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    speak good or be silent the_middle_road's Avatar
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    Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)


    In Arabic there are only three types of words:


    1. Ism - nouns. إسم
    2. Fi'l - verbs. فعل
    3. Harf - particles. حرف


    If a word has the letters "al" ال attached to it then automatically you know it is an ism. Also, if it has a tanween i.e. the sounds "an / in / un" then again it has to be a noun. There are other ways of identifying it, as well as for the verbs and particles, but we won't go into that. Nouns don't have any tense. An example would be baitun (a house) or al-walad (the boy).


    A fi'l is a verb and in Arabic they have two tenses:


    1. al-Maadi - perfect tense. الماضي
    2. al-Mudaari' - imperfect tense. المضارع


    In English we're used to having three tenses: past, present and future. In Arabic al-maadi = the past tense. And al-mudaari' = both the present and future tenses.

    Most verbs have three root letters. Eg. fa'ala فعل. Here the root letters are a faa, 'ain and laam.

    You can then add on other letters to change the meaning slightly.
    You can change the number, i.e. make it dual or plural.
    You can also change the gender, i.e. male or female.
    You can also change the person, i.e. third (eg. He did), second (eg. You did) or first (eg. I did).


    A harf is a particle and they don't have any set meaning. There meaning is determined by their context in the sentence. They usually stay the same and do not change.
    Last edited by .: Anna :.; 10-05-09 at 08:17 PM.
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)


    maa'shaa'Allahu laa quwwata illa billah
    So you are continuing this thread

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    awesome thread.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)


    I have one doubt. Arab has masculine and feminine and not something like it. Its always he or she.
    Is there any ruling how we identify a word to be masculine or feminine?
    Or is it that just we learn it as such?

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    speak good or be silent the_middle_road's Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    In Arabic there are only two types of sentences:

    1. Jumlah Ismiyyah - nominal sentences. جملة إسمية
    2. Jumlah Fi'liyyah - verbal sentences. جملة فعلية


    Just by looking at the names of these two, they tell you what it is about. Nominal comes from "noun", so that means that a jumlah ismiyyah is any sentence that starts with a noun. If you look at the first word in the sentence and see that it is a noun, then you know that this is a nominal sentence. And if the first letter is a verb, then it is a verbal sentence / jumlah fi'liyyah.




    A jumlah ismiyyah is made up of two things:

    1. Mubtada - subject. مبتدأ
    2. Khabr - predicate. خبر


    The mubtada (subject) is the thing that is being talked about. The khabr (predicate) then gives you more information about that. An example of a jumlah ismiyyah is: Allahu qadeerun - الله قديرٌ , meaning - Allah is All-Powerful. Allah is the mubtada since it is the first word; here Allah is being spoken about. The khabr then informs us about Him, i.e. that He is All-Powerful.





    A jumlah fi'liyyah is made up of three things:

    1. Fi'l - verb. فعل
    2. Faa'il - doer. فاعل
    3. Maf'ool bihi - object. مفعول به


    This is the order in which they come in the sentence: first the verb, then the one doing the verb, then the thing or person that the verb is being done to. Notice that this is different from English sentence structure where the doer would be put first. An example is: Kataba Muhammad al-darsa - كتب محمد الدرس , meaning: Muhammad wrote the lesson. The verb is kataba (he wrote), the doer is Muhammad, and the object is al-darsa (the lesson).

    The third part, i.e. the maf'ool bihi, is optional. It doesn't always have to be there.
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by rahamath View Post

    I have one doubt. Arab has masculine and feminine and not something like it. Its always he or she.
    Is there any ruling how we identify a word to be masculine or feminine?
    Or is it that just we learn it as such?
    there are some ways of identifying, altho some things dont fit with the rule but a ta marbuta is the most obv method to identify a feminine word
    also the part fu3laa is a feminine superlative pattern
    and sometimes nature words like shams can be feminine
    but you just learn the exceptions then remember ta marbuta is the most obvious indicator

    & tmr good thread
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.

    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah


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    speak good or be silent the_middle_road's Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by rahamath View Post

    I have one doubt. Arab has masculine and feminine and not something like it. Its always he or she.
    Is there any ruling how we identify a word to be masculine or feminine?
    Or is it that just we learn it as such?
    For nouns, the "taa marbootah" shows you that a word is feminine. Eg. the word مسلم is masculine. If you then add the "taa marbootah" to get مسلمة then it is feminine.

    For masculine nouns, to get the plural you would add "oon" to the word eg. مسلمون . For feminine nouns, you would add "aat", eg. مسلمات .
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by .: Anna :. View Post
    & tmr good thread
    Wa iyyakum.

    Could you edit the first post please and make the parts "ism fi'l harf" and "maadi mudaari'" into numbered lists?
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    i tried to do it but for some reason i kept making it that they all came out with number 1?
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.

    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah


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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    thank you for this thread

    every other time i try to learn this stuff, it is peppered with loads of unnecessary terms and information

    this is consise and very understandable
    قُلْ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ هَادُوا إِن زَعَمْتُمْ أَنَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاء لِلَّهِ مِن دُونِ النَّاسِ فَتَمَنَّوُا الْمَوْتَ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ
    وَلَا يَتَمَنَّوْنَهُ أَبَدًا بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِالظَّالِمِينَ
    قُلْ إِنَّ الْمَوْتَ الَّذِي تَفِرُّونَ مِنْهُ فَإِنَّهُ مُلَاقِيكُمْ ثُمَّ تُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُم بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ


    صدق الله العظيم

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    speak good or be silent the_middle_road's Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by .: Anna :. View Post
    i tried to do it but for some reason i kept making it that they all came out with number 1?
    Umm, if you highlight the text and then click on the number button then it should work? Otherwise nevermind, doesn't really matter.
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    it worked like tht
    alhamdulillah... now i learned how 2 do it
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.

    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah


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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    qsn: doesnt command and prohibition come under fe'l aswell?
    Rajab is a month of cultivation, Shaban is month of irrigating the fields, and the month of Ramadhan is a month of reaping and harvesting.”

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by Medievalist View Post
    qsn: doesnt command and prohibition come under fe'l aswell?
    Yes. I forgot to mention that one. But also wanted to keep things simple, so it's maybe not so bad I forgot. : )
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    speak good or be silent the_middle_road's Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    In Arabic there is this concept of words being in specific cases. Depending on the words position and function in the sentence, it will be in a particular case. For nouns there are three cases:

    1. Raf' - nominative. رفع
    2. Nasb - accusative. نصب
    3. Jarr - genitive. جر


    If a noun is in the first case then it is said to be mafoo' مرفوع
    if the second, mansoob منصوب ;
    and if the third, majroor مجرور .


    So to be able to identify which case the word is in, you have to look at how it ends; what harakah it has at the end. The sign for raf' is a dommah, for nasb a fatha and for jarr a kasrah. This applies when the word is in the singular form.



    Looking at this example might make this more understandable. Eg. the word Muslim.

    If it is in the first case, then it will have a domma at the end i.e. Muslimun مسلمٌ .
    If in the second, it will have a fatha, i.e. Musliman مسلماً .
    And if the third, it will have kasrah i.e. Muslimin مسلمٍ .



    For the dual form it will be like this:

    Raf' = muslimaan مسلمان .
    Nasb and jarr = muslimain مسلمين .



    For the masculine plural:

    Raf' = muslimoon مسلمون
    Nasb and jarr = muslimeen مسلمين (Notice the difference from the dual: it's hard to see without the harakat on.)



    For the feminine plural:

    Raf' = muslimaatun مسلماتٌ .
    Nasb and jarr = muslimaatin مسلماتٍ .
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    Very happy bunny -:) KeeKee's Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    this thread brings back memories
    The enforcement of Muslim Brotherhood is the greatest social ideal of Islam. On it was based the Prophet's (SAW) sermon on his last pilgrimage, and Islam cannot be completely realized until this ideal is achieved. '
    (Shaikh Maulana Muhammad Yusuf)
    In Lam Takun Ghaadiban Annee Falaa Ubaalee...

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    السلام عليكم ورحمة الله



    Due to the fact there are many students visiting the site to learn the beautful language of the Qur'an, I felt the need to write a post with the intention of helping students on their paths in the attainment of this language.



    Quote Originally Posted by the_middle_road View Post

    In Arabic there are only three types of words:


    1. Ism - nouns. إسم
    2. Fi'l - verbs. فعل
    3. Harf - particles. حرف

    Please note that اسم is spelt without ء.




    Quote Originally Posted by rahamath View Post

    I have one doubt. Arab has masculine and feminine and not something like it. Its always he or she.
    Is there any ruling how we identify a word to be masculine or feminine?
    Or is it that just we learn it as such?

    Feminine words can be determined in many ways. Below are a few of them;

    1) Words feminine by nature. ie. mother, daughter, etc -أم بنت
    2) Words that are feminine by the existence of ة. -طبيبة سيارة
    3) Words that are feminine by convention. ie. fire, sun, cooking pot - نار شمس قدر
    4) Words feminine due to the pattern of فعلاءُ. ie. blue, red, etc. ُزرقاءُ حمراءَ
    5) Words feminine due to the fact that they occur as pairs on the body. ie. hand, ear, etc. - يد أذن

    Please note that exceptions do exist. The above are merely "general rules".




    Quote Originally Posted by the_middle_road View Post
    In Arabic there are only two types of sentences:

    1. Jumlah Ismiyyah - nominal sentences. جملة إسمية
    2. Jumlah Fi'liyyah - verbal sentences. جملة فعلية

    Please note that جملة اسمية is spelt without ء on the اسمية.




    Quote Originally Posted by the_middle_road View Post

    A jumlah fi'liyyah is made up of three things:

    1. Fi'l - verb. فعل
    2. Faa'il - doer. فاعل
    3. Maf'ool bihi - object. مفعول به


    This is the order in which they come in the sentence: first the verb, then the one doing the verb, then the thing or person that the verb is being done to.

    This is NOT the case at all. Word order does NOT give rise to meaning. Meaning is extracted from the cases that words are in. This is the reason why they have casing in the first place.

    Below are three examples which ALL mean "Muhammad saw Khaalid".

    رأى محمدٌ خالداً
    محمدٌ رأى خالداً
    خالداً رأى محمدٌ





    Quote Originally Posted by the_middle_road View Post

    For masculine nouns, to get the plural you would add "oon" to the word eg. مسلمون . For feminine nouns, you would add "aat", eg. مسلمات .
    This is not always true. IF the plural is a sound plural, THEN this holds. However, Arabic is FULL of broken plurals.

    ie. The plural of the masculine word of day, يَوْمٌ is not يَوْمُونَ but أَيَّامٌ. The plural of the feminine word bag,حَقِيبَةٌ is not حَقِيبَاتٌ but حَقَائِبُ.



    Whatever good I have uttered is from Allah and whatever wrongs I have said is from me.

    May Allah ease learning upon us all. Aameen.



    ابــــــن منظــــــور

    _____________________________

    www.onlinearabiclessons.blogspot.com
    Last edited by Ibn_Manthoor; 13-05-09 at 10:36 AM.

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    *bıɟɐɹɯıɯɐʇpɐʎızɯɯn* .: Anna :.'s Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Ibn Manthoor i think you will just confuse people by coming in and saying everything is wrong, when actually it isn't. Eg: he never said that the order gives the meaning, but rather that the usual order for jumla fi3liyyah is verb subject object, which is true...
    and the other things let broken plurals, let the bro get to it in his own time. He is doing a good job masha Allah in explaining things in a simple way...
    aameen to ur dua
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.

    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah


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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by .: Anna :. View Post
    Ibn Manthoor i think you will just confuse people by coming in and saying everything is wrong, when actually it isn't. Eg: he never said that the order gives the meaning, but rather that the usual order for jumla fi3liyyah is verb subject object, which is true...
    and the other things let broken plurals, let the bro get to it in his own time. He is doing a good job masha Allah in explaining things in a simple way...
    aameen to ur dua
    Anna

    I never said that everything was wrong. I was merely correcting his spelling errors lest students memorise them to be correct.

    In terms of WORD ORDER, then I have found that many are under the impression that it is word order that gives rise to meaning and hence to clarify this I have pointed this out.

    Finally, in terms of BROKEN PLURAL, then I also did not state that his statement was incorrect. I mentioned that there are cases where different rule applies.

    mA he is doing a very very good job and may Allah reward him for his efforts.

    If it came across that I was saying everything is wrong then I ask the brother to forgive me for it was indeed not from my intentions.


    وما توفيقي إلا بالله


    ___________________________

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    Last edited by Ibn_Manthoor; 13-05-09 at 12:04 PM.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    okay
    .: Rufaida :.
    .:Fa Firroo Ila-llaah:.

    “People praise you for what they suppose is in you,
    but you must blame your soul for what you know is in you.”
    ~ Ibn Atallah


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    speak good or be silent the_middle_road's Avatar
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Ibn Manthoor, for the corrections. About the spelling with the hamzah, I'm using this thing at the moment and I don't know what I can really do about it.

    About everything else: this thread is just about the basics and I'm intentionally trying to keep it as simple as possible. I get the feeling that although there are alhamdulillah a lot of resources on the net for learning Arabic, a lot of them are too technical and detailed which could put off people who are just starting to learn and finding it a struggle. So here I'm mentioning only the bare minimum of things without going into all the complexities of the language. So for example, that is why I only mentioned about the sound plurals and omitted to discuss the broken plurals: for beginners in Arabic I think to go into all of that might just confuse and therefore dishearten them.


    And for anyone else reading this, I guess I should really have mentioned this at the beginning that there are going to be a lot of stuff not mentioned here and you shouldn't like be relying on the info given here or anything. Just take it as a basic guide. And there could be errors too, coz I'm not following a book or text or anything.
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

  22. #22
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    I used to use Yamli use Arabic Keyboard, you can make it so you can type but I just click on the letters because I'm on mac and I dunno how to do it. haha. Oh and sorry.. like posting random stuff in this, maybe split it so there's discussion thread and then just one where you post all of this? I think that's easier to follow.. but just a suggestion. for your recent posts.
    Last edited by scribble; 13-05-09 at 05:18 PM.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    So far we've mentioned the different cases that there are and the signs that the words have when they are in these various cases. Now we're going to look at what type of words belong to which case.


    Raf'


    The first case is raf'. The first two types of words which belong to this case are:

    1. The mubtada' (subject)
    2. And the khabr (predicate)


    For instance, if you look at the example given for a jumlah ismiyyah (nominal sentence), then it was "Allahu qadeerun." You can see that the word 'Allah' has a dommah, and the word 'qadeer' does as well. They both belong to the case of raf'. So here Allah is marfoo', and also qadeer.



    Another type of word belonging to the case of raf' is the faa'il (the doer). The example given for a jumlah fi'liyyah (verbal sentence) was "Kataba Muhammadun al-darsa." You can see that the word Muhammad (the one doing the action) has a dommah. It belongs to the case of raf' and is thus marfoo'.



    Other types of words in this case are the khabr inna and the ism kaana. More on this later. And another one is the naa'ibul faa'il.

    So there are six in total:

    1. Mubtada
    2. Khabr
    3. Faa'il
    4. Khabr inna
    5. Ism Kaana
    6. Naa'ibul faa'il
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)


    "He is the Ever-Forgiving, the All-Loving. "
    (85:14)


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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Insh'Allah, I'll be taking Arabic 101 in college in the Fall semester, so this thread is helping me have some idea of what to look forward. Jazak'Allah!
    Regarding spouses: "They are your garments, and you are their garments." (Qur'an, Surah 2:187)


    Alhamdulilah! Beautiful nasheed...if you click on the link, be sure to listen to the ENTIRE thing!

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Jarr

    The second case is actually nasb, but we're gonna skip to the last one because nasb is the most complicated and lengthy of them all, and jarr is very short.

    There are only two types of words which fall in this case.


    The first is any word which comes after a حرف جر harf jarr (preposition). Examples of such words are: في (in), على (on / upon), مع (with), and so on. So whenever there are these types of words, then the word following it will be majroor (i.e. in the case of jarr) and would thus take a kasra (when in the singular form).

    Examples: fee al-baiti (in the house), 'alaa Allahi (upon Allah), ma'a al-imaami (with the Imam).

    [Note the kasrah on the second words]



    In Arabic there is a construction called إضافة / idaafah. This construction is used to show possession. It consists of two parts: the mudaaf مضاف, and the mudaaf ilaih مضاف إليه. The first part, the mudaaf, is the thing that is possessed, and the second part, the mudaaf ilaih, is the one who possesses it.


    So the second type of word which is in the case of jarr is when a word is mudaaf ilaih. Examples are:

    Rasulu Allahi (Allah's Book / the Book of Allah), qalam al-waladi (the boy's pen / the pen of the boy).

    [Note the kasrah on the second words]



    So to recap, when a word is in this case it gets a kasra (when singular) and there are two types of words which belong to this case:


    1. Word following a preposition.
    2. The mudaaf ilaih (i.e. the second part of the idaafah construction).
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Mashallah

    I prefer sarf than nahu ...much easier

    will you be doing sarf too...?

    i love grammar thou you learn something new everyday....keep it up!!

    Ma'salamah

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)



    grammar can be quite snoring innit... when do you think you'll be going over iraab? [no pressure]

    wa/salam

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    ^^^ yeeah ud say that init...Mis Mualimah!!!!

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    excellent thread Mashallah..i understood most of it...

    i have 3 questions?

    1) is all this basic stuff similar to the arabic lessons posted on the forum by sis Anna?

    2) what is sarf and nahu?

    3) i was reading translation of Surah Amma (Last juz) there are three ayahs

    one is 'Inna yaum alfasli kaana meeqaataa'

    second is 'Inna jahannama kaanat mirsaadaa'

    third is 'Innahum kaanu la yarjoona hisaabaa'

    so there are three words 'kaana, kaanat and kaanu' why are three different words being used when it has the same meaning more or less? was a bit confusing...
    الصلوۃ والسلام علیک یا سیدی یارسول اللہ

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)


    kaanu=they were
    kaanaa= they (two) were
    kaana=singular
    Kaanat= may be to do with feminine singular

    'Inna yaum alfasli kaana meeqaataa'
    Here yaum is day, singular and may be kaana

    'Inna jahannama kaanat mirsaadaa'
    Jahannama-hell, feminine? and so kaanat

    third is 'Innahum kaanu la yarjoona hisaabaa'
    hum means they-plural and so kaanu

    Thats just my guess. I may be wrong but I am happy that I could write something maa'shaa'Allahu laa quwwata illa billah, be it right or wrong. I hope someone will clarify in'shaa'Allah.
    Last edited by rahamath; 01-07-09 at 02:40 PM.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)


    nahu=grammer
    sarf=verb and its forms?

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by rahamath View Post

    kaanu=they were
    kaanaa= they (two) were
    kaana=singular
    Kaanat= may be to do with feminine singular

    'Inna yaum alfasli kaana meeqaataa'
    Here yaum is day, singular and may be kaana

    'Inna jahannama kaanat mirsaadaa'
    Jahannama-hell, feminine? and so kaanat

    third is 'Innahum kaanu la yarjoona hisaabaa'
    hum means they-plural and so kaanu

    Thats just my guess. I may be wrong but I am happy that I could write something maa'shaa'Allahu laa quwwata illa billah, be it right or wrong. I hope someone will clarify in'shaa'Allah.
    It's correct.

    Quote Originally Posted by rahamath View Post

    nahu=grammer
    sarf=verb and its forms?
    Sarf = morphology. It's a bit hard to explain but it's to do with the formation of words, the different forms of the verb, and so on.
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Nasb


    Nasb is the most complicated of the three and has the highest number of different categories (I think about 15).


    The most common one is the maf'oolun bihi مفعولٌ به . It is the object of the sentence i.e. the thing which the verb is acted out on. For example: Daraba Muhammad waladan ضرب محمد ولداً - Muhammad hit a boy. The boy is the object of the sentence. Therefore it is in the nasb case and that is why it has a fatha.


    Another one is the zarf ظرف : the adverb. You get zarf al-zamaan ظرف الزمان (adverb of time) and zarf al-makaan ظرف المكان (adverb of place).

    An example of the first one is: Dhahaba ila al-madrasah sabaahan ذهب إلى المدرسة صباحاً - He went to school in the morning. The word 'sabaahan (in the morning)' tells you when the verb was done and that makes it zarf al-zamaan. Therefore it is mansoob (i.e. in the case of nasb) and takes a fatha.

    An example of zarf al-makaan is: Jalastu tahta al-shajarah جلست تحت الشجرة - I sat under the tree. The word 'tahta' tells you where the verb was done.


    Another one similar to the above two is the haal حال . It tells you the condition of the person. Eg: Dhahaba khaalid musri'an ذهب خالد مسرعاً Khaalid went quickly. The word 'musri'an' tells you how he went i.e. what his condition was.



    So that's three so far:

    1. Maf'oolun bih
    2. Zarf (zamaan & makaan)
    3. Haal
    "And thus have We willed you to be a community of the middle way."
    (al-Baqarah: 143)

    Allahumma innaa na'udhu bika min an nushrika bika shai-an na'lamuh; wa nastaghfiruka limaa laa na'lam.

  35. #35
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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by rahamath View Post

    nahu=grammer
    sarf=verb and its forms?
    Yup, Nahu mostly concentrates on a a sentence and sarf is looking at formation of verbs verbs and verbs ...

    wa/salam

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Then its nahu what i need to learn
    الصلوۃ والسلام علیک یا سیدی یارسول اللہ

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    ^



    best to learn both, what one of my teachers told me was that 'Sarf can live without Nahu but Nahu cant live without Sarf' because certain things in Nahu are also Sarf related...

    wa/salam

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    Quote Originally Posted by rahamath View Post

    kaanu=they were
    kaanaa= they (two) were
    kaana=singular
    Kaanat= may be to do with feminine singular

    'Inna yaum alfasli kaana meeqaataa'
    Here yaum is day, singular and may be kaana

    'Inna jahannama kaanat mirsaadaa'
    Jahannama-hell, feminine? and so kaanat

    third is 'Innahum kaanu la yarjoona hisaabaa'
    hum means they-plural and so kaanu

    Thats just my guess. I may be wrong but I am happy that I could write something maa'shaa'Allahu laa quwwata illa billah, be it right or wrong. I hope someone will clarify in'shaa'Allah.

    Yes thats right this is Sarf related when going into 1st/2nd or 3rd person yet nahu related aswell.... yawm is singular and masculine so kaana will be used... jahannam is a feminine word and singular so kaanat will be used...

    sentence three has 'Innahum' so the dhameer 'hum' is referring to 'plural' and 'masculine' so the 'nu-[waw and alif-]' part came in making it 'kaanu'

    I'm a confusing person who may have just made this more confusing maybe someone else should clarify...

    wa/salam

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    salam alaikom

    this is my first post, looking forward to take a part of this community

    glad to none arab willing to learn arabic.

    carry on the good job teach, being teacher is not easy coz it's all about amanah. that's why arabs have saying says:
    قم للمعلم ووفه تبجيلا كاد المعلم انا يكون رسولا

    wa salam alaikom wa rahmato allah wa barakatoh

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    Re: Basic Arabic Grammar (Nahu)

    ^^, akhee
    39 days to go
    Cud u pls translate the 'arab saying' in english

    oh welcome to the forum btw.


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