, al-Shaykh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. Mihran al-Isfaraini, al-Shaykh Abu Ishaq Ibrahim b. ‘Ali b. Yusuf al-Shirazi, al-Shaykh Abu Hamid Muhammad b. Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Ghazzali, Abu al-Fath Muhammad b. ‘Abd al-Karim b. Ahmad al-Shahrastani, al-Imam Fakhr al-Din Muhammad b. ‘Umar b. al-Husayn al-Razi and others, the mention of whom would take a long time. They championed his school, debated and disputed according to it, and supported the school with proofs in an uncountable number of works. Due to their efforts, the school of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash’ari spread in Iraq roughly from year 380 AH, and from there it moved to Syria.

    Then al-Malik al-Nasir Salah al-Din Yusuf b. Ayyub ascended to power in Egypt, who along with the judge, Sadr al-Din ‘Abd al-Malik b. ‘Isa b. Darbas al-Marani were both the followers of this school, for they had nurtured upon it ever since they were in the service of al-Sultan al-Malik al-‘Adil Nur al-Din Mahmud b. Zanki in Damascus. Salah al-Din in his childhood had memorised a manual on creed, composed for him by Qutb al-Din Abu al-Ma’ali Mas’ud b. Muhammad b. Mas’ud al-Nisaburi, the manual which he, in turn, made his children memorise. For this reason they placed Ash’arism above everything else and held on to it very firmly, and furthermore, they obliged the masses to adhere to this school. And so it continued in this vein through out all the Ayyubite dynasties, and thereafter right through the reign of their freed-slaves, the Turkish governors.

    This also coincided with one of the trips of Abu ‘Abdullah Muhammad b. Tumart from North Africa to Iraq where he learnt the Ash’ari doctrine from Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali. Upon his return to North Africa, he began to teach and educate the Masamida (one of the principal Berber ethnic groups) and composed for them a manual on theology, which the commoners quickly embraced. He then passed away and was succeeded by ‘Abd al-Mu’min b. ‘Ali al-Qaysi, who was titled ‘Amir al-Mu’minin’, and who also conquered the North African dynasties, and thereafter his descendants for years. They became known as ‘al-Muwahhidun’, and then on, al-Muwahhid dynasty deemed permissible to shed the blood of anyone who opposes the doctrine of Ibn Tumart, since he was to them the distinguished leader, the infallible Mahdi. How much blood they shed due to this reason, is only known by Allah the Creator – May He be glorified and exalted! – as it is known in historical works.

    Thus, this was the reason behind the fame of the Ash’ari school and its spread in various Islamic lands, such that the rest of the schools were forgotten and gone; to such an extent that there remains no school today that opposes the Ash’ari school, with the exception of the school of the Hanbalis – the followers of Imam Abu ‘Abdullah Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal – may Allah be pleased with him. For they are upon what the Salaf were upon, that is to avoid allegorical interpretation of texts pertaining to attributes.

    Such was the case up until 700 years after Hijra, when there rose to fame, in Damascus and the outskirts, Taqi al-Din Abu al-‘Abbas Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Halim b. ‘Abd al-Salam b. Taymiyya al-Harrani. He undertook to champion the school of the Salaf and did his utmost to refute the Ash’ari school and openly censured them, the Rafida and the Sufis.
    Thereafter, the people were divided into two groups over him. A group that followed him, relied upon his views, acted in accordance with his opinions, held him as Shaykh al-Islam and the most prominent preservers of the Islamic nation. The other group declared him to be a heretic, a deviant, rebuked him for affirming attributes, and censured him over his juristic opinions, of them are those where he had a predecessor, and of them are those where they claimed he opposed the consensus and had no predecessor. He and his adversaries, both had mishaps, and their reckoning is with Allah, the one from whom nothing is hidden in the earth and the heavens. He still has, up until today, many followers in Syria, and a few in Egypt.
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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    Quote Originally Posted by BlueDragon View Post
    Cause they jealous of people of knowledge due to their lack of knowledge.

    So they hate philisophy cause they don't know it.

    Hate sufism cause they don't know it.

    And love position with community, so they wanna be the "scholars" and people of knowledge but know they aren't deep down, so hate knowledge they don't have and hate it's people and are jealous people.
    Mate I understand philoposphy very well and I understand what it is that is why I reject it as much as possible, especially when philosophy given precedent and preference over the explicit text of the Quran and Sunnah.
    You don't mix the too or make philosphy part of you religion mate.

    Their is nothing to appreciate if you know what it is.

    Sufis I have my reason for it most of it has no clear evidence that has garbed it self with orthodoxy and truth. Like most sects so.

    That is why, I don't reject everything that sufis claim under Tawassuf.
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    Re: Aqeedah At-Tahawiyah

    As I have stated I do not wish to debate on such issues, debating is a disease of the heart amongst the layman. As for your copy & paste job..is unfortunate and a vile attack against the Ashari school.

    I invite you to www.aslein.net and you can debate with one of my teachers Shaykh Sa'id Foudah (May Allah Preserve Him) and other students of knowlodge who specialize in Aqeedah.

    As for us layman we are instructed not to let our nafs get the best of us.

    وَمَنْ أَعْرَضَ عَن ذِكْرِي فَإِنَّ لَهُ مَعِيشَةً ضَنكاً وَنَحْشُرُهُ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ أَعْمَى

    قَالَ رَبِّ لِمَ حَشَرْتَنِي أَعْمَى وَقَدْ كُنتُ بَصِيراً

    قَالَ كَذَلِكَ أَتَتْكَ آيَاتُنَا فَنَسِيتَهَا وَكَذَلِكَ الْيَوْمَ تُنسَى

    May Allah have Mercy on Us and Guide us to the Truth.
    The spiritual warrior is he who breaks an idol;
    and the idol of each person is his Ego.

    - Imam Abul Qasim al-Qushayri

 

 

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