Register

If this is your first visit, please click the Sign Up now button to begin the process of creating your account so you can begin posting on our forums! The Sign Up process will only take up about a minute of two of your time.

Ads by Muslim Ad Network

Page 1 of 2 12 LastLast
Results 1 to 40 of 70
  1. #1
    أنا مسلم AbuMubarak's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2002
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    82,419
    Rep Power
    549

    Salahuddin Ayyubi

    Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi, the hero of hundreds of battles, was the person who for twenty years braved the storm of the Crusaders and ultimately pushed back the combined forces of Europe which had come to swarm the Holy Land. The world has hardly witnessed a more chivalrous and humane conqueror.


    The Crusades represent the maddest and the longest war in the history of mankind, in which the storm of savage fanaticism of the Christian West burst in all its fury over western Asia.

    `The Crusades form', says a Western writer, `one of the maddest episodes in history. Christianity hurled itself against Muhammadanism in expedition after expedition for nearly three centuries, until failure brought lassitude, and superstition itself was undermined by its own labour. Europe was drained of men and money, and threatened with social bankruptcy, if not with annihilation. Millions perished in battle, hunger or disease and every atrocity imagination can conceive disgraced the warrior of the Cross'.

    The Christian West was excited to a mad religious frenzy by Peter the Hermit, and his followers to liberate the Holy Land from the hands of the Muslims. `Every means', says Hallam, `was used to excite an epidemical frenzy'. During the time that a Crusader bore the Cross, he was under the protection of the Church and exempted from all taxes as well as free to commit all sins.


    Peter the Hermit himself led the second host of the Crusaders comprising forty thousand people. `Arriving at Mallevile, they avenged their precursors by assaulting the town, slaying seven thousand of the inhabitants, and abandoning themselves to every species of grossness and liberalism'. The savage hordes called Crusaders converted Hungary and Bulgaria into desolate regions. When they reached Asia Minor, they, according to Michaud, `committed crimes which made nature shudder'.


    The third wave of the Crusaders commanded by a German monk, according to Gibbon, `were comprised of the most stupid and savage refuse of people. They mingled with their devotion a brutal licence of rape, prostitution and drunkenness'. `They forgot Constantinople and Jerusalem', says Michaud `in tumultuous scenes of debauchery, and pillage, violation and murder was everywhere left on the traces of their passage'.


    The fourth horde of the Crusaders which had risen from western Europe was, according to Mill, `another herd of wild and desperate savages... The internal multitude hurried on the south in their usual career of carnage and rape'. But, at last, they were annihilated by the infuriated Hungarian Army which had a foretaste of the madness of the earlier Crusaders.


    Later the Crusaders met with initial success and conquered a major part of Syria and Palestine, including the Holy city of Jerusalem. But their victories were followed by such brutalities and massacres of innocent Muslims which eclipsed the massacres of Changiz and Hulaku. Mill, a Christian historian, testifies to this massacre of the Muslim population on the fall of the Muslim town of Autioch. He writes: `The dignity of age, the helplessness of youth and the beauty of the weaker sex were disregarded by the Latin savages. Houses were no sanctuaries, and the sign of a mosque added new virulence to cruelty'. According to Michaud: `if contemporary account can be credited, all the vices of the infamous Babylon prevailed among the liberators of Scion'. The Crusaders laid waste to flourishing towns of Syria, butchered their population in cold blood and burnt to ashes the invaluable treasures of art and learning including the world famous library of Tripolis (Syria) containing more than three million volumes. `The streets ran with blood until ferocity was tired out', says Mill. `Those who were vigorous or beautiful were reserved for the slave market at Antioch, but the aged and the infirm were immolated at the altar of cruelty'.


    But in the second half of the 12th century, when the Crusaders were in their greatest fury and the emperors of Germany and France and Richard, the lion-hearted king of England, had taken the field in person for the conquest of the Holy Land, the Crusaders were met by Sultan Salahuddin Ayubi, a great warrior who pushed back the surging wave of Christianity out to engulf the Holy Land. He was not able to clear the gathering storm but in him the Crusaders met a man of indomitable will and dauntless courage who could accept the challenge of the Christian West.


    Salahuddin was born in 1137. He got his early training under his illustrious father Najmuddin Ayub and his chivalrous uncle Asaduddin Sherkoh, who were the trusted lieutenants of Nooruddin Mahmud, the monarch of Syria. Asaduddin Sherkoh, a great warrior general was the commander of the Syrian force, which had defeated the Crusaders both in Syria and Egypt. Sherkoh entered Egypt in 1167 to meet the challenge of the Fatamid Minister Shawer who had allied himself with the French. The marches and counter-marches of the gallant Sherkoh and his ultimate victory at Babain over the allied force, according to Michaud, `show military capacity of the highest order'. Ibni Atheer writes about it: `Never has history recorded a more extraordinary event than the rout of the Egyptian force and the French at the littoral by only a thousand cavaliers'.


    On January 8, 1169 Sherkoh arrived in Cairo and was appointed as the Minister and Commander-in-Chief by the Fatimid Caliph. But Sherokh was not destined to enjoy the fruits of his high office long. He died two months later in 1169. On his death, his nephew Salahuddin Ayubi became the Prime Minister of Egypt. He soon won the hearts of the people by his liberality and justice and on the death of the Egyptian Caliph became the virtual ruler of Egypt.


    In Syria too, the celebrated Nooruddin Mahmud died in 1174 and was succeeded by his eleven year old son, Malik-us-Saleh who became a tool in the hands of his courtiers, specially Gumushtagin. Salahuddin sent a message to Malik-us-Saleh offering his services and devotion. He even continued to keep his name in the `Khutaba' (Friday Sermons) and coinage. But all these considerations were of no avail for the young ruler and his ambitious courtiers. This state of affairs once more heartened the Crusaders who were kept down by the advice of Gumushtagin retired to Aleppo, leaving Damascus exposed to a Frankish attack. The Crusaders instantly laid siege to the Capital city and released it only after being paid heavy ransom. This enraged Salahuddin who hurried to Damascus with a small force and took possession of it.


    After occupying Damascus, he did not enter the palace of his patron, Nooruddin Mahmud, but stayed in his father's house. The Muslims, on the other hand, were much dismayed by the activities of Malik-us-Saleh and invited him to rule over the area. But Salahuddin continued to rule on behalf of the young Malik-us-Saleh. On the death of Malik-us-Saleh in 1181-82, the authority of Salahuddin was acknowledged by all the sovereigns of western Asia.


    There was a truce between the Sultan and the Franks in Palestine but, according to the French historian Michaud, `the Mussalmans respected their pledged faith, whilst the Christians gave the signal of a new war'. Contrary to the terms of the truce, the Christian ruler Renaud or Reginald of Chatillon attacked a Muslim caravan passing by his castle, massacred a large number of people and looted their property. The Sultan was now free to act. By a skilful manoeuvre, Salahuddin entrapped the powerful enemy forces near the hill of Hittin in 1187 and routed them with heavy loses. The Sultan did allow the Christians to recover and rapidly followed up his victory of Hittin. In a remarkably short time, he reoccupied a large number of cities which were in possession of the Christians including Nablus, Jericho, Ramlah, Caesarea, Arsuf, Jaffa and Beirut. Ascalon, too, submitted after a short siege and was granted generous terms by the kind-hearted Sultan.


    The Sultan now turned his attention to Jerusalem which contained more than sixty thousand Crusaders. The Christians, could not withstand the onslaught of the Sultan's forces and capitulated in 1187. The humanity of the Sultan towards the defeated Christians of Jerusalem procures an unpleasant contrast to the massacre of the Muslims in Jerusalem when conquered by the Christians about ninety years before.
    According to the French historian Michaud, on the conquest of Jerusalem by the Christians in 1099 `the Muslims were massacred in the streets and in the houses. Jerusalem had no refuge for the vanquished. Some fled from death by precipitating themselves from the ramparts; others crowded for shelter into the palaces, the towers and above all, in the mosques where they could not conceal themselves from the Christians. The Crusaders, masters of the Mosque of Umar, where the Muslims defended themselves for sometime, renewed their deplorable scenes which disgraced the conquest of Titus. The infantry and the cavalry rushed pell-mell among the fugitives. Amid the most horrid tumult, nothing was heard but the groans and cries of death; the victors trod over heaps of corpses in pursuing those who vainly attempted to escape. Raymond d'Agiles who was an eye-witness, says :that under the portico of the mosque, the blood was knee-deep, and reached the horses' bridles.'


    There was a short lull in the act of slaughter when the Crusaders assembled to offer their thanksgiving prayer for the victory they had achieved. But soon it was renewed with great ferocity. `All the captives', says Michaud, `whom the lassitude of carnage had at first spared, all those who had been saved in the hope of rich ransom, were butchered in cold blood. The Muslims were forced to throw themselves from the tops of towers and houses; they were burnt alive; they were dragged from their subterranean retreats, they were hauled to the public places, and immolated on piles of the dead. Neither the tears of women nor the cries of little children--- not even the sight of the place where Jesus Christ forgave his executioners, could mollify the victors' passion... The carnage lasted for a week. The few who escaped were reduced to horrible servitude'.


    Another Christian historian, Mill adds: `It was resolved that no pity should be shown to the Mussalmans. The subjugated people were, therefore, dragged into the public places, and slain as victims. Women with children at their breast, girls and boys, all were slaughtered. The squares, the streets and even the un-inhabited places of Jerusalem, were strewn with the dead bodies of men and women, and the mangled limbs of children. No heart melted in compassion, or expanded into benevolence'.


    These are the graphic accounts of the massacre of the Muslims in Jerusalem about ninety years before the reoccupation of the Holy city by Sultan Salahuddin in which more than seventy thousand Muslims perished.


    On the other hand, when the Sultan captured Jerusalem in 1187, he gave free pardon to the Christians living in the city. Only the combatants were asked to leave the city on payment of a nominal ransom. In most of the cases, the Sultan provided the ransom money from his own pocket and even provided them transport. A number of weeping Christian women carrying their children in their arms approached the Sultan and said `You see us on foot, the wives, mothers and daughters of the warriors who are your prisoners; we are quitting forever this country; they aided us in our lives, in losing them we lose our last hope; if you give them to us, they can alleviate our miseries and we shall not be without support on earth'. The Sultan was highly moved with their appeal and set free their men. Those who left the city were allowed to carry all their bag and baggage. The humane and benevolent behaviour of the Sultan with the defeated Christians of Jerusalem provides a striking contrast to the butchery of the Muslims in this city at the hands of the Crusaders ninety years before. The commanders under the Sultan vied with each other in showing mercy to the defeated Crusaders.


    The Christian refugees of Jerusalem were not given refuge by the cities ruled by the Christians. `Many of the Christians who left Jerusalem', says Mill, `went to Antioch but Bohemond not only denied them hospitality, but even stripped them. They marched into the Muslims country, and were well received'. Michaud gives a long account of the Christian inhumanity to the Christian refugees of Jerusalem. Tripoli shut its gates on them and, according to Michaud, `one woman, urged by despair, cast her infant into the sea, cursing the Christians who refused them succour'. But the Sultan was very considerate towards the defeated Christians. Respecting their feelings, he did not enter the city of Jerusalem until the Crusaders had left.


    From Jerusalem, the Sultan marched upon Tyre, where the ungrateful Crusaders pardoned by Sultan in Jerusalem had organized to meet him. The Sultan captured a number of towns held by the Crusaders on the sea coast, including Laodicea, Jabala, Saihun, Becas, Bozair and Derbersak. The Sultan had set free Guy de Luginan on the promise that he would instantly leave for Europe. But, as soon as this ungrateful Christian Knight got freedom, he broke his pledged word and collecting a large army, laid siege to Ptolemais.


    The fall of Jerusalem into the hands of the Muslims threw Christendom into violent commotion and reinforcements began to pour in from all parts of Europe. The Emperors of Germany and France as well as Richard, the Lion-hearted, king of England, hurried with large armies to seize the Holy Land from the Muslims. They laid siege to Acre which lasted for several months. In several open combats against the Sultan,, the Crusaders were routed with terrible losses.

    The Sultan had now to face the combined might of Europe. Incessant reinforcements continued pouring in for the Crusaders and despite their heavy slaughter in combats against the Sultan, their number continued increasing. The besieged Muslims of Acre, who held on so long against the flower of the European army and who had been crippled with famine at last capitulated on the solemn promise that none would be killed and that they would pay 2,000,000 pieces of gold to the chiefs of the Crusaders. There was some delay in the payment of the ransom when the Lion-hearted king of England butchered the helpless Muslims in cold blood within the sight of their brethren.


    This act of the king of England infuriated the Sultan. He vowed to avenge the blood of the innocent Muslims. Along the 150 miles of coastlines, in eleven Homeric battles, the Sultan inflicted heavy losses on the Christian forces.


    At the last the Lion-hearted king of England sued for peace, which was accepted by the Sultan. He had found facing him a man of indomitable will and boundless energy and had realized the futility of continuing the struggle against such a person. In September 1192, peace was concluded and the Crusaders left the Holy Land with bag and baggage, bound for their homes in Europe.


    `Thus ended the third Crusade', writes Michaud, `in which the combined forces of the west could not gain more than the capture of Acre and the destruction of Ascaion. In it, Germany lost one of its greatest emperors and the flower of its army. More than six lakh Crusaders landed in front of Acre and hardly one lakh returned to their homes. Europe has more reasons to wail on the outcome of this Crusade as in it had participated the best armies of Europe. The flower of Western chivalry which Europe was proud of had fought in these wars'.


    The Sultan devoted the rest of his life to public welfare activities and built hospitals, schools, colleges and mosques all over his dominion.


    But he was not destined to live long to enjoy the fruits of peace. A few months later, he died on March 4, 1193 at Damascus. `The day of his death' says a Muslim writer, `was for Islam and the Mussalmans, a misfortune such as they never suffered since they were deprived of the first four Caliphs. The palace, the empire, and the world was overwhelmed with grief, the whole city was plunged in sorrow, and followed his bier weeping and crying'.


    Thus died Sultan Salahuddin, one of the most humane and chivalrous monarchs in the annals of mankind. In him, nature had very harmoniously blended the benevolent and merciful heart of a Muslim with a matchless military genius. The messenger who took the news of his death to Baghdad brought the Sultan's coat of mail, his horse one dinar and 36 dirhams which was all the property he had left. His contemporaries and other historians are unanimous in acknowledging Salahuddin as a tender-hearted, kind, patient, affable person--- a friend of the learned and the virtuous whom he treated with utmost respect and beneficence. `In Europe', says Phillip K. Hitti, `he touched the fancy of the English minstrels as well as the modern novelists and is still considered the paragon of chivalry'.

    Salahuddin’s Conquest of Jerusalem

    Hadia Dajani-Shakeel. "Some Medieval Accounts of Salah al-Din's Recovery of Jerusalem (Al-Quds)"

    in Hisham Nashabe (ed) Studia Palaestina: Studies in honour of Constantine K. Zurayk, Institute for Palestine Studies, Beirut 1988.

    Introduction

    " If God blesses us by enabling us to drive His enemies out of Jerusalem, how fortunate and happy we would be! For the enemy has controlled Jerusalem for ninety-one years, during which time God has received nothing from us here in the way of adoration. At the same time, the zeal of the Muslim rulers to deliver it languished. Time passed, and so did many [in different] generations, while the Franks succeeded in rooting themselves strongly there. Now God has reserved the merit of its recovery for one house, the house of the sons of Ayyub, in order to unite all hearts in appreciation of its members."

    Salah al-Din

    This statement not only sums up Salah al-Din's attitude towards Jerusalem but also embodies what the Arabs and the Muslims of the area keenly felt. That the liberation of Jerusalem had always been the ultimate goal of Salah al-Din (d. A.H. 589/A.D. 1193), as it had been that of his predecessor Nur al-Din Zangi (d. A.H. 569/A.D. 1174), is a historical fact for which evidence is abundant. Interruptions in Salah al-Din's progress towards achieving this goal may have led some historians to minimize his quest for the recovery of the city, but, in our judgment, this is a misreading of history.

    The accounts of the actual capture of Jerusalem are varied with respect to the perspective from which they were written and the details they give. However, despite some discrepancies, they cohere and complement one another. Our concern in this article will be mainly with the different aspects of Salah al-Din's recovery of Jerusalem: the military, the demographic, and the ideological. We will thus focus on the following topics:

    • I. Jerusalem Between July and September 1187

    • II. Salah al-Din's Attack

    • III. The Surrender of Jerusalem

    • IV. The Latin Exodus

    • V. The Fate of the Native Christians

    • VI. The Muslim Response to the Liberation of Jerusalem.

    The Arabic accounts give us general information about Salah al- Din's attack on Jerusalem, but they fail to identify the exact locations of some of his battles and other important information about the Latins in the city, as well as about Salah al-Din's contacts with the Arab-Christian community in Jerusalem. In order to complete this picture we will utilize the chronicle of Ernoul (Chroniquc d'Er- noul). Ernoul (d. A.D. 1230) was the squire of Balian of Ibelin, the Latin leader who negotiated the surrender of Jerusalem to Salah al- Din. He was an eyewitness to the battle of Jerusalem and provides insight into what was happening within the walled city,.

    There is some measure of coherence among the Arabic accounts as well as between the Arabic accounts and Ernoul's account. The consistency of these accounts itself supports their claim to authenticity. In addition to the medieval accounts, we will also use, wherever possible, modern sources that have utilized accounts in Latin.

    Jerusalem Between July and September 1187

    Salah al-Din's decisive victory at Hittin on Saturday, 24 Rabi' al- Thani, A.H. 583/4 July, A.D. 1187 opened the way for him to reconquer the rest of Palestine. Thus, within a period of two months, from July to September, he recovered all the inland cities and fortresses except Jerusalem, al-Karak, and al-Shawbak in Transjordan, as well as some fortresses in the north, like Kawkab (Belvoir) and Safad. He also recovered all major ports between 'Asqalan and Jubayl except Tyre.2 In so doing, he cleared the land route between Egypt and Palestine for the movement of his troops and established his fleet in the Mediterranean between Alexandria and Acre. His fleet went into action immediately (Jumada al-Thani, A.H. 583/September, A.D. 1187) and blocked the movement of European ships in the area under its control.

    Jerusalem, the capital of the Latin kingdom, had suffered a great loss of manpower as a result of Hittin. Among those captured or killed were the king, Gui of Lusignan; his counsellors; his brother Amaury, the constable of the kingdom; the grand masters of the Templars and the Hospitallers, and a large number of the knights of these two military orders. The only surviving leaders, who fled the battle to safety through Muslim lines, were Raymond of Tripoli, Reynold of Sidon, and Balian of Ibelin (referred to in Arabic sources as Balian Ibn Barzan). These men had enjoyed friendly relations with Salah al-Din and were suspected by the Latins of complicity with him. Of the three, the most important for our discussion is Balian.

    While Salah al-Din mopped up Crusader strongholds in Palestine after the battle of Hittin, Jerusalem was placed under a temporary government, with Queen Sybil, wife of Gui of Lusignan, as the ruler along with Heraclius, the controversial and unpopular patriarch. The city faced many problems. In addition to the loss of most of its male population, it suffered from a shortage of food because the battle of Hittin had occurred at harvest time and, accordingly, the crops were lost.

    The shortage of food and supplies became more acute as refugees poured into Jerusalem from most of the areas surrounding it. Some of these refugees must have gone to Jerusalem seeking shelter within its walls, while others presumably went to defend the city, just as native Palestinians had done ninety years earlier. The city, which could accommodate a population of about 30,000, became the residence of about 60,000 persons, according to estimates of Arab chroniclers. As Runciman indicates, there were fifty women and children for every man. Refugees so crowded the streets, the churches, and the houses that the walled city could hardly accommodate them. According to Ibn al-Athir's somewhat exaggerated description, when Salah al-Din's forces approached the city, "they saw on the wall a terrifying crowd of men and heard an uproar of voices coming from the people inside the wall, which led them to infer that a large population was assembled there.''

    Faced with all these problems, Jerusalem could not have resisted an attack by Salah al-Din for very long. Realizing this, its authorities tried to establish contact with Salah al-Din to discuss the future of the city. We have two different accounts of their efforts.

    The first, by Abu Shamah, who quotes al-Qadisi, indicates that Salah al-Din had said in a letter to a relative that the sovereign of Jerusalem (Malik al-Quds) had contacted him during his attack on Tyre (Jumada al-Thani, A.H. 583/August, A.D. 1187) to ask for safe conduct (aman), and that Salah al-Din had responded, "I will come to you in Jerusalem." According to al-Qadisi, the astrologers informed Salah al-Din that the stars indicated he would enter Jerusalem but that he would lose one eye. To this Salah al-Din responded, "I would not mind losing my sight if I took the city." Only the siege of Tyre prevented him from going to Jerusalem.

    The second account is by Emoul, the Latin chronicler who was in Jerusalem during Salah al-Din's invasion of the Latin kingdom, and it provides details that do not appear in the Arabic sources. Ernoul indicates that a delegation of citizens from Jerusalem went to see Salah al-Din on the day he took 'Asqalan (Jumada al-Thani, A.H. 583/September, A.D. 1187) to ask for a peaceful solution for Jerusalem. On the day of the meeting there was an eclipse of the sun, which the Latin delegates considered to be a bad omen. Never- theless, Salah al-Din offered them generous terms for the city: They were to be allowed to remain in the city temporarily, they were to retain the land within a radius of five leagues around it, and they were to receive the supplies they needed from Salah al-Din. The settlement was to remain valid until Pentecost. If the citizens of Jerusalem could obtain external help, they would remain rulers of the city; if not, they were to surrender it and remove themselves to Christian lands.

    According to Ernoul, the delegation rejected this offer, saying they would never give up the city in which "the Lord died for them." Salah al-Din then vowed to take Jerusalem by force and started his march against the city.

    It seems most probable that there was more than one contact between Salah al-Din and the authorities in Jerusalem, the first being in Tyre. 'Imad al-Din informs us that while at Tyre Salah al-Din summoned King Gui and the grand master of the Templars and promised both of them freedom if they helped him secure the surrender of other cities. These two did in fact later help him to secure the surrender of 'Asqalan and Gaza. Salah al-Din may at the same time also have contacted Balian of Ibelin, who was already in Tyre, and asked him to secure the surrender of Jerusalem. Ernoul mentions that while Salah al-Din was in Tyre, Balian sought his permission to go to Jerusalem in order to rescue his wife, Maria Comnena, as well as other members of his family and their possessions. Salah al-Din granted him permission to go to Jerusalem on the condition that he not bear weapons against him and that he spend only one night there.

    In so doing, Salah al-Din must have hoped to use Balian as his chief negotiator for the surrender of Jerusalem. Balian ultimately did negotiate the surrender of the city, but only after he had broken his agreement with Salah al-Din and played a dramatic role in its defence.

    After arriving in Jerusalem, Balian was pressed by the patriarch to remain there and to mobilize the population for its defence. At first Balian resisted, insisting that he would adhere 10 his commitment to Salah al-Din. But at the insistence ol the patriarch, who absolved him of his oath, Balian finally consented to accept the leadership of the city. His rank among the Latins was, according to Ibn al-Athir, analogous to that of a king.

    Balian began immediately to consolidate the Latin forces and plan the defence of the city. According to Latin sources, he found only two knights in the city who had survived Hittin. Thus, to make up for the shortage of male fighters, he knighted fifty sons of the nobility. According to Runciman, he knighted every boy of noble origin who was over sixteen years of age; he also knighted sixty burgesses. Since money was scarce, Balian, with the blessing of the Patriarch Heraclius, stripped the silver from the roof of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and used it, along with some church funds and money that King Henry II of England had sent to the Hospitallers, to produce a currency. He then distributed arms to every able-bodied man in the city.

    As the undisputed ruler of Jerusalem, Balian is most likely to have contacted Salah al-Din once again regarding Jerusalem at 'Asqa- lan. According to Latin sources, Balian wrote him at 'Asqalan to apologize for having broken his agreement and to ask his forgiveness, which Salah al-Din gave.2

    No one knows the nature of the secret correspondence between the two leaders, but the terms that Ernoul alleges Salah al-Din to have proposed, regarding the fate of Jerusalem, seem doubtful. Salah al-Din was by then well aware that Jerusalem would not be able to hold out against him for long, especially since he had isolated it almost completely. Nor would he have allowed a situation to develop in Jerusalem such as that in Tyre, which had become the centre of resistance against his forces. Furthermore, even before the capture of 'Asqalan, Salah al-Din had written to the caliph and to other relatives announcing his intention to capture the city. In one letter he stated, "The march to Jerusalem will not be delayed, for this is precisely the right time to liberate it." Ernoul's account need not be taken as a contradiction of other accounts. Moreover, although it raises many questions, one cannot discount it. Hence, it seems quite likely that a Latin delegation went to 'Asqalan proposing the kind of terms that Ernoul attributed to Salah al-Din, that Salah al-Din rejected them, and that the authorities in Jerusalem began their preparations for the defence of the city.

    Salah al-Din's Attack

    After capturing 'Asqalan on 16 Jumada al-Thani, A.H. 583!5 September, A.D. 1187 and arranging for its administration and settlement, Salah al-Din summoned all his forces, which were then dispersed along the coast between 'Asqalan and Jubayl. They joined him, according to Ibn Shaddad, "after having fulfiled their desires in pillaging and raiding," and he then marched on Jerusalem, "entrusting his affairs to God and anxious to profit by the opportunity of finding the door of righteousness opened." Salah al-Din marched in a great procession accompanied by his knights, sons, brothers, mamlukes, commanders, and friends in "squadrons ranked according to their merit, in platoons drawn up in solemn cavalcades . . . with yellow flags that signalled disaster to the Banu al-Asfar."

    As they were approaching Jerusalem, however, the vanguard of the army, unaware of the presence of Latin scouts, was ambushed near al-Qubeiba and sustained heavy losses. Ibn al-Athir, who mentions this incident without indicating its location, notes that one of Salah al-Din's commanders, an amir, was killed along with some of his men. This incident grieved Muslims greatly.

    Upon reaching Jerusalem Salah al-Din enquired about the location of al-Aqsa mosque and the shortest route to it, "which is also the shortest route to Heaven." As 'Imad al-Din reports, he swore to bring back to the sacred shrines their old grandeur and vowed not to leave Jerusalem until he had recovered the Dome of the Rock, "from which the Prophet had set foot," raised his flag on its highest point, and visited it personally.

    According to Arabic sources, Salah al-Din arrived from 'Asqalan at the western side of the city on Sunday, 15 Rajab, A.H. 583/21 September, A.D. 1187, although, according to Ernoul, he arrived on Thursday evening, 12 Rajab, A.H. 583/18 September, A.D. 1187. The next day, Ernoul says, Salah al-Din ranged his forces opposite the western wall of Jerusalem, where he subsequently started his attack. Arabic chroniclers do not tell us the exact location of Salah al-Din's forces in the first few days of combat, but Ernoul states that they were stationed opposite the western wall between David's Gate (Bab al-Khalil) and St. Stephen's Gate (Bab al-'Amud). More specifically, they were facing the hospital for leper women behind David's Gate and that for leper men near St. Stephen's Gate.

    The western side of the city was well fortified because of its geographical location. Al-Qadi al-Fadil describes it as follows:

    " From this side of the city, where he [Salah al-Din j had encamped, he saw a deep valley, a precipice rugged and profound, with a wall which encircled the city like a bracelet, and towers which represented the larger pearls of the necklace worn by that place of residence."

    This location was extremely difficult for Salah al-Din's army, or any other, to attack, for it enclosed two towers. The first was David's Tower (al-Qal'a), which was impregnable, and the second was Tancred's Tower. According to a twelfth-century Latin pilgrim, David's Tower contained two hundred steps leading to the summit and formed the main defence of the city. It was very heavily guarded in times of both peace and war. During the confrontation with Salah al-Din most of the Latin fighters were stationed in David's Tower. This same citadel had been attacked by Raymond of Toulouse, ninety years before Salah al-Din, and had been taken from its defenders only after they had surrendered.

    This part of the western wall gave the Latins other advantages as well. According to Ernoul, they had the sun to their backs, while Salah al-Din's forces were facing it. This fact determined to some extent the pattern of battle, for the Latins attacked the forces of Salah al-Din in the morning, trying to push them away from the walls, while Salah al-Din's forces attacked the Latins in the afternoon and continued the fight until nightfall.

    The Latins had the upper hand at first. Writing of some of the battles between the two sides, 'Imad al-Din hints at the courage of the enemy:

    "They challenged [us I to combat and barred the pass. They came down into the lists like enernies. They slaughtered and drew blood. They blazed with fury and defended the city .... They drove us back and defended themselves. They became inflamed and caused us harm, groaned, incited, and called for help in a foreign tongue.... They clustered together and obstinately stood their ground. They made themselves a target for arrows and called on death to stand by them. They said: "Each one of us is worth 20, and every ten is worth 200! We shall bring about the end of the world in defence of the church of resurrection." So the battle continued, as well as slaughter with spear and sword."

    Ernoul provides additional details of the battle at the western wall. He says that Salah al-Din had at first warned the authorities in Jerusalem and asked them to surrender, but they had rejected his request because they were very well armed and fortified. Salah al-Din then ordered his troops to attack the city. They tried to reach the gates several times but failed. The Latins, in turn, tried to make sorties but were repulsed.

    As the fighting raged, Salah al-Din travelled around the city in an attempt to find a more suitable location for his attack. After one week, according to Ernoul, or five days, according to the Arab chroniclers -- he decided to reposition his forces. Abandoning their old encampment between David's Gate and St. Stephen's Gate his troops camped in a triangular area at the northeastern corner of the city, where, Ernoul tells us, they were facing the area between the Postern of St. Mary Magdalen (Bab al-Sahira) and the Gate of Jehoshafat (Bab al-Asbat). According to al-Qadi al-Fadil, this area was more accessible and better suited to the movement of cavalry. Salah al-Din pitched his tent very close to the city walls so that it could be reached easily by the weapons of the enemy.

    The new location, on the Mount of Olives (Jabal al-Zaytun), was quite high, according to Ernoul, so that from it Salah al-Din was able to watch the movement of the Latin forces insidc the city walls, except in those streets that were covered. Furthermore, in this location Salah al-Din's forces had their backs to the sun, while the Latins were facing its glare.

    In addition, a demographic factor made it more favourable to Salah al-Din. The northern triangular section of the city, which extended between St. Stephen's Gate and the Gate of Jehoshafat and which was known in medieval times as the Juiverie, enclosed the quarters of the native Christians. Often referred to in medieval chronicles as 'Syrians," they formed the most underprivileged community in Jerusalem under Latin rule and were despised by their Latin neighbours. Medieval Latin pilgrims placed them at the bottom of the demographic scale next to Muslims, or "Saracens."

    The native Christians were more inclined towards Salah al-Din than towards the Latins. For besides their hostile relations with the Latins and their linguistic and ethnic identification with the Arabs of the area, they were also influenced by the Greek Orthodox Church in Byzantium. Byzantium at this time was an ally of Salah al-Din. The Emperor Isaac II Angelus had confirmed an agreement with Salah al-Din in A.D.1185, according to which Salah al-Din offered to convert existing Latin churches in the Holy Land to the Christian rite once they had been recovered.

    Once in Jerusalem, Salah al-Din seems to have contacted the leaders of the native Christian community through an Orthodox Christian scholar from Jerusalem, known as Joseph Batit. Batit, as Runciman says, had even secured a promise from the leaders of the community that they would open the gates of the city in the vicinity of Salah al-Din, but this did not take place because the R Latins decided to surrender the city.

    On Friday, 20 Rajab, A.H. 583/25 September, A.D. 1187, Salah al-Din set up his mangonels and started his attack on the city. Ibn Shaddad gives a brief account of the battle, stating only that Salah al-Din pressed his attack on the city in hand-to-hand combat and through the use of archers, until a breach was made in the wall facing the Jehoshafat Valley (Wadi Jahannam) in a northern villagc. Realizing the inevitability of their defeat, the besieged Latins decided to ask for safe conduct and thus sent messengers to Salah al-Din to ask for a settlement. An agreement was soon reached.

    Ibn al-Athir's account of the battle is more detailed. According to him, on the night of 20 Rajab, A.H. 53/25 September, A.D. 1187 Salah al-Din installed his mangonels, and by morning his machinery was functional. The Latins also installed their mangonels on the wall and started to fire their catapults. Both sides fought bravely, each considering its struggle to bc in defence of its faith. The Latin cavalry left the city daily to engage in combat with Salah al-Din's forces, and both sustained casualties.

    In one of these battles a Muslim commander, 'Izz al-Din 'Isa Ibn Malik, was martyred by the Latins. His death so grieved the Muslims that they charged the Latins vehemently, forcing them away from their positions and pushing them back into the walls of the city. The Muslims crossed the moat and reached the wall. Sappers prepared to destroy it while archers gave them cover, and mangonels continued bombarding the Latins to drive them away from the wall so the sappers could complete their work. When the wall had been breached, sappers filled it with wood.

    Realizing that they were on the verge of perishing, the Latin leaders met in council and agreed to surrender Jerusalem to Salah al-Din and to ask him for safe conduct. Accordingly, they sent a delegation of their leaders to speak with Salah al-Din, but he turned them away, saying that he would treat them the way their anccstors had treated the residents of Jerusalem in A.H. 492/A.D. 1099, by death and captivity. On the following day, Balian Ibn Barzan (Balian of Ibelin) left Jerusalem to discuss the future of the city and its population with Salah al-Din.

    Al-Qadi al-Fadil gives us an account that differs slightly from that of Ibn al-Athir. According to him, the authorities in Jerusalem first sent a message to Salah al-Din offering to pay tribute for a limited period. This was only a delaying tactic until they could secure external help, however, and Salah al-Din, perceiving their intentions, rejected the offer and positioned his mangonels closer to the wal1.

    According to al-Qadi al-Fadil, the fire from the mangonels destroyed the tops of the towers, "which were used to repel the attacks." When they collapsed, "the towers made such a noise that even the deafest among the enemy must have heard it." The defenders thus had to abandon their positions, giving the sappers a chance to accomplish their task. When the wall fell, Balian Ibn Barzan, the leader of the besieged, left the city and told Salah al-Din that Jerusalem should be taken by surrender rather than by force.

    Before discussing the negotiations between Salah al-Din and Balian, we shall present the viewpoint of the Latin chroniclers, which supplements the Arabic accounts.

    Although Ernoul and the author of Libellus agree with the Arabic accounts, they give us more details about the last stages of the war and the resulting negotiations. Ernoul says that the battle at the northeastern corner of the city lasted one week. The author of Libellus notes that Salah al-Din divided his forces, using 10,000 archers or more, "well armed down to their heels," to shoot at the walls. At the same time, according to Ernoul, about 10,000 horsemen, armed with lances and bows, waited between St. Stephen's Gate and the Gate of Jehoshafat to repulse any sortie by the Latin garrison, while the rest of his army was deployed around the siege engines.

    ] When Salah al-Din's forces breached the wall, the defenders tried to drive them "away with stones and molten lead, as well as with arrows and spears," but they failed. They attempted a sortie, but this too failed. Sappers in Salah al-Din's army succeeded in making a breach, about thirty metres in length, in the wall, which was sapped in two days. After that, the defenders fled the walls: "In the whole city there was not found a man bold enough to dare stand guard for a single night for a 100-bezant reward."

    The author of Libellus states that he personally heard a proclamation by the patriarch and others indicating that "if 50 strong men and daring servants were found who could guard the corner that had been destroyed for that one night, they would be given all the arms they wanted, but they were not to be found."

    The breach in the wall was in the same spot from which the first Crusaders had entered the city in 1099. When the wall fell, the great cross that had been installed there to celebrate the capture of Jerusalem by the Latins in that year also fell.

    The Surrender of Jerusalem

    Ernoul informs us that, realizing they could not hold the city for very long, the authorities in Jerusalem held an emergency meeting, attended by the Patriarch Heraclius and Balian of Ibelin, at which they discussed their military options. The citizens' representatives and the sergeants advanced a proposal for a massive attack on Salah al-Din's forces, thus "dying honourably in defence of the city."

    The patriarch rejected this proposal, however, arguing that if all the men died, the fate of the women and children in the city would be left in the hands of the Muslim forces, who would certainly convert them to Islam. He proposed instead that the city should be surrendered, and he promised that after surrendering it, the Latins would seek help from Europe. The authorities accordingly agreed, and hence dispatched Balian to discuss the terms of the surrender with Salah al-Din. According to Ernoul, Balian left the city to negotiate with Salah al-Din, and, while the talks were in progress, the Muslim forces succeeded in raising their flag on the main wall. Rejoicing, Salah al-Din turned to Balian and asked: "Why are you proposing to surrender the city? We have already captured it!" However, the Latins counter-attacked Salah al-Din's forces, driving them away from the section they had captured. Salah al-Din was so angered by this that he dismissed Balian and told him to return the following day.

    When Balian returned to the city without an agreement, fear gripped the population. According to Ernoul, the citizens "crowded in the churches to pray and confess their sins, [they] beat themselves with stones and scourges, begging for God's mercy." The Latin women in the city placed tubs in front of Mount Calvary and filled them with cold water, then took their young daughters, stripped them naked, and placed them in the water up to their necks. They cut their hair and burned it in the hope of averting their shame. Meanwhile, the clergy walked in procession around the walls of the city chanting psalms and carrying the Syrian "true cross," which had been kept in the city after the "true cross" of the Latins had fallen into the hands of Salah al-Din's forces at the battle of Hittin. Ernoul reports that the entire population took part in the procession, except for the very old men, who locked themselves inside their homes.

    When Balian appeared again before Salah al-Din, he asked for a general amnesty in return for the surrender of the city, but Salah al-Din rejected his request. Balian then threatened that the Latins inside the city would fight to the death: They would burn their houses, destroy the Dome of the Rock, uproot the Rock, and kill all Muslim prisoners, who were estimated to number in the thousands; they would destroy their property and kill their women and children. According to al-Qadi al-Fadil, Balian also "offered a tribute in an amount that even the most covetous could not have hoped for."

    Salah al-Din met with his commanders and told them that this was an excellent opportunity to capture the city without further bloodshed. After lengthy negotiations, an agreement was reached between Salah al-Din and the Latins according to which they were granted safe conduct to leave the city, provided that each male paid a ransom of ten dinars, each female paid five dinars, and each child was ransomed for two dinars. All those who paid their ransom within forty days were allowed to leave the city, while those who could not ransom themselves were to be enslaved.

    'Imad al-Din indicates that Balian offered to pay 30,000 dinars on behalf of the poor, an offer that was accepted, and the city was at last surrendered on Friday, 27 Rajab, A.H. 583/2 October, A.D. 1187. The twenty-seventh of Rajab was the anniversary of al-Mi'raj, through which Jerusalem had become a part of Islamic history and piety . When Salah al-Din entered Jerusalem triumphantly, he immediately released the Muslim prisoners, who, according to Ibn Shaddad, numbered close to 3,ooo. The newly released captives were later rewarded with the homes vacated by the Latins.

    Meanwhile, the Latins started to prepare for their departure. They began to sell their property and possessions at very low prices to the merchants in Salah al-Din's army, as well as to native Christians. According to 'Imad al-Din, they stripped the ornaments from their churches, carrying with them vases of gold and silver and silk- and gold-embroidered curtains as well as church treasures. The Patriarch Heraclius collected and carried away gold plating, gold and silver jewelry, and other arteacts from the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

    In order to control the departing population, Salah al-Din ordered that all the gates of Jerusalem be temporarily closed. At each gate a commander was appointed to control the movement of the Latins and to ensure that only those who had paid ransom could leave. Persons were employed inside the city to take a census. 'Imad al- Din says that Egyptian and Syrian officers were appointed to collect the payments and to give the departing Latins receipts that were to be submitted at the gate before leaving the city. Although this sounds like good administration, at the time the Latins were being counted and were making their departure, the city was in a state of chaos and there was much mismanagement of the ransom money collected. The grand masters of the Templars and Hospitallers were approached to donate money for the release of poor Latins, but when they resisted, a riot almost erupted and they were forced to contribute to the ransom.

    There were examples of magnanimity on the part of the Muslim victors, however. The patriarch and Balian asked Salah al-Din to set some slaves free. Accordingly, he freed 700 slaves on behalf of the patriarch and 500 on behalf of Balian. Al-Malik al-'Adil, Salah al-Din's brother, asked him to release 1,000 slaves on his behalf and was granted his request. Furthermore, Salah al-Din sent his guard throughout the city to announce that all old people who could not pay would be allowed to leave the city: These came forth from the Postern of St. Lazar, and their departure lasted from the rising of the sun until night fell." Salah al-Din also allowed many noble women of Jerusalem to leave without ransom. Among them was Queen Sibyl, who left unhindered with all her entourage. Salah al-Din even granted her safe conduct to visit her captive husband in Nablus. The widow of Renaud of Chatillon was also released, as well as a Byzantine princess who had led a monastic life in Jerusalem and who was allowed to leave with all her entourage without paying a ransom. Some of Salah al-Din's commanders ransomed groups who they claimed belonged to their iqta' For example, the ruler of al-Bira asked for the release of 500 Armenians, and Muzaffar al-Din Ibn 'Ali Kuchuk asked for the release of 1,000, claiming that they had come from Edessa. Salah al-Din granted his request.

    After the exodus of all those Latins who could leave, 15,000 individuals remained in the city. According to Imad al-Din, 7,000 of them were men and 8,000 were women and children. All were enslaved.

    'Imad al-Din was amazed at the amount of treasure that had been carried away by the departing Latins. He reports having told Salah al-Din that these treasures could be valued at 200,000 dinars. He reminded him that his agreement with the Latins was for safe conduct (arnan) for themselves and their own property, but not for that of the churches, and he counselled that such treasures should not be left in Latin hands. But Salah al-Din rejected his proposal:

    "If we interpret the treaty [now] against their interest, they will accuse us of treachery, although they are unaware of the real meaning of the treaty. Let us deal with them according to the wording of the treaty so they may not accuse the believers of breaking the covenant. Instead, they will talk of the favours that we have bestowed upon them."

    Certainly Salah al-Din's magnanimity towards the Latins contrasts sharply with the attitude of the victorious Crusaders in 1099.

    Emoul, by now a Latin refugee, indicated that the ransomed refugees were assembled in three groups. One was placed in the custody of the Templars and another in that of the Hospitallers, while Balian and Patriarch Heraclius took charge of the third. Salah al-Din assigned each group fifty of his officers to ensure their safe arrival in territories held by the Christians. One chronicler gives Salah al-Din's officers credit for their humane treatment of thc refugees, noting that these officers,

    " who could not endure the suffenng of the refugees, ordered their squires to dismount and set aged Christans upon their steeds. Some of them even carried Chnstian children in their arms."

    The refugees departed in three directions. One group went to Tyre, which was already overcrowded. Accordingly, the authorities there allowed only fighting men to enter the city.

    The second group, accompanied by those turned away from Tyre, went to Tripoli, though not before they had suffered at the hands of other Latins. Near al-Batrun, a local baron known as Raymond of Niphin robbed them of many of their possessions. When they reached Tripoli, only the rich among them were allowed into the city. Ernoul states, in apparent shock, that Count Raymond of Tripoli sent his troops to rob the burghers of the possessions they had been allowed to take from Jerusalem. The remaining refugees continued their journey to Antioch, where some of them settled, while others went on to Armenia.

    The third group headed for 'Asqalan and then to Alexandria. According to Emoul, they were treated hospitably in Egypt and remained in Alexandria until March 1188, when they were put on ships for Europe. The captains of Genoese, Pisan, and Venetian ships at first resisted boarding 1,000 poor refugees, but they were later obliged by Alexandrian officials to accept these destitutes in order to obtain sailing permits. Assurances were also secured of good treatment of the refugees on the part of the Italians by means of the threat that if they did not keep their promises, their fellow citizens would suffer in retaliation once they had arrived in Egypt. "Thus did the Saracens show mercy to the fallen city," says Lane-Pool. "One recalls the savage conquest by the first Crusaders in 1099, when Godfrey and Tancred rode through the streets choked with the dead and dying."

    If the taking of Jerusalem were the only fact known about Salah al-Din, it would be sufficient to prove him the most chivalrous and great-hearted conqueror of his own, and perhaps of any, age.

    The Fate of the Native Christians

    'Imad al-Din indicates that, after paying their ransom, the native Christians requested Salah al-Din's permission to remain in their quarters in safety. Salah al-Din granted their request, provided that they paid the poll tax (jizya). Some members of the Armenian community also asked to stay in the city and were allowed to do so, provided that they also paid the tax. Many of the poor from both groups were exempted. Rich Christians bought much of the property of the departing Latins, as has been mentioned above. Salah al-Din allowed them to pray freely in their churches, and he handed over control of Christian affairs to the Byzantine patriarch.

    'Imad al-Din notes that at first Salah al-Din ordered the closure of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Its future was discussed, and some even advised that it should be demolished in order to sever completely the attachment of the Christians to Jerusalem. However, a majority of the Muslims rejected the idea. They argued that demolishing the church would not help, for it would not prevent Christians from visiting it. According to 'Imad al-Din:

    " Those who come to visit it come to worship at the location of the cross and the sepulchre rather than at the building itself. Christians will never stop making pilgrimages to this location, even if it has been totally uprooted."

    Those who spoke in favour of preserving the Church of the Holy Sepulchre even suggested that when the Caliph 'Umar conquered Jerusalem, he confirmed the right of Christians to the church and gave no orders to demolish the building.

    When the Byzantine emperor received the news of Salah al-Din's victory in Jerusalem, he asked him to restore the Church of the Holy Sepulchre to the Greek Orthodox Christians, a request that Salah al-Din granted. The Latins, however, were not allowed into Jerusalem for four years. In September 1192 the knights of the Third Crusade were allowed into the city as pilgrims to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. When Hubert, Bishop of Salisbury, met with Salah al-Din, he was granted permission to have four Latin monks in the church.

    The Muslim Response to the Liberation of Jerusalem

    Salah al-Din's recovery of Jerusalem concluded a lengthy campaign of military activity and ideological preparation, which had begun at a slow pace early in the twelfth century, and became a massive liberation movement focusing on Jerusalem as its rallying symbol during the regimes of Nur al-Din and Salah al-Din.

    When the first Crusaders entered Syria in A.H. 49l/A.D. 1097, the first scholars to raise their voices in condemnation of the passiveness of the Muslim rulers, and to warn of the potentially disastrous consequences of the Crusade, were in Damascus. Among them was 'Ali Ibn Tahir al-Sulami (d. A.H. 5OIIAD 1106). Al-Sulami wrote one of the earliest treatises on the jihad in response to the Crusade.

    Al-Sulami defined the Crusade as an invasion by Western nations, which started with the conquest of Sicily and parts of al-Andalus. These same nations, having encountered the weakness of the Muslims in the West and heard reports about their disunity in the East, marched against the East, while their ultimate goal was the conquest of Jerusalem. This definition of the Crusades by al-Sulami appears to have escaped many modern historians, who allege that the Muslims underestimated the nature and motives of the Crusade in the twelfth century.

    Al-Sulami, who preached in Damascus until his death, interpreted the Crusade as a divine warning to test the willingness of the Muslims to refrain from committing acts that God forbade and to unde take the duty of jihad, which they had neglected. He warned his contemporaries that if they did not act immediately, while the enemy was still weak and far from his sources of supply, they would not be able to uproot him.

    In his preaching al-Sulami provided his contemporaries with a new definition of jihad that, although derived to a great extent from the Islamic theory of war, was aimed at the confrontation with the Crusaders. According to him:

    " The early jurists emphasized the offensive Jihad, or the Jihad against enemies in countries that are nearby or remote. However, if an enemy attacks the Muslims, as this enemy [the Crusaders] has done, then pursuing him in areas that he has conquered from us [an allusion to those parts of Syria and Palestine then held by the Crusaders] is a just war aimed at protecting lives, children, and families and at preserving those parts that are still under our control."

    Al-Sulami, who established the theoretical foundations of the Countercrusade, did not live long enough to see the results of his teachings. However, he sowed the seeds of national and religious renaissance, which passed from one generation of scholars to another. These scholars, who included Syrian, Palestinian, Egyptian, Baghdadi, Andalusian, and even non-Arab Muslims - among whom the most outspoken was 'Imad al-Din al-lsfahani - passed the torch of the liberation of Jerusalem and other occupied terrltories in Syria and Palestine to Salah al-Din, who grew up and flourished in the same environment. The result of the long ideological campaign was manifested in the popular response to Salah al-Din's successes in Palestine, especially after the battle of Hittin. According to Ibn Shaddad, "Knowing that Salah al-Din was marching on Jerusalem, people had flocked from Syria and Egypt to join him in his battle,'' hoping thereby to earn a spiritual reward. Every famous person from Egypt and Syria witnessed the liberation, so that when Salah al-Din entered the city he was surrounded by scholars, jurists, and poets as well as by crowds of civilians and members of the military.

    The initial response to the recovery was euphoric: "People raised their voices in praise of God, expressing their gratitude and devotion to Him for having granted them the long-awaited victory.''

    Salah al-Din celebrated this great historical moment by receiving the crowds who had gone to congratulate him. He sat most humbly and graciously amongst the men of religion and scholars.

    'Imad al-Din, who witnessed this gathering, described it as follows:

    "The sultan sat with his face gleaming with happiness. His seat looked as if it were surrounded by the halo of the moon. Around him readers of the Qur'an were reading the words of guidance and commenting; the poets were standing, reciting and seeking favours; while the flags were being unfolded in order to be raised and the pens were being sharpened in order to convey the good tidings. Eyes were filled with tears of joy while hearts were humbled in devotion to God and in joy for the victory."

    The initial euphoria of the victory was followed by a busy week during which Salah al-Din, his relatives, and his entourage worked earnestly to restore al-Aqsa mosque and the Dome of the Rock to their original Islamic character in preparation for the following Friday congregation (4 Sha'ban, A.H. 583/9 October, A.D. 1187). This task was rather difficult because they had to demolish many structures that the Latins had introduced into both buildings as well as in the area between them, al-Haram al-Sharif. Ibn al-Athir and 'Imad al-Din state that the Templars had built some residences to the west of al-Aqsa mosque, which they had equipped with grain storage and latrines, and they had included a part of al-Aqsa in their buildings. Salah al-Din had these structures cleared away and ordered the niche (mihrab) of al-Aqsa purified.

    In fact, it seems that the Latins had made more changes in this area of Jerusalem than Ibn al-Athir and 'Imad al-Din indicate. One Latin pilgrim, Theoderich, who visited the Holy Land around A.D. 1172, refers to al-Aqsa mosque as the Palace of Solomon (others refer to it as the Temple of Solomon), as it was known to the Latins and to Europeans in general. He says it was in the hands of the Templars,

    " who dwell in it and in the other buildings connected with it, havng many magazines of arms, clothing, and food in it. They have below them stables for horses built by King Solomon himself in the days of old; adjoining the palace a wondrous and intricate building resting on piers and containing an endless complication of arches and vaults, which stables, we declare, according to our reckoning, could take in 10,000 horses with their grooms."

    Another pilgrim, John of Wurzburg, who visited the Holy Land some time between A.D. 1160 and A.D. 1170, confirms Theoderich's account. However, he refers to the stables as having the capacity to hold 2,000 horses or 1,500 camels. These stables were at the southeast corner of the Haram area. John of Wurzburg also refers to the foundations of a large new church, which was not yet finished.

    All the columns that had been installed by the Latins were removed, according to 'Imad al-Din, and the floors were carpeted with precious carpets instead of woven and straw mats. A pulpit that had been prepared by Nur al-Din for the occasion was installed. Ibn al-Athir described it as a unique piece of art that was made over a period of several years by specialists in woodcraft in Aleppo. This pulpit was unfortunately burned soon after the Israeli occupation of the city.

    The Dome of the Rock also suffered from desecration by the Crusaders, who, according to 'Imad al-Din, had built a church and an altar on top of the Rock and decorated both with images and statues. They had also built residences there and erected a small dome on the "footprint," which they ornamented with gold and marble.

    'Imad al-Din and others do not give us a very clear picture of the changes that the Crusaders had made in the Dome of the Rock. To get a clearer picture of the Dome at the time of the Crusaders, and to see what changes Salah al-Din introduced, we have to look again at the detailed account of the Latin pilgrim Theoderich, referred to earlier. The Dome of the Rock was known to the Latins as the Temple of the Lord. All the Latins' additions were removed and arrangements were made to replace some missing pieces from the Dome of the Rock that had been taken by the early Crusaders and sold as relics in European markets for very high prices.

    The Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa mosque were purified with large quantities of water and rose water and perfumed with incense. Even Taqi al-Din 'Umar and other relatives of Salah al-Din participated in the purification in the hope of gaining spiritual reward, according to 'Imad al-Din.

    When this was done, the first Friday prayer took place in al-Aqsa mosque on 4 Sha'ban, A.H. 583/9 October, A.D. 1187. Muhyi al-Din Ibn al-Zaki addressed the first audience in al-Aqsa eloquently, explaining the place of Jerusalem in Muslim history and piety. In so doing, he echoed many of the ideas that had been preached throughout the twelfth century by the scholars and jurists during the period of the city's loss to the Crusaders:

    " Jerusalem is the residence of your father Abraham, the place of ascension of your prophet, the burial ground of the messengers, and the place of the descent of revelations. It is in the land where men will be resurrected and it is in the Holy Land, to which God has referred in His clear book [the Qur'an] . It is the farthest place of worship, where the prophet prayed, and the place to which God sent His servant and messenger and the word which He caused to descend upon Mary and His spirit Jesus, whom He honoured with that mission and ennobled with the gift of prophecy without removing him from the rank he held as one of His creatures.

    In his sermon he portrayed the victory of Salah al-Din in Jerusalem as a rejuvenation of Muslim power. He compared Salah al-Din's forces to those that had fought the battles of Badr, the wars of al- Ridda, the battles of al-Qadisiyya and al-Yarmuk, and the battle of Khaybar, which entailed the expulsion of the Jews from the Arabian Peninsula. He compared Salah al-Din's recovery of Jerusalem to 'Umar's conquest of the city. Thus, Ibn al-Zaki and other contemporaries of Salah al-Din accorded him a place in Islamic history similar to that of the greatest heroes who had shaped the history of Islam after the Prophet Muhammad.

    Salah al-Din also introduced some structural changes in the city of Jerusalem. He transformed the Oratory of David in David's Tower into a religious building and installed in it an imam and a mu'addhin as well as caretakers. He also ordered the transformation of the Church of St. Anne into a Shafi'ite school, and he transformed the residence of the patriarch of Jerusalem, in the vicinity of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, into a ribat [guard place].

    In A.H. 587/A.D. 1191 Salah al-Din planned to fortify Jerusalem. Thus, according to 'Imad al-Din, he decided to dig a new and deeper moat and to build a new wall, for which task he brought approximately 2,000 Latin captives. He also restored the towers between St. Stephen's Gate (Bab al-'Amud) and David's Tower (al-Qal'a). Salah al-Din personally supervised, and sometimes participated in, the fortification of the city.

    Salah al-Din's liberation of Jerusalem was hailed in all parts of the Arab and Muslim world, except at the court of the Caliph al-Nasir li-Din Allah, who unfortunately overlooked the magnitude of the victory and, instead, criticized some insignificant points. Thus, instead of congratulating Salah al-Din for an achievement that he permanently bore in his name (Al-Nasir), the caliph wrote rebuking him for the use of the title al-Malik al-Nasir, which was that of the Caliph himself. Naturally, Salah al-Din refused to abandon a title that he had earned in A.H. 567/A.D. 1172, long before the Caliph al-Nasir had come to power.

    'Imad al-Din, reporting a dialogue he had had with Salah al-Din on this question, quotes him as having said, with some bitterness:

    "Did I not recover al-Bayt al-Muqaddas [Jerusalem] and unite it with al-Bayt al-Haram [al-Ka'ba, a reference to Mecca in general] ? Indeed, I have returned to the native land a part that had been missing from it."

    Salah al-Din's liberation of Jerusalem was portrayed by his contemporaries as a miracle. It was likened to lightning (barq) in its swiftness, and hence it earned the title Al-Barq al-Shami in 'Imad al- Din's biography of Salah al-Din. Even the pro-Zangid historian Ibn al-Athir could not but credit Salah al-Din with this great achievement: "This noble deed of liberating Jerusalem was achieved by none after 'Umar Ibn al-Khattab except for Salah al-Din, and this deed suffices for his glory and honour.''

    Appendix 1 Theoderich's Description of the Holy Places (A.D . 1 172) "The Palace of Solomon" [Al-Aqsa mosque

    " Next comes, on the south, the palace of Solomon, which is oblong, and supported by columns within like a church, and at the end is round like a sanctuary and covered by a great round dome, so that, as I have said, it resembles a church. This building, with all its appurtenances, has passed into the hands of the Knights Templars, who dwell in it and in the other buildings connected with it, having many magazines of arms, clothing, and food in it, and are ever on the watch to guard and protect the country. They have below them stables for horses built by King Solomon himself in the days of old, adjoining the palace, a wondrous and intricate building resting on piers and containing an endless complication of arches and vaults, which stable, we declare, according to our reckoning, could take in ten thousand horses with their grooms. No man could send an arrow from one end of their building to the other, either lengthways or crossways, at one shot with a Balearic bow. Above it abounds with rooms, solar chambers, and buildings suitable for all manner of uses. Those who walk upon the roof of it find an abundance of gardens, courtyards, ante-chambers, vestibules, and rain-water cisterns; while down below it contains a wonderful number of baths, storehouses, granaries, and magazines for the storage of wood and other needful provisions. On another side of the palace, that is to say, on the western side, the Templars have erected a new building. I could give the measurements of its height, length, and breadth of its cellars, refectories, staircases, and roof, rising with a high pitch, unlike the flat roofs of that country; but even if I did so, my hearers would hardly be able to believe me. They have built a new cloister there in addition to the old one which they had in another part of the building. Moreover, they are laying the foundations of a new church of wonderful size and workmanship in this place, by the side of the great court. Theoderich's Description ol the Holy Places, trans. Aubrey Stewart (London: Palcstine Pilgrims' Text Society, 1896): 30-32.

    Appendix 2 Theoderich's Description of the Holy Places (A.D. I 172) "The Temple of Ihe Lord": "Dome of the Rock"

    Hence by a street which bends a little towards the south one comes through the Beautiful Gate of the Temple to the Temple of the Lord, crossing about the middle of the city; where one mounts from the lower court to the upper one by twenty-two steps, and from the upper court one enters the Temple. In front of these same steps in the lower court there are twenty-five steps or more, leading down into a great pool, from which it is said there is a subterranean connection with the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, through which the holy fire which is miraculously lighted in that church on Easter Even is said to be brought underground to the Temple of the Lord. Now, the outer court is twice as large, or more, than the inner court, which, like the outer one, is paved with broad and large stones. Two sides of the outer court exist to this day; the other two have been taken for the use of the canons, and the Templars, who have built houses and planted gardens on them. On the western side one ascends to the upper court by two ranges of steps, and in like manner on the southern side. Over the steps, before which we said that the pool is situated, there stand four columns with arches above them, and there, too, is the sepulchre of some rich man, surrounded by an iron grille, and beautifully carved in alabaster. On the right, also, above the steps on the south side, there stand in like manner four columns, and on the left three. On the eastern side also there are fifteen double steps, by which one mounts up to the Temple through the Golden Gate, according to the number of which the Psalmist composed fifteen psalms, and above these also stand columns. Besides this, on the south side above the two angles of the inner court, stand two small dwellings, whereof that towards the west is said to have been the school of the Blessed Virgin. Now, between the Temple and the two sides of the outer court - that is to say, the eastern and the southern sides - there stands a great stone like an altar, which, according to some traditions, is the mouth of some pools of water which exist there; but, according to the belief of others, point out the place where Zacharias, the son of Barachias, was slain. On the northern side are the cloister and conventual buildings of the clergy. Round about the Temple itself there are great pools of water under the pavement. Between the Golden Gate and the fifteen steps there stands an ancient and ruined cistern, wherein in old times victimes were washed before they were offered.

    The Temple itself is evidently of an octagonal shape in its lower part. Its lower part is ornamented as far as the middle with most glorious marbles, and from the middle up to the topmost border, on which the roof rests, is most beauteously adorned with mosaic work. Now, this border, which reaches round the entire circuit of the Temple, contains the following inscription, which, starting from the front, or west door, must be read according to the way of the sun as follows: On the front, "Peace be unto this house for ever, from the Father Eternal." On the second side, "The Temple of the Lord is holy; God careth for it; God halloweth it." On the third side, "This is the house of the Lord, firmly built." On the fourth side, "In the house of the Lord all men shall tell of His glory." On the fifth, "Blessed be the glory of the Lord out of His holy place." On the sixth, "Blessed are they which dwell in Thy house, O Lord." On the seventh, "Of a truth the Lord is in His holy place, and I knew it not." On the eighth, "The house of the Lord is well built upon a firm rock." Besides this, on the eastern side over against the Church of St. James (now called Qubbat al-Silsilah) there is a column represented in the wall in mosaic work, above which is the inscription, "The Roman Column." The upper wall forms a narrower circle, resting on arches within the building, and supports a leaden roof, which has on its summit a great ball with a gilded cross above it. Four doors lead into and out of the building, each door looking to one of the four quarters of the world. The church rests upon eight square piers and sixteen columns, and its walls and ceilings are magnificently adorned with mosaics. The circuit of the choir contains four main pillars, or piers, and eight columns, which support the inner wall, with its own lofty vaulted roof. Above the arches of the choir a scroll extends all round the building, bearing this text: "'My house shall be called the house of prayer,' saith the Lord. In it whosoever asks, receives. and he who seeks finds, and to him who knocks shall be opened. Ask, and ye shall receive; seek, and ye shall find." In an upper circular scroll similarly placed round the building is the text: "Have Thou respect unto the prayer of Thy servant, and to his supplication, O Lord my God, that Thine eyes may be open and Thine ears turned towards this house night and day. Look down, O Lord, from Thy sanctuary and from the highest heaven, Thy dwelling-place."

    At the entrance to the choir there is an altar dedicated to St. Nicholas, enclosed in an iron enclosure, which has on its upper part a border containing this inscription: in front, "In the year 1101, in the fourth indiction, Epact 11," and on the left side, "From the taking of Antioch 63 years, from the taking of Jerusalem 53." On the right side, "From the taking of Tripoli 52 years, from the taking of Berytus 51 years, from the taking of Ascalon 11 years."
    .لا نريد زعيما يخاف البيت الإبيض
    نريد زعيما يخاف الواحد الأحد




  2. #2
    Abdul Karim Abdul-Curim's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jul 2003
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    16,116
    Rep Power
    91
    may allah bless the ummah with more of his kind especially during the present times when the ummah is facing tyranny from the hostile kuffar of the west

    AMEEN.

  3. #3
    New Member
    Join Date
    May 2005
    Posts
    1
    Rep Power
    0

    Information Required

    With regards to Salahuddin Ayyubi does anyone know of any gooes tafseers / biogrophies of his conquests and life..?

    Jazak Allah

  4. #4

    Account Disabled
    Arsalan's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2002
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    17,688
    Rep Power
    0

    Re: Information Required

    Quote Originally Posted by SWi55M$N View Post
    With regards to Salahuddin Ayyubi does anyone know of any gooes tafseers / biogrophies of his conquests and life..?

    Jazak Allah

    iVE GOT 1 OR 2 BOOKS. BUT THEY AINT THAT GOOD.

    ANYONE KNOW ANY?

  5. #5
    Old Skool Dawg! Guvna's Avatar
    Join Date
    Feb 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    5,798
    Rep Power
    37

    Re: Information Required

    Quote Originally Posted by Arsalan View Post
    iVE GOT 1 OR 2 BOOKS. BUT THEY AINT THAT GOOD.

    ANYONE KNOW ANY?
    i have one by a french author.. forgot his name. wil get it for you soon inshallah! PM me in couple days to remind me inshallah!

  6. #6
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Icon14 Na'am.....

    Quote Originally Posted by Arsalan View Post
    iVE GOT 1 OR 2 BOOKS. BUT THEY AINT THAT GOOD.

    ANYONE KNOW ANY?
    Akh I am pretty sure I have two books in English on my bookshelf- I'll post the names and titles soon insha'allah.


  7. #7

    Account Disabled
    Arsalan's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2002
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    17,688
    Rep Power
    0

    Re: Na'am.....

    JazakAllah Bro Guvna and Abu Hurairah!

    The one i have is from pakistan, written in "pakistani english."

  8. #8
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Post Well.....

    Quote Originally Posted by Arsalan View Post
    JazakAllah Bro Guvna and Abu Hurairah!

    The one i have is from pakistan, written in "pakistani english."
    Barak'allahu Feek Akhy- your Bakistani English one what is it called and can I purchase it anywhere in the UK?

    Also has our Akh Guvna provided the book which he has by the French author at all?

    Any brother the three books I have on the Mujahid Commander Sultan Salah'u-deen Ayyubi (rahimullah) are:

    Muslim Heroes of The Crusades
    Shahbaz Husain
    Ta Ha Publishers, UK
    http://www.taha.co.uk/shopping/searc...&search=Search

    (It’s a very basic brief read, ideal for the young i.e. nephews and has illustrated pics of Philistine)

    The two I received as gifts from my beloved brothers whom are Talib’ul Ilm in Misr, Egypt:-

    Salah Ad-Din Al-Ayyubi (Saladin)- Hero of the Battle of Hattin and the Liberator of Jerusalem from the Crusaders
    Shaykh ‘Abdullah Nasih ‘Ulwan (Hafid’Allah)
    Dar Al-Salam, Egypt

    (An excellent read- very in depth, written by one of Saud’s sincere contemporary scholars.)

    Noble Dynasties- The History of Nur Ad-Din and Saladin
    Imam Abu Shamah ‘Abd Ar-rahman al-Maqsidi (Rahimullah) 559AH-665 AH
    Islamic Education Foundation, Egypt
    Al-Falah Foundation, Egypt

    (A very well detailed beautiful in depth concise book that has a lot of historic elements such as the rise to power, the allegiance and unity within Islaam, and ofcourse the battles that too place- recommended as is authored by one of the classical scholars.)

    Akh for audio related to Shaykh Salah'u-deen visit: http://ahmadjibril.com/media.html be sure to listen to the 'Legends of Islam' series in particular the lectures on Salah'udeen Ayyubi himself but also his mentor, Ustadh, and Mujahid Commander the Shaykh Nour' ad-deen Zinki (rahimullah) by Ahmad Musa Jibril (hafidh'Allah- may Allah free him, Ameen).

    Another interesting audio lecture is 'Champion of the Crusades' that has a good description of him and his life, but does have some mild background music : http://onlineislamicstore.com/a3704.html

    Here is a PDF booklet by kuffar sources upon the Shaykh looking at historical archaelogy, etc that you may find of benefit: http://www.sendspace.com/file/8sjmtb

    Apologies for the delayed reply bro.
    Last edited by Fudhayl; 19-12-06 at 10:10 AM.


  9. #9

    Account Disabled
    Arsalan's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2002
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    17,688
    Rep Power
    0

    Re: Well.....

    Quote Originally Posted by Abu Hurairah View Post
    Noble Dynasties- The History of Nur Ad-Din and Saladin
    Imam Abu Shamah ‘Abd Ar-rahman al-Maqsidi (Rahimullah) 559AH-665 AH
    Islamic Education Foundation, Egypt
    Al-Falah Foundation, Egypt

    (A very well detailed beautiful in depth concise book that has a lot of historic elements such as the rise to power, the allegiance and unity within Islaam, and ofcourse the battles that too place- recommended as is authored by one of the classical scholars.)

    Akh for audio related to Shaykh Salah'u-deen visit: http://ahmadjibril.com/media.html be sure to listen to the 'Legends of Islam' series in particular the lectures on Salah'udeen Ayyubi himself but also his mentor, Ustadh, and Mujahid Commander the Shaykh Nour' ad-deen Zinki (rahimullah) by Ahmad Musa Jibril (hafidh'Allah- may Allah free him, Ameen).
    Iam particualrly interested inthese 2 inshAllah. . Do these books cover his battles with the Shia and the reasons for them, and what type of Shia they were?

    JazakAllah khair.

  10. #10
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Post Well Akhy.....

    Quote Originally Posted by Arsalan View Post
    Iam particualrly interested inthese 2 inshAllah. . Do these books cover his battles with the Shia and the reasons for them, and what type of Shia they were?

    JazakAllah khair.
    Shaykh 'Noble Dynasties' is one book and Imam Abu Shamah ‘Abd Ar-rahman al-Maqsidi is the classical scholar who authored it.

    Na'am it does have info. related to the domestic fighting with the Shia but not in that much depth, it names some of these enemies. If you prefer detailed info. in regards to the Shia and their plotting I recommend you listen to Shaykh Ahmad's audios on both lectures
    'Nour' ad-deen Zinki' and also 'Salah'u-deen Ayyubi' lecture itself as he inform us about the nature of our dispute and the Shia's evil and why it was imperative that the Sultan had to fight and kill those who attempted to aid the Crusaders.


  11. #11
    Member
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    144
    Rep Power
    9

    Re: Well Akhy.....

    Also, the Sultan had to close down Al-Azhar university because of its heretical leanings (Shi'ism), if I remeber correctly. Can you believe that? Al-Azhar, once a Shia stronghold!
    Please Re-update your Signature

  12. #12
    Odan Khubaib's Avatar
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    1,130
    Rep Power
    17

    Re: Salahuddin Ayyubi

    We must never forget our heroes or our history. The kuffar have no honor, and no mercy. Their religion is false and they oppress and rape wherever they go. May Allah destroy them, painfully.
    We must support our brothers who fight them with our voices at least.

  13. #13
    Member
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    144
    Rep Power
    9

    Re: Well Akhy.....

    As you can see, the Sultan was loyal to the leaders till their end. He didn't start a rebellion, he didn't act like the Khawarij. He could have proclaimed himself Caliph but instead he still visited and consulted with the weak Abbasid Caliph.
    Please Re-update your Signature

  14. #14
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Lightbulb Battles: Scenes of War

    Historian and Artists impression of how the Jihaad against the Crusaders may have appeared on the battlefields:










  15. #15
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Exclamation A quote from Sultan Salah'uddin al-Ayyubi (r)

    A quote from the Amir and Commander of the Mujahideen Sultan Salah'uddin al-Ayyubi (Rahimullah)

    Bismillah,

    "We hope in Allaah Most High, to whom be Praise. Who leads the hearts of Muslims to calm what torments them and ruins their prosperity.

    Where is the sense of honour of the Muslims?
    The pride of the Believers? The zeal of the Faithful?

    We shall never cease to be amazed at how the disbelievers for their part have shown trusts, and it is the Muslims who have been lacking in zeal. Not one of them has responded to the call. Not one intervenes to straighten what is distorted; but observe how far the Franks have gone.

    What unity they have achieved.
    What aims they pursue.
    What help they have given.
    What sums of money they have borrowed and spent.
    What wealth they have collected and distributed and divided amongst them.


    There is not a King left in their lands or islands, not a Lord or a rich man who has not competed with his neighbours to produce more support and rival his peers in strenuous military efforts. In defence of their religion they consider it a small thing to spend life and soul; and they have kept their infidel brothers supplied with arms and champions of War; and all they have done and all their generosity has been done purely out of zeal for him they worship in jealous defence of their Faith.

    The Muslims on the other hand are weakened and demoralised; they have become negligent and lazy, the victims of unproductive stupefaction and completely lacking in enthusiasm.

    If, Allaah forbid, Islaam should draw reign, obscure her splendour, blunt her sword there would be no one, East or West, far or near who would blaze the zeal for Allaah's religion, or choose to come to the aid of Truth against Falsehood.

    This is the moment to cast off laziness, to summon from far and near all those men who have blood in their veins; but we are confident [He speaks about himself and the small party of believers who began with him and then became a large party]; but we are confident thanks to Allaah- alhamdulillah- in the help that will come from Him and entrust ourselves to Him in sincerity of purpose and deepest devotion.

    Insha’Allaah, Insha’Allaah the disbelievers shall perish and the Faithful have a sure deliverance."

    Salahuddin Al-Ayyubi

    12th century

    Kitab ar-Rawadatain. Abu Shamma




  16. #16
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Lightbulb Sultan: Iconic Image

    Historian and Artists impression of how the Commander and Scholar in his own right may have appeared:
























    Salahuddin Ayyubi (Saladin) is noted in the books of history to have given medical help to his opponent Richard the Lion-Heart of England, who was seriously ill during the Crusades. He sent his own doctor and personally supervised Richard's treatment until he became well.

    This is in contrast with the behavior of the invading Crusaders for when they entered Jerusalem on July 15, 1099, they slaughtered seventy thousand Muslims, including women, children, and the elderly: "They broke children's skulls by knocking them against the wall, threw babies from roof tops, roasted men over fires and cut open women's bellies to see if they had swallowed any gold."


    This description was given by Edward Gibbon, the famous historian; and in modern warfare, this example is paralleled by the atrocious behavior of the Serb army in Bosnia, to quote just one instance if not more today in other parts of the Ummah.

    For the first time in the history of warfare, it was Islaam that adopted an attitude of mercy and caring for the captured enemy. Unprecedented by previous legal systems, and long before the Geneva Convention, Islaam set the rule that the captive is to be sheltered by his captivity and the wounded by his injury. Islaam made it obligatory to feed prisoners whilst others torture and kill as often does occur as we witness in Bellmarsh Prison UK (dubbed HellMarsh), Abu Ghuraib Iraq, and of course Guantanomo Bay Cuba, etc.

    Ibn Umayr, one of the captives of Muslims in the Battle of Badr recalled: "Whenever I sat with my captors for lunch or dinner, they would offer me bread and themselves [eat] the dates, in view of the Prophet's recommendation in our favor." Note that in that desert situation, bread was a more luxurious item of food than dates yet it was we Muslims that gave and keep on giving.

    And it is we that suffer and are tested at the hands of our merciless enemies, but remember always in the end it shall be we who will attain Victory and/or Martyrdom if desire it remaining true to the promise we made with Allah (swt).
    Last edited by Fudhayl; 03-01-07 at 02:15 PM.


  17. #17
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Exclamation The Ominous Words of Salâh ad-Dîn About Our Ummah

    The Ominous Words of Salâh ad-Dîn About Our Ummah



    “After I die, you will see these Muslims fall apart in disunity, and you will see the Europeans grow strong. The best thing to do for now is to continue the fight until we drive them from the Coast (of Palestine) or die.”

    This is a statement of Salaah ad-Din Abul-Afdal Yusuf ibn al-Ayyub, popularly known as “Saladin” in the West, as recorded by his personal companion and scribe, Ibn Shaddâd (page 203 of his chronicles). Saladin stated this after King Richard of England proposed that Saladin's brother, Sayf ad-Dîn (popularly known as “Safadin” in the West), should marry his siter Joanna. So admirable was Saladin’s character that his worst enemy who had traveled over 2000 miles to eliminate him, ended up offering his own sister to his family. This is the result of Perfect Islaamic “Ikhlaq” and “’Ada’b”.

    Also, Saladin stated in regards to the troubles he endured uniting the entire Muslim world under one banner:

    “I do not know what will happen to me, if Allaah wills that the enemy should grow strong. They have established a base from which they can retrieve other lands. You will see these Muslim leaders sitting at the tops of their grandiose towers saying, ‘I shall not come down,’ until the Muslim world will be destroyed.”


    How did Saladin destroy his enemies, drive the Franks from
    Jerusalem and most of Philistine, and be written of so well by the European historians whose people he defeated? This is how:

    “On July 3 Salaah ad-Dîn performed the Friday prayer in the Mosque of al-Aqsa, I saw him prostrating and repeating his prayers over and over again as his tears soaked the prayer mat.”

    The Death of Saladin

    On
    February 20, 1193, Saladin rode out to meet the Pilgrims returning from the Hajj in Mecca. He had longed to perform the Hajj his entire life, but the constant Jihaad did not allow such. That night he fell ill and broke out into a tempestuous fever. On the fourth day of his illness they had him bled, cupping (hijamah) which was a tradition of the Prophet (peace be upon him). Saladin would not stop sweating. On the ninth day of his illness he stopped taking liquids. By March 3 on the eleventh day of his illness, Saladin had sweat so much that the bed was soaked and the floor stained. The scholars who witnessed this testified to it being a match to the description of a good death in the Sunnah.

    On the morning of
    March 4, 1193, the Imâm Abû Ja’far was reciting from the Qur’ân as Saladin’s son al-Afdal, and his friend and administrator al-Fâdil, as well as others looked on. As the Imâm reached following verse of Sûrat at-Tawbah, the Qur’ânic chapter most associated with Jihaad:

    “ ... Hasbuna-llaahu laa ilaha illa huwa; ’alayhi tawakalt; wa huwa Rabbu-l ’arshi-l ’atheem.”

    “ ... Allaah sufficeth me; There is no god but He; On Him is my trust; He is the Lord of the Throne Supreme!”

    Saladin smiled from ear to ear, and breathed his last.


  18. #18
    Member
    Join Date
    Feb 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    144
    Rep Power
    9

    Re: The Ominous Words of Salâh ad-Dîn About Our Ummah

    "The scholars who witnessed this testified to it being a match to the description of a good death in the Sunnah."

    Can anyone explain this in-depth?
    Please Re-update your Signature

  19. #19
    Member
    Join Date
    Nov 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    62
    Rep Power
    0

    Re: Salahuddin Ayyubi

    Books written by a Pakistani Historian by name: Naseem Hijazy , i think its Dastan Eeman Faroshon ki or etc, but one scholar told me that he had covered the biography of Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi Rahmatullahi Alai very well including the conspiracies by Muslims itself to assasinate Him and how he reversed it etc and his planning for wars as well.

  20. #20
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Question Two questions.....

    Quote Originally Posted by XtasyXpress View Post
    Books written by a Pakistani Historian by name: Naseem Hijazy , i think its Dastan Eeman Faroshon ki or etc, but one scholar told me that he had covered the biography of Sultan Salahuddin Ayyubi Rahmatullahi Alai very well including the conspiracies by Muslims itself to assasinate Him and how he reversed it etc and his planning for wars as well.
    Where can I obtain this book from?

    And is it just in Urdu or also available in English medium?


  21. #21
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Exclamation Some of the ‘Ulema during Salaah'udeen’s time

    Some of the ‘Ulema during Salaah'udeen’s time



    During the time of Salaah'udeen al Ayyubi (rahimullah), he called for volunteers for his Army and so some of the shuyookh and their students joined. News then passed that the Crusaders had mobilised armies from all over Europe.

    There were three major armies led by the greatest 'Kings' of those days: Richard the LionHeart, Philip the King of France, and Fredrick the King of Germany. Fredrick had an army of 300,000 alone. So when some of the ‘
    Ulema came to know of this, they left the army.

    These ‘Ulema knew that they should fight; they knew what the ruling is. But just by knowing the ruling doesn’t mean you’ll fight. Allaah says,

    And recite to them the story of him to whom We gave Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.), but he threw them away; so Shaytan (Satan) followed him up, and he became of those who went astray.

    And had We willed, We would surely, have elevated him therewith, but he clung to the earth and followed his own vain desire. So his parable is the parable of a dog: if you drive him away, he lolls his tongue out, or if you leave him alone, he (still) lolls his tongue out. Such is the parable of the people who reject Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.). So relate the stories, perhaps they may reflect.


    (al Qur’an, Surah al Araf 175-76)


    This is a story of a Scholar who knew the ruling but didn’t follow it. Why? Allaah says, But he inclined to the earth, and followed his own vain desires.” Allaah refers to him as a dog. Therefore, just having knowledge isn’t sufficient to be saved; you have to practice it. Many people take up the position of saying that there is no fatwah to do something, therefore they won’t do it. That’s not going to save you on the Day of Judgment. If you know it is the truth, then you have to follow it regardless of whether or not the Scholars follow it.

    Source: Thawaabit ‘ala darb al Jihaad(Constants on the Path of Jihaad) by Mujahid Shaykh Yusuf al ‘Uyayree as-Shaheed insha’allah (rahimullah) and than English lecture series delivered by Imam Anwar al Awlaki (hafidh’Allah- may Allaah free him).


  22. #22
    Alhamdulilah! Nusayba's Avatar
    Join Date
    Sep 2006
    Gender
    Girl Female
    Posts
    6,327
    Rep Power
    61

    Re: Salahuddin Ayyubi



    After I die, you will see these Muslims fall apart in disunity, and you will see the Europeans grow strong. The best thing to do for now is to continue the fight until we drive them from the Coast (of Palestine) or die.”
    la ilaha ilalah thats exactly what happened and even worse.
    Oh Allah ya rubal alimeen return the glory of Islam with men like Salahudeen ameen.

    SubhanaAllah what a great thread it reminds us Muslims that we were once great and that we can do it again bi'ithnilah katheeran... Allahu Akbar!!
    Can I print it the information in this thread..Abu hurairah and Abu'mubarak?
    "It is He who sent to an illiterate people a messenger from amongst themselves, reciting to them His signs and purifying them and teaching them the Book and the wisdom even though before they were clearly in error." [Soorah al-Jumu`ah (62):2]

  23. #23
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Icon14 Na'am....

    Quote Originally Posted by BeeBee View Post


    la ilaha ilalah thats exactly what happened and even worse.
    Oh Allah ya rubal alimeen return the glory of Islam with men like Salahudeen ameen.

    SubhanaAllah what a great thread it reminds us Muslims that we were once great and that we can do it again bi'ithnilah katheeran... Allahu Akbar!!
    Can I print it the information in this thread..Abu hurairah and Abu'mubarak?
    Wa Alaikum wa Assalam Ukthy,

    Ameen Thuma Ameen, insha'allah- we were once Men whats to prevent us from returning to that state once more aside from our turning away from Allah (swt)?

    I speak only for myself my sister but am sure Akh Abu Mubarak will agree- you have my/our full permission as do all Muslims that may have read this thread spread any info/ ilm it contains insha'allah.

    May Allah (swt) rain his rahmah upon you and your household- Ameen.


  24. #24

    Account Disabled

    Join Date
    Mar 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    15,679
    Rep Power
    0

    Re: Na'am....

    We need someone like Sultan Salah ud-Deen Ayyubi now, Islam is being attacked from all sides

  25. #25
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Icon14 Salah Al-Din

    Salah Al-Din



    Salah Al-Din, known as Saladin in Western texts was of Kurdish descent. He was the first Ayyubid sultan and at the age of 14 served under the Syrian ruler Nur ud-Din. Salah Al-Din became a notable opponent to the Crusaders in many battles. One excursion was the conquering of the land of the Nile in 1164 which was miscredited to Salah Al-Din. While he was left with the Egyptian lands in his control, he did not play a notable role in the conquering of those lands against the Crusaders.

    In 1169, Salah Al-Din served as second in command to his uncle Shirkuh and became vizier of Egypt. Salah Al-Din revitalized the economy of Egypt, and reorganized the military forces in which he started military campaigns against the Crusaders. Salah Al-Din was able to suppress the rulers of Egypt, the Fatimids in 1171 and unite Egypt under the Abbasid Caliphate.

    He was still serving under Nur ud-Din, when Nur ud-Din died in 1174. Salah Al-Din then began to expand his stronghold into neighboring areas. He was able to unite Egypt and Syria under his command and then moved west in an attempt to regain that area. Salah Al-Din marched to lake Tiberias in 1187 and set up a plan to reconquer the area. Around 12,000 Frankish troops began to make their way towards Salah Al-Din. However, Salah Al-Din set up a series of ambushes that would slow the Crusaders down and prevent them from reaching the Lake where they could slake their thirst. In this way, Salah Al-Din was able to crush the Crusaders. Soon after, he took Acre and sent his lieutenants into Palestine to reduce the Franj in that area. The most memorable conquests of Salah Al-Din was the recapturing of Jerusalem held by the Crusaders.


    The Crusaders were not done yet and a massive amount of Franj began to gather and head towards Acre. This would become one of the most grueling battles between the Muslims and the Franj. Acre was a city that had a port on one side and thus it was easy for the Franj to lay seige. The Muslims and the Crusaders fought for many months but neither side was giving way. In 1191, Richard the Lionheart, arrived and it became obvious that his intention was to succumb Acre. Salah Al-Din gave up any hope of help and surrendered. One of the longest and gruesomest battles was over, yet while Salah Al-Din had previously released any prisoners he held, King Richard had 3000 inhabitants of Acre killed. Salah Al-Din was able to reach a peace agreement with the Lionheart for five years. In early March in 1193, Salah Al-Din became seriously ill and soon died in his bed surrounded by his family. A great leader of Islam and mis-represented in the Western world was layed to rest, yet his legacy lives on in the Arab world today and in the Islamic community as well.
    1. Maalouf, Amin. The Crusades Through Arab Eyes.


  26. #26
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Icon14 Salahuddin Ayyubi

    Salahuddin Ayyubi
    Born in Tikrit, Iraq, Saladin, his Arabic name is Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyubi.



    After Saladin's uncles' death in 1174, Saladin became the khalifah. Saladin expanded his power in Syria and northern Mesopotamia . Following the surrender of Damascus (1174), H alab ( Aleppo ) (1183), and Mosul (1186), numerous Muslim armies, allied under Saladin's command. The Crusaders were not happy by Saladin's increasing power and success.

    Uniting their forces, they planned a decisive attack on Muslim area, thus battle of Hittin took place and the Muslims won under the leadership of Saladin. Thousands of Crusaders were arrested. Saladin treated the prisoners with tolerance.

    In 1187 CE, Saladin conquered Jerusalem . On Friday 27th Rajab 583 AH, Saladin entered Jerusalem . After entering the city they went straight to the Mosque and cleaned it. Then for the first time in more then 80 years, the people of Jerusalem heard the Azan (call of prayer) from Al Aqsa Mosque. When the crusaders captured Jerusalem , there was a river of blood engulfing the city. However, when Salahuddin recapture Jerusalem , not a drop of blood was spilt.

    Thousands of Crusaders were arrested. However, when their mothers, sisters, and wives appealed to Saladin, he released them. Many crusaders were ransomed. However, he paid for many of them; in addition, he provided them transport, etc. He allowed neither massacre nor looting; he gave free pardon to all citizens; he even arranged for their traveling; he granted freedom to Christians to leave the city if they paid a small tribute. Saladin paid it, himself, for about ten thousand poor people. His brother paid it for seven thousand people. Saladin also allocated one of the gates of the city for people who were too poor to pay anything that they leave from there.

    In 1189, Western Europe launched the Third Crusade to win back the holy city, but they failed.

    On March 4, 1193, Saladin died in Damascus. He died with no possession of Gold coins, Palaces, Slaves, but the holy land of Jerusalem.

    He is remembered by Muslims as well as Non-Muslims as a kind hearted un-selfish warrior. He was a religious person and followed the teachings of Quran and Prophet Muhammad's sunnah regarding War, he treated all of his prisoners with respect and dignity, no torture, massacre, mass killing, took place during his time. And unlike all other Sultan's he did not build a single Palace or any building for himself yet he put up mosques, palaces, hospitals, and universities in for his Muslim brothers in Cairo. This is why he is a favourite topic to write on by even Westerners.

    “If the taking of Jerusalem were the only fact known about Salahuddin, it were enough to prove him chivalrous and great hearted conqueror on his own and perhaps any age” (Stanley Lane- Pole (historian))


  27. #27
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Icon14 The reconquest of Jerusalem

    The reconquest of Jerusalem



    Salah Al-Din had begun a campaign to reconquer the lands that were once in Muslim control. He set out and in some cases without bloodshed regained much of Asia Minor. His most notable conquest was that of the Holy City.

    Salah Al-Din asked the occupants of the city to leave peacefully or stay peacefully. When the Franj returned a message stating that they would not return the city, Salah Al-Din set forth to surround Jerusalem. It was soon apparent after 6 days of battle that the Franj could not hold out against Salah Al-Din’s massive military forces and a negotiation for surrender began. It was concluded that the Franj would be allowed to leave peacefully and on Friday, October 2nd, 1187 or 27 Rajab 583, by the Muslim calendar, Salah Al-Din entered the holy city.

    This day was compared to that of Umar al-Khattab's regaining of Jerusalem in 638. Once again history had shown that the Muslims had taken the city without bloodshed, unlike the Franj who murdered all inhabitants of this holy city. Salah Al-Din had not conquered the city for gold or for vengeance, but instead believed he must do his duty to Allah and his faith by restoring the city to Muslim hands. His reward was to be able to bow down and pray where no other Muslim could have if he had not regained the city. Christians, Jews, and Muslims could gather at the holy city and pray under one God.

    A renowned judge in Islaamic law at that time, Muhi al-Din Ibn al-Zaki spoke:

    "Glory Allah who has bestowed this victory upon Islaam and who has returned this city to the fold after a century of perdition!
    Honour to this army, which He has chosen to completethe reconquest!
    And may salvation be upon you, Salah al-Din Yusuf, son of Ayyub, you who have restored the spurned dignity of this nation!"
    1. Maalouf, Amin. The Crusades Through Arab Eyes.


  28. #28

    Account Disabled

    Join Date
    Jul 2006
    Gender
    Unspecified
    Posts
    2,737
    Rep Power
    0

    Re: The reconquest of Jerusalem



    Ahmed jabreels lecture legends of islam on salahuddin ayubi mashallah is banging!!!!!

  29. #29
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Icon14 Indeed.....

    Quote Originally Posted by ADZ w3 View Post


    Ahmed jabreels lecture legends of islam on salahuddin ayubi mashallah is banging!!!!!
    Wa Alaikum wa Assalam,

    Indeed it is my brother- listen to it here:



  30. #30
    Odan Omar Mukhtar's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    2,583
    Rep Power
    23

    Re: Indeed.....

    Jazakallah Khair for the link bro.

  31. #31
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Post Khair.....

    Quote Originally Posted by Omar Mukhtar View Post
    Jazakallah Khair for the link bro.
    Barak'allahu Feek, may Allah (swt) reward greatly our brother AbuMubarak for all the beneficial threads and posts inc. this one masha'allah through which we have learnt and benefitted- may Allah (swt) give him and his family the peak of Paradise- Ameen.


  32. #32
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Icon14 An excellent book I mentioned earlier.....

    Salah ad-Din al-Ayyubi (Saladin)


    By Shaykh Abdullah Nasih Ulwan. Talking about the lives of our great figures in history, leader in jihaad and men in the field of reformation in the best talk and the most beloved remembrance because they were the guiding lights for people. Salah ad-Din was one of those who guided people to the right path. One may ask why the author preferred Salah ad-Din's biography over other figures. The answer is that Salah ad-Din's life is connected with the manifest victory and liberation of Jerusalem from Crusaders.

    Readers will find in book chapters how such victory was achieved by a Kurdish man, not an Arab; how he unified the Muslim ummah under his guiding leadership; how he convinced the people to follow the Islamic Shariah; how he fought in the name of Islam and to make Allah's word supreme; and how he treated the enemies with good manners and noble morals. Readers will also find the noblest qualities by which he was distinguished and the most important reforms he achieved. In brief, he will find who Salah ad-Din was.

    Download PDF Book insha'allah

    May Allah (swt) reward the brothers of Kalamullah.com for this- Ameen.


  33. #33
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Lightbulb Mentor of Salaah'udeen.....

    Next is brief detail of one from amongst the heroes of Islam, the mentor of Salaah'udeen Ayyubi:

    Nour-ud-Din Zanqi

    Rightful Sultan and Courageous Mujahid



    The glorious history of Islaam is a great contribution to the human civilisation. The righteous predecessors illuminated the world after a long period of darkness. They raised an insurmountable civilisation and glory. They became the real bearers of the banner of Islaam. They saved the Muslims from deviation and bewilderment, as they exerted all their effort to follow Almighty Allaah's teachings. The earth was adorned with their light, and the heavens were embellished with the nobility of the martyrs among them, who were great examples of devotion and sincerity.

    Allaah is He Who raised the minaret of this true religion and exalted its rank by the hands of the righteous people and true believers. Such people were as sublime as the stars in the heaven and the moon on a dark night. Nour-ud-Din Mahmoud Zangi was one of those ever-shining stars.

    Under his rule, a new great phase of jihaad started in the Levant. He had one goal: uniting Muslims and liberating their occupied lands. To this end, he initiated an Islaamic renaissance that stressed the need for an "Islaamic life."

    He restored the affairs of Muslims to the right track by means of his justice, diligence, and staidness. He succeeded in bringing the light of Islaam into many territories and left no stone unturned for the sake of uniting Muslims. He elevated them in all aspects of life within an integrated Islaamic pattern to regain the Islaamic glory and expel the unjust occupation of the Crusaders.


    Birth and Origin


    Nour-ud-Din Mahmoud Zangi was born in AH 511 (1118 CE). His grandfather Aq Sunqur Al-Hajib ruled Aleppo and other places in the Levant; his father, Zangi, who was brought up in Iraq, ruled Mosul and the Levant. He conquered Edessa, Al-Ma`arrah, Kafr Tab, and many other cities to deliver them from the hands of disbelievers.

    When Zangi passed away, Nour-ud-Din succeeded him as king in AH 541 (1146 CE). Nour-ud-Din Mahmoud Zangi (also known as Ibn Al-Qasim) was born 20 years after the fall of Jerusalem in the hands of the Crusaders. He was tall, good-looking, and dark-skinned and had a light beard.

    His Piety and Morals

    He was a good calligrapher, a scholar of religion, and a follower of the Prophet's Sunnah. He was persistent in performing congregational Prayers, excellent in reciting the Glorious Qur'aan, incorruptible, and keen on doing good deeds. At nightfall, he would perform `Isha' Prayer and sleep for a while. Then, he would get up in the middle of the night, perform ablution, and pray until dawn.

    A provident Sultan, he used to seek lawful means for food and clothes. He never wore any unlawful garment, like silk, or put any gold jewelry. He was never heard uttering obscenities, whether he was satisfied or angry. He was keen on hearing any word uttered for the sake of Almighty Allaah or any advice compatible with the pure Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him).

    In spite of the vastness of his kingdom and treasury, he never ate or drank from what he owned from his share of the booty or the money appointed for the public good of Muslims until he brought the jurists and asked for their religious advice and acted accordingly. He never touched the gifts he received from the kings of other nations. Rather, he would send them to the House of Treasury for the reconstruction of old Masajids.

    He was famous for his sound, erudite knowledge. He was well-versed in the Hanafi school of fiqh and was licensed to relate the Prophet's hadiths. He wrote a book on the concept of jihaad. Though lenient and merciful, this sedate person, Nour-ud-Din, was also gifted with a great deal of charisma and an awe-inspiring personality.

    Full of humbleness, he forbade the preachers from making du`aa' for him during their sermons, using his great titles. He used to bring honest men from every place and ask them about the needy among their people. He enjoined service for all regardless of social status.

    Prince Baha'-ud-Din `Ali ibn As-Sukkari, one of the closest friends of Nour-ud-Din, narrated, "One day, I was with him [Nour-ud-Din] in the battlefield in Edessa. The sun was behind us; whenever we marched forward, our shadows appeared in front of us, and when we came back, our shadows were behind us; then he raced his horse while looking back and said to me, 'Do you know why I am racing my horse and looking back?' I said, 'No.' He replied, 'This situation is like our worldly life: It escapes from those who seek it and seeks those who escape from it."

    He was so ascetic that his expenses were not different from those of the poorest and neediest of his subordinates. When his wife complained of the hardships of life, he called her in and gave her three shops that he owned in Homs and told her, "That is all what I have. Do not expect me to lay a finger on the money of the Muslims I am entrusted with; I fear the wrath of Allaah."

    Courageous Mujahid


    His courage and wisdom were incomparable. At times of war, he was the most courageous and steadfast. Moreover, his tactics were unique, and he was exceptionally keen to inquire about the affairs of his troops. In a word, he was a role model in this field.

    He conquered Aleppo and many other cities, including the Egyptian cities that were about to be completely invaded by the Franks. He captured some Frankish princes and defeated the forces of the Romans and the Franks in a place called Harim (a fortress in Aleppo). Furthermore, he managed to control many villages in Antioch (modern-day Antakya, Turkey).

    Ibn Al-Athir, the Arab historian, said:

    I have heard many people say that they had never seen a horseman better than him. He was the best polo player of his time; he had the ability to hit the ball, make his horse run, pick up the ball, and throw it again to the farthest point of the playground.

    He would say, "If we leave the horses in their stalls, they will not be able to race, turn smoothly, or obey the horsemen in the battlefield. I swear to Allaah, that is what made me play polo."

    It is rare to find a person who plays games for the sake of Allaah. This is a clear indication that he did not do anything aimlessly; this, indeed, is the merit of great rulers.

    Ibn Al-Athir added:

    Even his enemies used to say, "Ibn Al-Qasim [Nour-ud-Din] is close to Allaah. He did not win the battles because of the huge numbers of soldiers and warriors but because of his supplication and Prayer at night. He used to pray at night and raise his hands high supplicating Allaah. Thus, Allaah answers him and gives him whatever he asks."

    Nour-ud-Din was a strategist who used his skill and military tactics, particularly to defeat the Franks and conquer most of their lands. He also built a lot of watchtowers in the territories bordering the lands of the Franks. To protect the Muslims as much as he could, he sent efficient soldiers with carrier pigeons that would carry warnings to the homeland if the soldiers saw the enemy. This would give the people a chance to take defensive action.

    He dealt with his soldiers in an exemplary manner. The property of a dead soldier was given to his son. If the son was mature enough, he would be allowed to take it over. Yet, if the son was still too young to take proper care of the property, Nour-ud-Din would appoint a wise man to be responsible for the property until the son grew mature and wise enough to take it over. This encouraged the soldiers and motivated them to fight steadfastly, for they were sure that the lands were theirs and would be their sons' afterward.

    Defender of Shari`ah and Sunnah


    Nour-ud-Din built an institute for teaching Hadith in Damascus and allotted much money to it and to those who worked there. To the best of our knowledge, he was the first ruler to build an institute for Hadith.

    In Aleppo, he supported all the attempts to apply the Prophetic sunnah concerning the Adhan (call to Prayer) and devoured the evil plots and discord of the dissenters. He established schools and charities and spread justice. In Egypt, he revived the Sunnah of the Prophet and stopped all bid`ah (deviations) in the religious life.

    He was an extraordinary example in adhering to the teachings of Islam. He would never let anyone tamper with the authentic principles of religion. If anyone dared to commit any illegal act concerning religion, Nour-ud-Din would justly punish him or her. He was decisive in this respect. He used to say, "We keep the roads safe from the thieves and robbers, who are less harmful, so will we not preserve the religion and secure it? It is most worthy of safeguarding."

    He built many Masajids and set an endowment apart for the scholars and reciters of Qur'aan. Indeed, this act was unprecedented. He allocated a great fortune for the endowments.

    Nour-ud-Din banned drinking and selling of wine all over the Islaamic state. He was quoted to have said, "Allaah, Glory be to Him, created people, and He knows what is best for them; He enacted a law that is for their benefit. People's welfare can be perfectly achieved by adopting this Islaamic law. If there were more benefit in something other than the Islaamic law, Allaah would have prescribed it. Therefore, we are in no need of any other law."

    His most favored company was restricted to religious scholars whom he used to hold in a lofty position. Even the princes used to envy those scholars. If one of the attendants criticised any of the scholars, he would reproach him or her, saying, "And who is infallible? I think that the perfect person is the one whose sins can be counted."

    His Justice

    Nour-ud-Din was the first ruler to build a court of justice. He used to attend its sessions four or five days a week to investigate the people's problems and sort them out. He used to bring only scholars and jurists with him. He did not bring guards so that any person — weak or strong, poor or rich — could reach him at any time. He would speak mildly to all of them.

    Unlike those of other kings, his court would only abound with scientific and religious talk as well as consultation on jihaad. It was free from debauchery, offensiveness, backbite, defamation, or slander.

    Nour-ud-Din's justice was manifest in glorifying the acts compatible with pure Shari`ah. He used to say, "We are created and employed for the sake of it [Shari`ah] and are required to fulfill its commandments."

    Another evidence of his justice was that he never punished anyone depending on mere accusation. Rather, he used to summon witnesses and incessantly search for evidence. But once the evidence was found, the defendant would be punished, without delay, according to the penalty prescribed by Shari`ah. The rule of law was equally imposed on the king's soldiers and friends.

    In other places of the world, excessive punishment and prosecution against people on the grounds of mere suspicion were prevalent at that time. But Nour-ud-Din, who was dubbed the just king, eschewed such tortuous means of governance, which gave rise to security and prosperity in his kingdom despite its vastness. Justice and application of Shari`ah contributed to a great decline in crime rate.

    He exempted the inhabitants of the Levant, Arabian Peninsula, Mosul, and Egyptian cities from paying taxes. He used to help the oppressed regardless of their social status, for all people were deemed equal before him. He would listen to the complaints of the oppressed and investigate them himself.

    One day, he entered the House of Treasury and noticed an amount of money. Inquiring about it, he was told that Judge Kamal-ud-Din had sent it and that it had been collected from such and such a place. To this, his reply was, "This money is not ours; we do not have any money in the places you mentioned." Then, he ordered that the money be sent back.

    Civil Achievements



    He was always concerned with the public interest and the living conditions of his people. His thoughts were directed toward serving Islam and establishing the infrastructure of an Islaamic state by building schools, Masajids, and other institutions.

    He established many projects aimed at benefiting the Muslims and protecting them and their territories. He built walls and established castles in all territories of the Levant, such as Aleppo, Hamah, Homs, Damascus, Shiraz, and Manbij. He spent large amounts of money on these projects.

    Also, he established Shafi`i and Hanafi schools in Aleppo, Hamah, Damascus, and other cities. He built Masajids throughout the Muslim lands. His Masjid in Mosul was an architectural masterpiece. Furthermore, he built one of the most beautiful Masajids in Hamah at Al-`Asi (Orontes) River. He dedicated an endowment for the sick, the calligraphers, and the teachers of Qur'aan, as well as the inhabitants of Makkah and Madinah.

    Aleppo Hospital

    He also built a lot of hospitals, among which the one in Damascus was the greatest. Nour-ud-Din made it an endowment for all Muslims, rich and poor.

    He built guest houses along the roadsides to save the lives and property of travelers and provide them with warm and comfortable places in winter. He also built many orphanages and spent a lot of money on the orphans and those who cared for them.

    This thoughtful ruler granted the Arab princes of his time large areas of land so that they would not increase the taxes imposed on the pilgrims. Furthermore, he ordered his men to build a wall around Madinah and to dig a well at Mount Uhud. He also built bridges and dug many canals.

    His Death

    Nour-ud-Din adhered to Allaah's commands and asked his followers to do the same. Undoubtedly, the one who sets a good example will have his reward and additional rewards equal to those gained by those who follow him until the Day of Judgment.

    Ibn Al-Athir said:

    I read about the pre-Islaamic period and the history of Islaam until our modern times, but I have never known a ruler nobler than the Just King Nour-ud-Din, except for the Rightly Guided Caliphs and `Umar ibn `Abdul `Aziz.

    Nour-ud-Din was a great warrior and skilled archer who would march at the front line with his fellow warriors in the battlefield, asking Almighty Allaah for martyrdom. He wished to be resurrected on the Day of Judgment from the stomachs of beasts or the craws of birds. He used to say:

    I fought in many battles and wished to be a martyr, but I have not attained my wish.

    On hearing him saying this, Imam Qutb-ud-Din An-Naysaburi told him, "I adjure you by the name of Allaah not to risk your life, Islaam, and the Muslims, for you are their backbone. If you were to be killed in a battle, the Muslims would be murdered and their lands would be invaded." Nour-ud-Din replied, "What is this all about? Who am I to be considered so important? There is One Who saved Islaam and its lands before me: Allaah, than Whom there is no other god."

    Before his death, Nour-ud-Din prepared for restoring Jerusalem and built the pulpit upon which the first Friday sermon would be addressed upon regaining the city. However, before realising his lofty goal, he passed away in Shawwal AH 569 (1173 CE). He was buried in the Castle of Damascus, and his body was later taken to his dome at his school near `al-Khayyarin'. May Allaah have mercy on his soul.

    Almighty Allaah says, (As for that Abode of the hereafter, We assign it unto those who seek neither high-handedness nor mischief in the earth, and the [best] sequel is for the righteous.) (Al-Qasas 28:83)

    Source: Noble Dynasties- The History of Nur Ad-Din and Saladin by
    Imam Abu Shamah ‘Abd Ar-rahman al-Maqsidi (Rahimullah) 559AH-665 AH
    Islamic Education Foundation, Egypt
    Al-Falah Foundation, Egypt


  34. #34
    Troll Hunter Supreme Saif-Uddin's Avatar
    Join Date
    Apr 2008
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    21,829
    Rep Power
    531

    Re: Information Required

    Quote Originally Posted by SWi55M$N View Post
    With regards to Salahuddin Ayyubi does anyone know of any gooes tafseers / biogrophies of his conquests and life..?

    Jazak Allah
    heres one ... http://www.onlineislamicstore.com/b8613.html


  35. #35
    hitman al faqeer's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    12,984
    Rep Power
    37

    Re: Salahuddin Ayyubi

    Good thread mashaa'allah .

    The Best Mujaahideen of that middle ages of Islam were sufis Including Sultan Salahaddin Al Ayoubi and the likes of Mu7ammad Al Fateh .

  36. #36
    أنا مسلم AbuMubarak's Avatar
    Join Date
    May 2002
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    82,419
    Rep Power
    549

    Re: Salahuddin Ayyubi

    salahudeen fought against the advice of the scholars of his time

    abu bakr fought against the advice of the companions of the Prophet

    so it seems, that you cannot wait around for the scholars to bless your actions, if there is a duty to be performed, and you have the certainty and knowledge and imaan and taqwa to go forth, obey Allah, for success is in obedience to Allah
    .لا نريد زعيما يخاف البيت الإبيض
    نريد زعيما يخاف الواحد الأحد




  37. #37
    hitman al faqeer's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jan 2006
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    12,984
    Rep Power
    37

    Re: Salahuddin Ayyubi

    I heard and i dont have a source for this that Salahudin rah was sitting in conference with his generals and a joke was made , and he did not laugh or even smile . Later on they asked him why Ya Ameer Al Mo'mineen and he said : How can I even smile while The Quds ( Uurshaleem) is in the hands of the Crusaders .


    Yet today all of us are getting fat laughing and smiling typing behind PC's part of the global rat race and many of us are not even aware of what goes on in the occupied territories Allahul musta3aan .

    Not judging only whats reality .

  38. #38
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Post Tomorrow.....

    Quote Originally Posted by al faqeer View Post
    I heard and i dont have a source for this that Salahudin rah was sitting in conference with his generals and a joke was made , and he did not laugh or even smile . Later on they asked him why Ya Ameer Al Mo'mineen and he said : How can I even smile while The Quds ( Uurshaleem) is in the hands of the Crusaders .

    Yet today all of us are getting fat laughing and smiling typing behind PC's part of the global rat race and many of us are not even aware of what goes on in the occupied territories Allahul musta3aan .

    Not judging only whats reality .
    There was also another narration whereby the Ameer'ul Mujahideen decided one night before the proceeding days campaign to commence that he would without forewarning randomly inspect his men.

    He walked from tent to tent, camp to camp inspecting what his fighters were doing. In most tents he saw that all were fast asleep but in one tent he witnessed they were awake playing, amusing themselves, wasting time, gossiping, etc. and said to himself dismayed "These shall be the reason why we shall lose tomorrow."

    Then as he was about to leave he looked into the last tent in his round of inspection and saw also that in this tent that those inside were up but they were praying tahajud, preparing their weaponry and armour, reciting Qur'an, doing ribaat, crying making du'a, and practising fighting maneuveres and so he said quietly to himself "And these shall be why we shall be victorious tomorrow insha'allah."


  39. #39
    enchanted_rose
    Guests

    Re: Salahuddin Ayyubi

    Subhanallah how great is this man! May Allah bless our ummah with the likes of him amen thumna amen. Insha’allah I will name my son Salahuddin in hope that he would be a mumin like him.

    Jazakallah khair for all of you for posting this.

  40. #40
    Miskeen Sururee Qutbi Fudhayl's Avatar
    Join Date
    Oct 2005
    Gender
    Boy Male
    Posts
    13,381
    Rep Power
    111

    Question Can the Ummah trust its 'scholars' & 'leaders'?

    Can the Ummah trust its 'scholars' & 'leaders'?
    Imam Anwar al-Awlaki


    "Salahuddin Ayyubi started out by uniting the Muslims around the Holy Land and he decided to do what many of the Ameer's before him were too afraid to do and that was to start a war with the Crusaders. The Crusaders had occupied the entire coastal land along with Jerusalem and some important areas and al-Shaam.

    The Muslim 'leaders' were telling Salahuddin that he was crazy to start a fight with ar-Room. They said 'Ar-Room is a sea without any shore' meaning, as far as you can see that is ar-Room. In other words they were saying that ar-Room is going to send us a flood because Europe is united and whose population is huge and they will be fighting a disunited Ummah. So Salahuddin was fighting with part of the Ummah and not the whole of the Ummah as the Ummah was shattered at that time.

    Many of the Scholars prepared themselves to go out and fight in al-Shaam for love of Jihaad but then many of them went back when they heard the numbers. Why did they go back? Does the fiqh change when the numbers are more?

    They went to fight Jihaad fe Sabeelillah but returned back because of the numbers and these were 'Ulemaa. This is an important lesson here and it's important to know that 'Ulemaa are not infallible; they are not Ambiyaa. So if people are going to blindly follow 'Ulemaa, there is no guarantee that they are going to take them to the right path. This is not generalisation of all scholars as Ibn Atheer says some of them went back.

    There will always be in this Ummah an at-Taa'ifah, but what is happening is that people will try to find a way out of responsibility and they will hang it on the 'Ulemaa saying, 'This 'Alim did not give this fatwah', 'This 'Alim did not tell us to fight Jihaad fe Sabeelillah'. So they would blame it on the 'Ulema when there are 'Ulema who are telling you otherwise; they are telling you to do the right thing and there are 'Ulemaa carrying the right Manhaj. They might be in jail, they might be killed, they might be underground or they might not be famous because no television station will broadcast their Khutbah but they are 'Ulemaa.

    Another issue is that we are living in an interesting time were the 'Ilm of a person is in accordance to how famous he is and that is not a right standard for 'Ilm. At the time of the early 'Ulemaa, an 'Alim would be considered an 'Alim by the testimony of the 'Ulemaa. His teacher would give him Tazkiyya and say he is an 'Alim. They would have a seat for the fatwah which would be given to the 'Alim which most of the 'Ulema think is most knowledgeable but now it is the government that appoints the 'Alim and he becomes an 'Alim suddenly, not because the 'Ulema said he's an 'Alim but because he was given this position by the government. And he becomes a famous 'Alim by appearing on many satellite channels, radio stations and programmes; this is not the correct standard for 'Ilm. We need to follow al-Haqq wherever it is.

    So Ibn Katheer says these 'Ulemaa ran away when they heard of the numbers; and because he is an 'Alim he is going to find an excuse for it as well as daleel- he will know how to twist ayaat or ahadeeth and make it sound that this is the Shari'ah thing to do. He will not admit that he's afraid by saying, 'Sorry I'm a coward, so I can't go ahead with this,' rather he will say that to go ahead with fighting is not hikmah and that there is no hikmah in it, or that Salahuddin is insane and we told him not to go ahead with the fighting yet he still did, or that Salahuddin does not have 'Ilm or he does not speak Arabic right or know it so who is he to give a fatwah and take this Ummah to this trouble and bring upon them this disaster by taking on this huge army. 'He needs to go to the 'Ulemaa and take the fatwah from us but he did not so let him go and die.' So they ran away; what happened? It is a test from Allah 'Azza wa Jall -- a test for the 'Ulemaa, for Salahuddin and for the Ummah.

    By the time they reached to 'Akkaa, the 300,000 army was brought down to 1,000.' Only 1,000 from 300,000 reached to meet Salahuddin. So who was wise? These 'Ulemaa who ran away or Salahuddin?"

    - Tarmoom Productions -

    Taken from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MGPfy_9RtKM




Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
All times are GMT. The time now is 03:20 AM.
Powered by vBulletin® Version 4.2.2
Copyright © 2014 vBulletin Solutions, Inc. All rights reserved.
vBulletin Skin By: PurevB.com

MPADC.com Islamic Web Hosting | Muslim Ad Network | Islamic Nasheeds | Islamic Mobile App Developement Android & iPhone
Omar Esa Nasheed Artist
| Omar Esa Nasheeds | Islamic Web Hosting : Muslim Designers : Nasheeds : Labbayk Nasheeds : silk route jilbab: Hijab: : Web Islamic Newsletter: Islamic Web Hosting

Hijabs Online | Hijabs | Hijab Shop | Hijab Shop | Scarves | Scarves for women | Ladies Scarves : Treasure of The Scholars